Microsoft Windows

of these articles is occupied with the operating system Microsoft Windows, further meanings of Windows under Windows (term clarifying)
Windows XP Desktop und Windows CDs
Windows XP Desktop and Windows CDs

Microsoft Windows [ˈmaɪkɹoʊsɑːftˈwɪndoʊz] is a label name for operating systems of the company Microsoft. OriginallyMicrosoft Windows, like for example IN ACCORDANCE WITH or Framework , was a graphic extension of the operating system MS-DOS. In the meantime Windows left the DOS foundation completely and is its successor as standard operating system on IBM-compatible PCs.

Table of contents


DOS line for 16-bit-processors

The 16-Bit - Versions of Microsoft Windows were based originally completely on MS-DOS and used it for all system accesses. Microsoft Windows represented only an extension in form of a graphic user surface. That changed with Windows 3.x gradually, in particular by the introductionthe WIN32S - Subsystem. Between programs on older Windows versions only cooperative multitasking is available, since Windows 3.x between DOS programs (and all Windows programs than unit) also preemptive multitasking.

16-Bit-Versionen of Microsoft Windows (in parentheses publication date):

  • Windows 1,0 (20. November 1985)
  • Windows 2.0 (November 1987)
  • Windows 3,0 (22. May 1990)
    • Windows 3,1 (1. March 1992)
      • Windows 3,11 (dec. 1993)
      • Windows 3,2 (1994)
    • Windows for Workgroups 3,1 (October. 1992, code name „Sparta “)
      • Windows for Workgroups 3,11

DOS line for 32-Bit-Rechner

the 32-Bit - versionsare based on MS-DOS, possess however an own system core, which steers the system accesses after the system start. This step of 16 to 32 bits became unofficially actually already with the Win32-Subset - component for Windows 3.1x partly carried out, which however at that timewas still relatively experimental.MS-DOS is a here also further integral component. Since in addition Microsoft Windows 95 exists the reduced support for preemptive multitasking and storage protection. This line is called also Windows 9x.

Windows-95-basierte versions (in parentheses publication date):

  • Windows 95
    • Windows 95 (15. August. 1995, code name „Chicago “)
    • Windows 95a (February. 1996, code name A, b, C „Nashville “)
    • Windows 95b (September. 1996)
    • Windows 95c (Nov. 1997)
  • Windows 98
    • Windows 98 (30. June 1998, code name „Memphis “)
    • Windows 98 SE (May 1999), SE stands for Second edition (= second expenditure)
  • Windows ME (August. /Sep. 2000, code name „Georgia “), ME stand for NT line Microsoft
Windows NT for Millennium


[ work on] - series possesses its own Kernel and/or. Operating system core. The contraction NT stands for new Technology, howalso from announcement of release from 1993 to to infer is. The name originally stood for one from Microsoft to version of the operating system OS/2 which can be developed, which was so never realized. NT does not stand, as occasionally accepted, for nth (N10), an emulator,on which the system was operated by Microsoft in the initial phase.

Windows NT was originally offered to bits - and for 64-Bit - for different processor architectures, both for 32 systems. This support broadly put on became however in the course of the time alwaysmore thinned out. Since the XP-introduction (at the end of of 2001) x86-basierte 32-bit of systems were only supported; the earlier development of versions of NT for the alpha architecture of DEK and further was gradually stopped. With the announcements by AMD and Intelin the future 64-bit-Prozessoren to manufacture to want, began the development of appropriate operating system variants with Microsoft. In the middle of 2005 set Microsoft then to its meeting in-house “WinHEC 2005” in Seattle its new products Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 edition, Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64 standardEdition, Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64 Enterprise edition and Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64 DATA center edition forwards.

MS-DOS is not contained, to a large extent named and function-same instructions is however still as run time environment available, all system calls by the system core is steered.

NT possesses preemptive multitasking with storage protection. Direct hardware accesses of programs are not thus system-dependently (and contrary to the DOS line) permitted. Beginning with Microsoft Windows 2000 the NT line and the consumer variant were standardized by Microsoft Windows and transferred into a common line. Withthe unification can be regarded „uncertain Consumer Multimedia versions, DOS-be based to the XP-version “and „safe NT professional versions without Multimedia “as finally.

NT-based versions (in parentheses publication date):

  • Microsoft Windows NT:
    • Microsoft Windows NT 3,1 (July 1993)
      • Microsoft Windows NT Advanced server 3,1 (1993)
    • MicrosoftWindows NT 3,5 (September. 1994, code name „Daytona “)
      • Microsoft Windows NT server 3,5 (1994)
    • Microsoft Windows NT 3,51 (May 1995)
      • Microsoft Windows NT server 3,51 (1995)
    • Microsoft Windows NT 4,0 (29. August. 1996, code name „Cairo “)
      • Microsoft Windows NT server 4,0 (1996)
      • Microsoft Windows NT server 4,0 Enterprise edition (1997)
      • Microsoft Windows NT server 4,0 terminals server edition (1998)
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 (NT version 5.0, February 2000)
    • Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional
    • Microsoft Windows of 2000 servers
    • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced server
    • Microsoft Windows2000 DATA centers server
  • Microsoft Windows XP (NT version 5.1, 25. October 2001, code name „Whistler “)
  • Microsoft Windows server 2003 (NT version 5.2,2003)
    • Microsoft Windows server 2003 standard edition
      • Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64 standard edition (2005)
    • Microsoft Windows server 2003 Enterprise edition
      • Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64 Enterprise edition (2005)
    • Microsoft Windows server of 2003 DATA centers edition
      • Microsoft Windows server 2003 x64DATA center edition (2005)
    • Microsoft Windows server 2003 Web edition
  • Microsoft Windows Vista (NT version 6.0, prospective appearance: January 2007, code name „Longhorn “)
  • Microsoft Windows code name Fiji (planned appearance: 2008 - more probably, due to the delay of Vista, however 2009 are)
  • Microsoft WindowsCode name Vienna (formerly Blackcomb) (planned appearance: 2012; possibly no more on NT basis)

CE-line for mobile devices

  • Microsoft pocket PC - row:
    • Microsoft Windows CE 1,0
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2,0
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2,01
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2.02
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2,1
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2,11
    • Microsoft Windows CE 2,12
    • Microsoft pocket PC
    • Microsoft pocket PC 2001
    • Microsoft pocket PC 2002 (also as Phone edition with telephone functions and for Smartphones without Touchscreen)
    • Microsoft Windows mobile 2003 for pocketPC (also as Phone edition with telephone functions and for Smartphones without Touchscreen)
    • Microsoft Windows mobile 5,0 (also as Phone edition with telephone functions and for Smartphones without Touchscreen)
  • Microsoft Windows of automotives

of the moreover gives it still different versions for individual types of deviceas well as special versions for various CCUs.


the Singularity - operating system is developed at present by Microsoft Research. Singularity is as Microkernel - system conceived, is based however compared with the well-known Microkernel systems on a new security concept: thoseeinzelnen Prozesse werden inSoftware-Isolated-Processes kurz SIP gekapselt. Accesses to code and data are possible only within such SIPs. Communication between the individual SIPs is made by bi-directional channels, which however are.

Applications are CLR - programs whether olderWindows programs (Win32) to be implemented can are unclear.


Microsoft could reach a primacy on the Desktop - market with its operating systems in the course of the 1990er years and forms a quasi monopoly. Alternative ones place the free Open SOURCE - operating systems Linux and BSD as well as the not free Mac OS X. Between the fan municipalities of Linux, Mac and Windows there are often irreconcilable diversities of opinion. A main reproach at Windows was the unsatisfactory Stabiliät, those with Windows ME onenegative high point achieved. In later versions Microsoft granted higher priority to this point, whereby stability improved clearly among other things due to the NT basis.

Around the term „Windows “as label names gives it to continuous controversy, since he has a describing character, fora function of the operating system to let run (programs in windows), and therefore also different the term in their products to use to want. In order to avoid misunderstandings, one should as always as possible use the complete label name Microsoft Windows.

Not to end seemsalso meaning contents of „Wintel “: that partly as unheilig designated alliance between Microsoft Windows versions and the development generations of the Intel processors:

A new Windows version becomes more efficient - it lacks storage location and processor achievement. Intel brings for this new, faster processors out - existingHardware of the users appears peu A peu outdated. Microsoft uses the new, faster hardware - and brings with the next, more efficient Windows version back higher requirements to the technology. And so on and so on - itself so far without endturning wheel. See below planning for Vienna.

the most important Windows versions in the overview („work name “- product name)

„interface manager “ - Windows 1,0, first version at all, which was presented 1983 on the Comdex. It became from the marketing departmentin „Windows “renamed, since the developers always spoke of windows. In November 1985 it finally stood in the shops.

„Sparta “ - Windows for Workgroups 3,1, first networkable Windows version. In the trade it was available in November 1992.

„Daytona “- Windows NT3.5, an advancement of WinNT 3,1, which came further with the surface of Windows 3.x therefore. It did not offer much new, only to improvements in stability and speed was made main. On the market it was finally in September 1994 toofind.

„Chicago “ - Windows 95, final version in the sales August 1995. In both subsequent years Windows 95 appears B (second version) and Windows 95 C (third version). The system is not no more supported since January 2002 by Microsoft officially.

„Shell updateRelease “ - Windows NT 4,0, often falsely with the code name „Cairo “in connection brought, appears short after Win95, it has contrary to Windows NT to 3.x the same user surface as Win95, is however no more DOS-based separates offers alsoa new Kernel a row, with other systems already usual, functions laid out for professional employment. Microsoft hopes to win this market for itself with the server versions following on it also. The core is more stable than Windows 95. Also this system becomessince January 2002 of Microsoft no more does not support.

„Nashville “- Windows 95 B, should become its own system (Windows 96), which mainly improvements and extensions the topic Internet held ready, under other one also Internet Explorer 3,5, which likewise never appeared.Idea contents flowed completely into Windows 95 B.

„Memphis “ - Windows 98, appears as evolution stage of Windows 95 three years later. It contains mainly Internet extensions like the integrated Internet Explorer 4,0 as well as Multimedia extensions. Since 2006 Windows 98 does not becomemore of Microsoft supports. It is continued to sell already now not in the shelves, it is over selected dealers to be only referred. Second-follow-richest system beside Windows 95. In the middle of 1999 appeared a revised version of Windows 98, Windows 98 SecondEdition (second expenditure). It contains for example the Windows 98 service luggage 1, the Internet Explorer 5 as well as some improvements in the range Multimedia and USB.

„Georgia “ - Windows Millennium edition, is toward at the end of 2000 as a successor of Windows 98 upappeared to the market. Mainly cosmetic changes and Multimedia improvements were made also here - so for example an improved version of the Windows Media Player. A Tool for system re-establishment, at an automatic or point set by the user, is similar as inWindows XP possible. Furthermore the protection was improved by system files. The deletion of these becomes now by the “system file protection” (SFP) PC-Health, contrary to which previous versions, from the beginning prevents. By the program „compressed files “providing becomes andUnpack supported by ZIP archives directly. Beyond that it contains still another handful new functions and was considered therefore as tracing filler up to the next „large “Windows version, the today's Windows XP.

„Neptune “ - Windows Neptune appeared, the project was never broken off. Neptunethe home version of Windows should become original 2000, but all the ideas from Neptune flowed later into Windows XP. A test version gave it however.

„NT 5,0 “ - Windows 2000, appeared at the beginning of 2000 and places the successor ofWindows NT 4. It is by far more stable than its predecessor, offers new support for devices of all kinds and places also play possibilities for the order. Windows 2000 is delivered later also in server versions, which are appropriate for different business sizes, around itsTo replace predecessor of the NT of 4 servers.Active directory is time offered in the server variants first. Starting from 2006 the server versions are stopped.

„Odyssey “ - Windows-2000-Nachfolger, broken off, never appeared. Project contents flowed in Windows XP.

„Whistler “ - Windows XP (internal version number5.1 and thus direct successor of 2000), after Windows 95 bestverkauftes system, appeared to 2001 in October and merges for the first time the two product rails between commercial and home system, places also a new prompting ready with still more Multimedia and Internetin the system. The new product activation is to prevent copyright-adverse use, it gave and gives over it violent discussions, in which one accused and accuses Microsoft its proceeding as spying users. Without demand with the user Microsoft starts itself a large quantityData regularly convey, among other things medium contents used last with the Ms-Mediaplayer (film title etc., with which newer versions however only if one agrees this behavior with the installation), why many users prefer alternative Mediaplayer. In August 2004 became service the luggageto 2 published, this is considered already as preliminary stage to the new Windows version Longhorn.

„.NET server “ - Windows server 2003, the server variant of Windows XP, and successor of the Windows of 2000 server systems.

„Longhorn “ - Windows Vista, the first alpha version to WindowsLonghorn came out already at the beginning of of 2002, final release is planned for January 2007. Under anderm one the graphic user interface is to be again developed, in which also new Desktopthemes will be present.

„Fiji “ - Fiji, Vorraussitlich around WINFS andfurther, while the development of Longhorn painted, feature complete animal width unit Vista

„Vienna “the Desktop would know completely is reorganized, since Microsoft plans to arrange the Desktop multidimensional. With Windows Vienna follows Microsoft plans, the PC as control unit for completely interlaced housesto merge.

see also

Wikibooks: Windows manual - learning and teaching materials

Web on the left of


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