|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Mexico (term clarifying).|
|system of government||Präsidiale Federal Republic of|
|president||Vicente Fox Quesada|
|surface||1.953.200 km ²|
|Number of inhabitants||106.202.903 (2005)|
|population density||of 54.4 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||6,112 US-$ (2004)|
|independence||1810 explains, recognized 1821|
|time belt||UTC -6 to -8|
|national anthem||Himno Nacional Mexicano|
the united Mexican States of (EstadosUniversity Universities of Mexicanos) - or simply only Mexico (México) - are a state in North America. They border in the north on the USA and in the south on Belize and Guatemala. West the Pacific lies, in the east the gulf ofMexico as well as the Caribbean sea, both marginal seas of the Atlantiks.
Table of contents
Mexico is on the North American continent and is with a surface of 1.972.540 km ², about which 1.923.046 km are allotted ² to country and 49,176 km ² to water, more than 5 ½ times as largely as the Federal Republic of Germany.
In the north Mexico borders on the USA and in the southeast on Guatemala and Belize. It possesses besides 12,540 km seacoast, of it 8,300 km coastal country at the Pacific and 3,200 km coastal country at the Atlantic. On 200 nautical miles (370 km) Mexico possesses exclusive rights to use.
See also: List of the cities in Mexico
Mexico is a climatically multiform country, both over subtropicaland alpine climate and over desert climate orders. It belongs thus into the transient area of the summer-damp outside Tropics with 8-10 humid months in the southeast of the country over the all year round arid subtropics in the range of the turning circle, up to the winter rain climate of California,in the extreme west (Baja California) the straight becomes still effective.
the largest part of Mexico consists of a high land block, which was lifted out at salient break lines in the east and the west. The border mountainsare very differently arranged: the Sierra Madre Oriental in the east consists of parallel painting fold courses and steeply rising layer ribs of the law - and Kreideformation . On the other hand the Sierra Madre Occidental in the west from flat storing volcanic covers builds itselfthe Tertiary period up. Both appear from the hilly coastal low countries as high mountain walls.
The high country is arranged into far basin landscapes. These reach 1,200 m sea level at the border to the USA. Onthe Sierra Madre Occidental follows south the Cordillera Neovolcánica , those from volcanic deposits from the time Pliozän to quart acre (geology) exists and not only by giant volcanos, but additionally by a multiplicity of volcanic cones and Kraternis coined/shaped. It forms the Südrand of the high land block, which lowers approximately 1,000 m in a break stage zone deeply to the Río Balsas breaks off. In the south is the Sierra Madre del Sur west the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. Northeast pre-agedthe peninsula is Yucatán. It consists of a limestone board, which was lifted out since the Tertiary period from the sea.
The highest volcanos of the country are simultaneous the Citlaltépetl ( also pico de Orizaba called), with 5.700 m the highestMountain in Mexico is, at present active Popocatépetl with 5.452 m and the Iztaccíhuatl with 5.286 M.
the population sits down together from 60% Mestizen, to 30% indigenen peoples (among other things Maya, Aztec) and approx. 9% Europäischstämmigen (usually Spaniards). Subpopulations of other descent form the remaining 1% per cent (to a large extent from Africa).
The majority of the black Mexicans came up in the last 200 years within the Mestizenbevölkerung. In the Federal State Veracruz and onare to be however still found to the west coast some from them to. The only Kreol spoken on Mexican soil is the Gullah. It becomes of the members of the black Seminolen in the small municipality Nacimiento de loosely Negros (in the proximityspoken of Muzquiz , Coahuila).
89% the Mexican are catholics. Besides there is an increasing Protestant minority (5.2%). Further 2% add themselves other Christian faith directions. As religionless 3,5 calls themselves% and 0.36% are only allotted to other religions (conditions 2000). Contrary to most European countries, the religion in Mexico and in other Latin American countries plays still another large role.
major item: History of Mexico
inthe years 1517 and 1518 the first Spanish expeditions under Francisco Hernández de Córdova and Juan de Grijalva reach the peninsula Yucatán. Those „discovered “advanced cultures and the plentiful gold articles again make tierra the firme, the mainland, for those Spaniard interesting. In the years 1519 to 1521 Hernán Cortés succeeds in, Aztecs in such a way specified - realm with the help of numerous indigener allying falling. Today's Mexico becomes the viceroy realm new Spain.
In the year 1815 became the independence fromSpain explains, which drew a long war, which led 1821 to final independence. First head of state of the recent nation was Agustín de Iturbide that the country starting from 1822 as an emperor governed. Soon the Mexican area at size lost, throughSales to and by the invasion of the USA (see also Mexican-American war).
into the 1860ern the country stood under occupation by France, that in this time the emperor Maximilian of Mexicobegan. Of the Frenchmen the refugee president Benito Juarez terminated finally the era of the Mexican empire by the execution Maximilians.
The long dictatorship Porfirio Díaz' led 1910 to the Mexican revolution and 1911 to its resignation. The revolutionary forces defeated thoseArmy, lost themselves however in internal quarrels, which kept the country twenty years long in constant unrest. At the end of the revolution the party of the institutionalized revolution ( PRI) controlled the country up to the end 20. Century.
Mexico was thatonly country (of 17 members of a “people federation advice”), to 19. March 1938 the connection of Austria by of Germany loud and thus on world-wide level promptly flag against the Nazis, occupied with protest, showed (see walter Truckenbrodt, there towards. Work side144). Mexico knows on the consequences for (world) the peace, if the obligations from the people federation statute and from the international right are not kept. The author Truckenbrodt, later a very high civil servant of the FRG, mokiert itself 1941 over it.
See also: List of the presidents of Mexico
the name Mexico
the state is designated after its capital, whose name decreases/goes back to their aztekischen Vorläuferin „Mexico Tenochtitlan “. The part comes itself „Mexi “from the war God Mexitli, its name againout metztli (moon) and xictli (navels) builds up („moon child “). „The CO “and/or. „ko “in the name a local suffix is simple.
All these words as well as many further geographical names are based in their latin way of writing on (kastilischen) the Transkription of the Spaniards, thatfirst European there. They wrote/ʃ/- the sound (German: sch) the Nahuatl - language as at that time with them usual as x. Since that time the discussion of the Spanish changed itself however and the old x becomes /x/ (German: CH (after A, o, u)) expressed - just like j and g (before e, i), those once /ʒ/ (French: j) read. In the consequence now all are written these words with j or g (z. B. becomes Don Quixote to Don Quijote) and x sounds similar as in German. Names became however as also with other comparable procedures elsewhere only partial (see. z. B. Celle) adapted to the new letter sound allocation. Nevertheless is in Spanish texts alsothe way of writing Méjico instead of México. Put in Mexico usually value on the posting with x, there it as own, not colonial posting applies. The royal-Spanish academy (material Academia Española), those responsibly for the definition of the Spanish Orthographieis, permits both ways of writing. Besides the x is expressed partly, approximately in „Xochimilco “, than /ʃ/(about” Schotschimilko “).
On German it would have of the original (today: Mexihco, /me ː.ɕɪʔ.kɔ/) ago thus rather „Meschiko “, „Meeschiko “or „Mehschiko “and of the currentDiscussion rather „Mechiko “(or „Mehchiko “) mean, although in German CH after e usually /ç/ one speaks. Both Spanish ways of writing (México and Méjico) require additional knowledge from most not spanischsprachigen readers to the discussion, there x and j infor other sounds stand for most languages.
The president is located in the center of the Mexican institution system and becomes foronly one term of office mentioned by six years, sexenio and directly selected.
During the reign of the PRIlong time did not exist a clear separation between the institutions of the state and those the “official party”, i.e. the PRI. Thus about also the organization of elections of the PRI was subordinate. This led to numerous reports across irregularities with the choiceas for example falsification of lists of candidates, repeated casting of votes, buying of votes, controls of the casting of votes, the choice urn robbery and unkorrekter counting of votes. Since 1990 the non-partisan Instituto Federal Electoral ( IFE) is responsible for the preparation and execution of elections.
In the country democracy deficits are deplored. Demagogie often becomesoperated and Populismus often misunderstood as social justice. To often buy many temporary social measures claimant by side of the different parties often only around voices. Measures against the opposition always took place in other governments and the opinion of manystill (whereby the opposition is now another). As example the abolition of the immunity (in the course of a possible, but not proven office abuse procedure) of the popular mayor von Mexiko-Stadt Andrés Manuel López Obrador in April 2005 is often called, with which not leastits presidency candidacy would have been prevented. Only under the pressure of mass protests the accusation was let fall.
Mexico attained great importance during fascism in Europe as exile country.
the border crossing between Mexico and the USA stands due to the prosperity downward gradient between the two states in the special focus of the authorities. With a meeting between president Vicente Fox and the US president George W. Bush to 7. March 2004it was agreed upon that Mexicans, who travel frequently to the USA are partly excluded from the strict border controls (finger marks, photographies) with the entry into the USA. These regulations were furnished by Washington particularly to the protection from notices of terror. The USAfight for a long time approximately illegaly in the country living Mexicans.
A further point at issue with the USA is the distribution of prisoners: the Mexican condition only calls the rehablitation of criminal ones in their article 18 as permissible purpose of punishment. The Mexicanhighest Court of Justice forbade therefore the distribution of prisoners to countries, in which the death penalty or a lifelong detention without chance for release threatens them. This is in most Federal States of the USA the case, whereby the old „custom “ofin the USA to flee to Mexico a new lift to looked for criminals received.
Mexico consists of 31 Federal States (Estados) and a federal district (Distrito Federal), which cover the capital:
the Federal States are divided in Municipiosand the federal district in 16 Delegaciones.
of Mexico economics in the last years was strongly dereguliert and denationalized.The dominance of private companies constantly grows and the privatisation of railway, sea and airports approaches to their end, just as the further privatisation of the banks. The liberalisation of the energy sector continues to progress. In the ranges telecommunications and Petrochemie stand stillReforms out. The Maquiladora - industry strengthened its position in the Mexican economy and dominates above all the textile sector.
Mexico is occupied momentary an economically meaning country in Latin America and rank 8 of the export world rank list.
The gross domestic product (571 billion euro, with 37,73Million persons employed in the year 2004) divides on in:
- Agriculture: 4% of the BSP gained by 18% of the persons employed
- industry: 27.2% of the BSP gained by 24% of the persons employed
- service: 68.9% of theBSP gained by 58% of the persons employed
|agriculture:||Production of: Corn, wheat, soy beans, rice, beans, wool, coffee, fruits, tomatoes; Beef, poultry, milk products, wood products.|
|Industry:||Production/production of: Food andBeverages (wine, Tequila), tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, oil, building materials, mineral raw materials, textiles, clothes, motor vehicles, consumer goods, tourism|
|of exports:||Produced goods, petroleum products, silver, fruits, vegetable, Avocado, coffee, Wool, alcohol, tobacco|
|of exports after:||The USA 81%, Canada 5.9%, Japan 1.1% (2004); $188,6 billion fob (2004)|
|imported goods:||Metalworking machines, factories (parts) to the steel processing, machines for the agriculture, electrical equipment, autoparts, machines, airplanes and airplane parts|
|of imported goods out:||The USA 65.8%, Germany 3.8%, People's Republic of China 3.7% (2004); $197,1 billion fob (2004)|
meanwhile has Mexico 32 free trade agreements also over 40 countries, among other things with the European Union (since 2000), Japan, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Since that 1. January 1994 is Mexico member of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). In the first years after its entry into force the economic situation of the country had only insignificantly improved. Since beginning of the free trade export until today is around thatThree-way ones risen, then are allotted meanwhile to 90% of the exports to free trade agreements. The highest increase is registered with oil export (Cantarell - oil field). Under the oil prices risen strongly a growth could be registered of 27,3%.
The budgetary situation is nearly balanced and the indebtedness constant. The foreign trade points a deficit from approx. 7.1 billion Euro up. Economic growth is with 4,9% (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 2004) and the unemployment ratio with 4,3%. There is however a strongImbalance in the real wages distribution. Thus live approx. 40% (2003) of the population under the poverty border and the inflation rate amount to 4.0% (2004).
food and beverages
major items: Mexican kitchen
the Mexican kitchen drawsby the synthesis of aztekischen and Spanish-colonial, in the south also Maya - traditions out. Regionally there are large differences between coast and central high country in Mexico, to the chiliverliebtem south and the beef-oriented north.
The most important meal on the day is accordingly long the lunch,is also the lunch time of a usual working day. In the evening becomes then usually only a small lunch verzehrt, a few fruits, a Taco or the like. In a hot, tropical country with mostly sumptuous vegetation fruits play and certain vegetable places a dominant factorRole.
The drinking water is sold in water bottles or cans, since the water from the water pipelines is dirty. Gladly is drunk the Horchata introduced by the Spaniards, a süssliches rice/Zimt beverage, which is cooled served. The usual alcoholic beverages are beer, Tequila, Mezcal and Pulque.
|1. January||Año Nuevo||New Year||legal holiday|
|5. February||Aniversario de la Constitución Mexicana||day of the condition|
|21. March||Natalicio de Benito Juarez||Birthday by Benito Juarez|
|April||Jueves Santo||Green Thursday|
|1. May||Día del Trabajo||day of the work||legal holiday|
|5. May||Batalla de Puebla||battle with Puebla|
|1. September||Informe presidencial||governmental declaration|
|16. September||Día de laIndependencia||independence day||legal national holiday|
|12. October||Día de la Raza||anniversary „of the meeting of two worlds “|
|2. November||Día de loosely Fieles Difuntos||all souls|
|20. November||Aniversario de Revolución Mexicana||day of the revolution||legal holiday|
|12. December||Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe||Day of the virgin of Guadalupe|
|25. December||Navidad||Christmas||legal holiday|
- Octavio Paz
- Juan Rulfo
- Carlo Fuentes
- Alfonso Reyes
- José Vasconcelos
- Angeles Mastretta
- Laura Esquivel
- Mariano Azuela
- Paco Ignacio Taibo II
- Diego Rivera (muralismo)
- Frida Kahlo
- Jesús de la Helguera
- Rufino Tamayo (muralismo)
- José Clemente Orozco (muralismo)
- David Alfaro Siqueiros (muralismo)
- José Luis Cuevas
- Dr. Atl
- Juan O'Gorman
- Carlo Santana
- El trichloroethylene
- Lila Downs
- Lhasa de Sela
- control Machete
- Luis Miguel
- Cristian Castro
- Vicente Fernández
- Alejandro Fernández
- Selena (actually Texanerin)
- Paulina Rubio
- Café Tacuba
- Panteón Rococó
- Julieta Venegas
- Cri Cri
- Jorge Negrete
- Juan Gabriel
- José José
- lot Panchos
- Silvestre revue LTA
- Manuel M. Ponce
- Pablo Moncayo
- Diego Torres
- Emiliano Zapata (leader in the Mexican revolution)
- Benito Juárez (Mexican statesman and president of Mexico 1861 - 1872)
- Miguel Hidalgo (Mexican priest and revolutionary)
- Francisco “Pancho” mansion (freedom fighter, Guerrillero Outlaw, people hero, being lord, governor, Hollywood - star, general and not least revolutionary.)
- Francisco I. Madero (were Mexican revolutionary, statesman and president of Mexico (1911-1913))
- José MaríaMorelos y Pavón
- Ignacio Zaragoza
- Jay Hernandez
- Salma Hayek
- Anthony Quinn
- Diego Luna
- EH Longoria (born in the USA)
- Pedro Infante
- Ricardo Montalban
- Rosita Quintana
- Jorge Negrete
- Germán Valdés Tin Tan
- Verónica Castro
- Victoria Rufo
- Maria Félix
- Dolores del Rio
- Victor Pereira Ucha
- Ignacio Garcia Bernstorff
- Gael García Bernal
- of BERNECKER, W. L. /BRAIG, M.; WOOD, K./CARPENTER, K. (HRSG.): Mexico today.Politics, economics, culture. Vervuert 2004, 826 S.ISBN 3865271405
- Dario/Kanzleiter, Boris (Hrsg.): Northward. Mexican ArbeitsmigrantInnen between neoliberaler restructuring, militarization of the US border and the American dream. Publishing house: Black tears, 1999, ISBN 3-924737-47-9
- John Ross: Mexico. Historical society culture. Unrast, ISBN 3-89771-018-8 
- HansW. Tobler:The Mexican revolution. Updated expenditure for paperback. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1992, ISBN 3518384880
- William Prescott: The conquest of Mexico. Park country publishing house, ISBN 3-88059-993-9
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Mexico - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: Mexico - pictures, videosand/or audio files|
- Web portal of the Mexican government (Spanish)
- web page of the Mexican presidency (Spanish)
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- German message in Mexico
- Mexico encyclopedia (extensive encyclopedia based on Wikimedia, on Mexico specialized. Up-to-date in the development, cooperation desired!)
- Mexico Community (paneland information platform)
- Mexico portal (Mexico portal of olive cook, from journeys to economics)
- Mexico Lindo y Querido (homepage von Jürgen Fröhler, comprehensive offer)
- Mexico travel guide and travel listing
- DasDeutscheNetz.info information network for the German-language community (ROOF) in Mexico
- Weltkarte.com on-line maps and city plans ofMexico
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coordinates: 15°-33° N, 86°-117° W