Mikis Theodorakis

Mikis Theodorakis
Mikis Theodorakis

Mikis Theodorakis (Μίκης Θεοδωράκης; * 29. July 1925 on the island Chios, Greece) is a composer, writer and politician. Its father originated from Crete, its nut/mother from small Asia.

Table of contents

stages of its life

childhood and youth

already as a child Mikis Theodorakis was fascinated of the music, andlehrte sich selbst, ersten de zegen Lieder zu schreiben, ohne ein haben Musikinstrument zur Verfügung zu. In Pyrgos and Patras he got first music instruction, and in Tripoli he created a choir and gave its first concert with 17.

During the crew of Greece by the Germans, Italianand, the young Mikis the resistance followed Bulgarian troops in the Second World War from 1941 to 1944. With 18 years he was tortured for the first time. At this time he came also into contact with the marxism and communism, those its conception of the world cruciallycoined/shaped, even if it always testified a critical attitude to all ideologies.

After the retreat of the German armed forces Theodorakis resisted the new occupation of its country by the Englishmen and followed a linking. In December 1944 it took as a member of the national ones Liberation front EAM in the numbers of the Greek Volksbefreiungsarmmee at the battle around Athens part. After the peace agreement of Varkiza the people release army was dissolved in February 1945. As communist regime opponents Theodorakis was arrested in July 1947 during the Greek civil war and banished on the island Ikaria.At the end of of 1948 it was deportiert after temporary release and renewed arrest on the island Makronissos into an extermination camp, in which thousands died. Theodorakis was here, neither to the first nor for the last time in its life, heavy tortures suspended and death close. Its father YorgosTheodorakis sold its possession on Crete, in order to come its son to assistance.

When Mikis became to dismiss from the detention, he was physical at the end. Only after longer stay on Crete he recovered from the consequences of the inhuman abusing. Later it could inAthens under Philoktitis Economidis and in Paris under Eugène Bigot and Olivier Messiaen its music study resume and with honor lock.

Success adjusted itself promptly for the young composer. Its Sonatine for piano was specified 1955, its Suite Nr.1 for piano and orchestra 1957gold medal got in Moscow. Its first Symphonie became the expression of its most important request: the reconciliation of the Greeks and healing the wounds of the civil war completely. The work is dedicated to two friends, who fought in opposing camps and died both. Ballettmusiken: “Greek Karneval”, “Les Amantsde Téruel ", “Antigone “, were specified successfully in Rome, Paris, London. With Filmmusiken Theodorakis became known to a broad public.

Most important works until 1960:

  1. Chamber music: Caper quartet (1946); Trio for piano, violin and Violoncello; Sonatine for piano; “Sexteto”, Sonatinen Nr.1 and 2 for violin andPiano
  2. Symphoni music: The celebration of Assi Gonia (symphonischer sentence); Symphonie Nr.1 (“Proti Simfonia”); Suiten Nr.1, 2 and 3 for orchestras; “Lives and death” (for voice and strike ago); Oedipus Tyrannos (for strike ago), piano concert “Helikon”, piano concert (1948)
  3. ballet music: Greek Karneval (ballet); “The loving of Teruel”; Antigone
[] If straight lines

work on discovery

of the people music at this time however, when it began to gain a foothold on the international music scene, Theodorakis made a turn and decreased/went back to the roots of the Greek music. In Greece a controversy over the meaning and future that was People music broken out. This is based mainly on two bases, to demo tables and the rembetischen music. The demo tables music is the people art of the individual regions and races, the Rembetiko is expression of the urban population, the refugees, the outsider. Manos Hadjidakis had it for the first time validity with the film music too“Provides Sundays never “(Never on Sunday). Theodorakis intervened in the culture fight in Greece, which became the expression of the political contrast between linking and right. It became rapidly the guidance figure of a renewal of Greece, particularly after the murder of the parliament delegate Grigoris Lambrakis (“Z"). 1964 were selected Theodorakis as a chairman of the Lambrakis youth in the Greek parliament.

As a most important interpreter of Theodorakis songs the singer Grigoris Bithikotsis must be emphasized. Its LP “Epiphania” taken up to co-operation with Theodorakis is considered as one of the most important publications in the Oeuvre of Theodorakis, because here those Bouzouki as traditional instrument of the lower social classes a central role plays and the society-critical texts with the music of the people under.

Most important works of this epoch:

  1. Song cycles: “Archipelagos”, “Politia A & B”, “Epiphania” (Giorgos Seferis, Nobelpreis 1963), “duty living “(Yakovos Kabanellis), “Romiossini”(Yannis Ritsos).
  2. Stage music: “The Hostage” (the hostages, Brendan Behan); “Ballade of the dead brother” (Theodorakis); “Maghiki Poli”; “I Gitonia clay/tone Angelon” (quarter of the angels, Kabanellis).
  3. Film music: “Alexis SORBAS “(“Zorba the Greek”) with the Sirtaki of the same name (Michalis Cacoyannis)
  4. Oratorios: “Axion Esti” (Odysseas Elytis, Nobelpreis 1979).

under the dictatorship of the Obristen

to 21. April 1967 came it to the Putsch of the fascist Obristen into Greece. Four months fought Theodorakis as a founder of the patriotic front in the underground against the junta. In August he was arrested, tortured,in the mountain village Zatouna banished, later in the concentration camp Oropos transfers, where the Tuberkulose brought him to the edge of death. An international solidarity movement, led of as important artists as Dmitri Schostakowitsch, Leonard amber, Arthur Miller and Harry Belafonte used itself for its release.

Most important works under the dictatorship:

  1. Song cycles: “PAM” - songs (“liberty or death”, Theodorakis); “O Ilios ke o Chronos” (the sun and the time, Theodorakis); “TA Laïka”; Arcadies IX; Songs for Andreas (Theodorakis); “Nichta Thanatou” (nights of death, M. Elefteriou), “Tria Negrika Tragoudia” (Leopold Sedar Senghor).
  2. Oratorien: “EphiphaniaAveroff " (Giorgos Seferis), “state of siege” (Marina = Rena Hadjidakis), “the march of the spirit” (Angelos Sikelianos), “Raven” (Seferis, after Edgar Allan Poe).
  3. Film music: “Z “(Constantin Costa Gavras).

in the exile

skillfully , took 1970 in the exile to Paris Theodorakis ofthere out by concert journeys with its people music the fight against the Obristen. It concerned to it, the strengths to one. It made therefore world-wide tours, during which it exerted itself untiringly for the re-establishment of the democracy in Greece. Thus it became everywhererevered symbol of the resistance against each dictatorship.

Most important works of the exile:

  1. Song cycles: “Lianotragouda” (18 small songs of the bitter homeland, Yannis Ritsos); “Balladen” (M. Anagnostakis); “Stin Anatoli” (in the east, Cacoyannis, Stiliatis, Theodorakis).
  2. Oratorium: “Canto general “(Pablo Neruda).
  3. Film music: “The Trojan Women” (M.Cacoyannis); “Budget de Siège” (Costa Gavras); “Serpico” (S. Lumet); “Biribi” (D. MOO man); “Tito” (Sutjeska, S. Delic).

late years

1974, after the fall of the dictatorship, Mikis Theodorakis was celebrated with its return to Greece like a people hero, but soon the usual political wonLife with its plots again the upper hand. The composer varied during years between resignation and always new commitment, between employment in the parliament and voluntary retreat in the internal exile to Paris, end of the seventies. There it took the work on its symphonischen work after twentyYears, and arranged new described earlier works. It carried out Symphonien, Kantaten, church music in the spirit of the Greek-orthodox music, composed new Oratorien and dared themselves finally successfully to the kind of the opera near.

In the meantime it had, after the end loaded by corruptionthe era by Andreas Papandreou, recruited for a renewal of Greece, - a “Katharsis “(cleaning), as it said -, by the conservative politician Konstantin Mitsotakis, and of Mitsotakis as independent left one was appointed the Minister of State without division. In this characteristic it sat downfrom 1990 to 1992 in particular for a renewal of the educating nature and the culture, as well as together with the famous Turkish musician and singer Zülfü Livaneli, for a reconciliation between Greeks and Turks, which brought in new enmities for it. Its government participation has Theodorakis later than mistakedesignated. It may be regarded as its largest victim in the service of its people, who always its whole political acting applied.1993 and 1994 Theodorakis took over for two further years the office of a head conductor of the symphony orchestra and choir of the Hellenic broadcast and television, before hefrom the public life withdrew itself completely.

Afterwards Theodorakis worked only as a composer, was however an in demand Dirigient of its innumerable compositions. After the death of its Brudes Yannis 1996 and acute breath complaints 1997, he had to fight several months long with heavy depressions. Only inWinter 1997 - 1998 improved its state of health and it could its activities as conductor and a composer again take up.

In the meantime it bequeathed its all archives of the Lilian Voudouri donation of the Megaron in Athens, composed its last works: the opera Lysistrata ) 1999 - 2001 andthe stage music to Medea, (Guy Wagner dedicated), 2001, lives withdrawn and works on it, its compositions - so “Erimia” (isolation) 2005 - to make accessible and its writings a broad public.

It however always seizes, if the political circumstances this of itrequire: Protest against NATO bombardments in Yugoslavia 1999, against the treatment of the kidnapped Kurd leader Abdullah Öcalan, against suppression of the Palestinians and the policy of Scharon, against George W. Bush, its government and its administration and the Iraq war plotted by them, (2003).

Mikis Theodorakis is an honour doctor of the Univsersitäten of Montreal, Saloniki and Crete. , he received the Russian “international Andreas the first appointing price” to 2005 for his “devoted work and the example of a creative service at the homeland as well as the creation of outstanding music works, those the peace between thatPeoples besingen, which spirit and national self-confident its of humans strengthen ". Also the IMC UNESCO Musikpreis is awarded to it 2005 wordem. In the same year the honorary membership in the European left wing party was lent to it.

Most important works after 1974:

  1. Song cycles: “Epivatis (the passenger, K. Tripolitis), “radar” (Tripolitis) “TA Lyrika”(T. Livaditis), “Dionysos” (M. Theodorakis), “Phaedra” (Angeliki Eleftheriou), “TA pro Grandpa tou Iliou” (faces of the sun, carat CWS) “Beatrice on the road zero” (carat CWS, Theodorakis), “Mia Thalasssa (a sea fully music, Dimitra Manda)”, “OS archeos Anemos (like an old wind, D. Carat CWS) “, “Lyrikotera” (the very lyric ones, D.Carat CWS), “Lyrikotata” (more than lyric ones, Yannis Theodorakis).
  2. Stage music: “Orestia” (Insz.: Spyros Evangelatos); “Antigone” (Insz.: M. Volanakis); “Medea” (Insz.: Spyros Evangelatos)
  3. film music: “Iphigenia” (M. Cacoyannis), “the man with the carnation” (N. Tzimas).
  4. Oratorien: “Missa Greca”, “Liturgia 2”, “Requiem”.
  5. Symphoni works and Kantaten: Symphonien Nr.2, 3,4, 7, “Sadduzäer passion” (M. Katsaros), “Canto Olympico” (Manda, Theodorakis), rhapsody for guitar and orchestra; Rhapsody for Violoncello and orchestra (1997).
  6. Operas: “Kostas Karyotakis”, “Medea”, “Elektra”, “Antigone”, “Lysistrati”.

the musical work of Mikis Theodorakis

of songs and song cycles

Theodorakis wrote over thousand songs.Among them a large number of cycles (a kind, which it introduced to the music of its homeland) is. They are based on poems of the most important Greek poets, in addition, from Federico Garcia Lorca and Pablo Neruda and rank today among the people property of Greece: “Epitaphios “, “Archipelagos”,“Politia, A-D”, “Epiphania”, “the hostages”, “small Zykladen”, “duty living”, “Romiossini (Griechentum)”, “the sun and the time”, “mythology”, “TA Lyrika”, “songs of the bitter homeland”, “the quarters of the world”, “Dionysos”, “Phaedra”, “like an antique wind”, “a sea fully music”, “Lyrikotera”, “Lyrikotata”, “Erimia” (isolation)…

Symphoni music

  • 1950: The celebration of Asi Gonia
  • 1952: Piano concert “Helikon”
  • 1953: Symphonie No. 1 (“Proti Simfonia”)
  • 1955: Suite No. 1 for piano and orchestra. Becomes in the 2. Symphonie re-uses
  • 1955-56: Suite No. 2 for orchestras
  • 1956: Suite No. 3 (“the nut/mother”) for choir and orchestra. Becomesin the 3. Symphonie re-uses
  • 1958: Piano concert in three sets
  • of 1981: Symphonie No. 2 (“the song of the earth”; Text: Mikis Theodorakis) for child choir, konzertantes piano and orchestra)
  • 1981: Symphonie No. 3 (texts: D. Solo MOS; Konstantinos Kavafis; Byzantine hymns) for Sopran, choir and orchestra
  • 1983: Symphonie No. 7 (“spring Symphonie”; Texts: Yannis Ritsos; Yorgos Kulukis) for 4 soloists, choir and orchestras
  • 1986-87: Symphonie No. 4 (“the choirs”) for Sopran, Mezzo, Rezitant, choir and symphony orchestra without strike ago)
  • 1996: Rhapsody for guitar and orchestra
  • 1997: Rhapsody for cello and orchestra
work on []

Chamber music

  • 1942: Sonatine for piano
  • 1945: Elegie NO 1, for cello and piano
  • 1945: Elegie NO 2, for violin and piano
  • 1946: Ton of Kimitiro (the cemetery), for caper quartet
  • 1946: Caper quartet NO 1
  • 1946: Duetto, for two violins
  • 1947: Trio, for violin, cello and piano
  • 1947: 11 Präludien, for piano
  • 1947: Sexteto, for piano, flute and caper quartet
  • 1949: Study, for two violins and cello
  • 1952: Syrtos Chaniotikos, for piano and Schlagzeug
  • 1952: Sonatine NO 1, for violin and piano
  • 1955: Small Suite, for piano
  • 1955: Passacaglia, for two pianos
  • 1959:Sonatine NO 2, for violin and piano
  • 1989: Choros Assikikos (Galante of dances) for solo cello

Kantaten and Oratorien

  • 1960: “Axion Esti” (text: Odysseas Elytis), Volksoratorium
  • 1967: “Epiphania Averoff” (text: Giorgos Seferis)
  • 1969: “The march of the spirit” (text: Angelos Sikelianos); “State of siege”(Text: Rena Hadjidakis)
  • 1971-82: “Canto general “(text: Pablo Neruda)
  • 1981-82: “Kata Saddukaion Pathi” (Sadduzäer passion; Text: Michalis Katsaros) for tenor, Bariton, bass, choir and orchestra
  • 1982: Liturgie No. 2 (“the children, in wars killed”) texts: Tassos Livaditis, Mikis Theodorakis) for choir A cappella
  • 1982-83: “Lorca” for voice, solo guitar, choir and orchestra (on the basis of the “Romancero Gitan”)
  • 1992: “Canto Olympico”, spreading unit for the olympic plays in Barcelona.

hymns

  • 1970: Hymn for wet
  • 1973: Hymn for the socialist movement of Venezuela
  • 1973: Hymn for the students. ThatThe insurgent poly-technical university dedicated in Athens
  • 1977: Hymn of the socialist party of France
  • 1978: Hymn for Malta
  • 1982: Hymn of the P.L.O.
  • 1991: Hymn of the Mediterranean matches 1991
  • 1992: “Brightism”. (Greek hymn for the opening of of the olympic plays of Barcelona

ballet

  • 1953:“Greek Carnival”
  • 1958: “Le Feu aux Poudres”
  • 1958: “Les Amants de Téruel”
  • 1959: “Antigone”
  • 1963: “Elektra”
  • 1985: “Sept Danses Grecques” (choir: Maurice Béjart)
  • 1987-88: “Zorbas”.

operas

  • 1984-85: “Kostas Karyotakis”
  • 1988-90: “Medea”
  • 1992-93: “Elektra”
  • 1995-97: “Antigone”
  • 1999-2001: “Lysistrata”

music forthe stage

antique tragedies

  • 1959-60: “Phinisses” (the Phönizierinnen) (Euripides)
  • 1960-61: “Ajax” (Sophokles)
  • 1977: “Iketides” (the Iketiden/the Hilfeflehenden) (Euripides)
  • 1979: “Ippies” (Aristophanes)
  • 1986-88: “Orestia”: “Agamemnon” - “Choephoren” (the grave PEND gutters) - “Eumeniden” (Aischylos)
  • 1987: “Hekabe” (Euripides)
  • 1990: “Antigone” (Sophokles)
  • 1992: “Promithefs Desmotis” (the bound Prometheus) (Aischylos)
  • 1996: “Oedipus Tyrannos” (Sophokles)
  • 2001: “Medea” (Euripides);

modern Greek theatre

  • 1960-61/1992: “Tons of Tragoudi Tou Nekrou Adelfou” (Ballade ofDead brother), musical tragedy (text: Mikis Theodorakis)
  • 1961-62: “Omorphi Poli” (beautiful city), revue (Bost, Christodoulou, Christofelis e.a.)
  • 1963: “I Gitonia clay/tone Angelon” (The Quarter OF Angels), musical (Iakovos Kambanellis)
  • 1963: “Magiki Poli” (bewitched city), revue (Theodorakis, Pergialis, Katsaros)
  • 1971: “Antigoni stin Filaki” (Antigone in the prison),Drama (Yannis Ritsos)
  • 1974: “Prodomenos Laos” (betrayed people), music for the theatre (Vangelis Goufas)
  • 1975: “Echtros Laos” (hostile people), drama (Iakovos Kambanellis)
  • 1975: “Christophorus Kolumbus”, drama (Nikos Kazantzakis)
  • 1976: “Kapodistrias”, drama (Nikos Kazantzakis)
  • 1977: “O Allos Alexandros” (the other Alexander),Drama (Margarita Limberaki)
  • 1979: “Papflessas”, play, (Spiros Melas).

international theatre

main Filmmusiken

  • 1980: “Ill Met by Moonlight”
  • 1960: “Honeymoon”
  • 1961: “Faces into the Dark*
  • 1961: “The Shadow OF the Cat*
  • 1961: “Phaedra”
  • 1961-62: “Five Mileston of Midnight "
  • 1961-62 “Elektra”
  • 1961-62: “The loving of Teruel”
  • 1964: “Zorba the Greek”
  • 1967: “The Day the fish came out”
  • 1969: “Z”
  • 1972: “Steam turbine and gas turbine systems OF of victories”
  • 1973: “Serpico”
  • 1973: “Sutieska (Tito)
  • 1974: “The Rehearsal”
  • 1976: “Actas de Marousia”
  • 1977/78: “Iphigenia”
  • 1980: “The man with thatCarnation "


Guy Wagner. International donation Mikis Theodorakis FILIKI. List of works on the basis of the research work of Asteris Kutulas

literature

  • Mikis Theodorakis: My life for the liberty, Berne: Joke, 1972
  • Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene, Leipzig: Reclam, 1986. ISBN 3-379-00034-5
  • Mikis Theodorakis: Anatomy of the music, genuine after (lux.): Phi (Luxembourg), 1985. ISBN 3-88865-031-3
  • Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the ore gel, autobiography, Bde. 1-3, genuine after (lux.): Phi., 1987-1992
  • Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the ore gel, autobiography 1925-1949, Frankfurt: Island, 1995 ISBN 3-458-16689-0
  • Mikis Theodorakis: Until it dances again, autobiography 1949-1952, Frankfurt: Island, 2001. ISBN 3-458-17091-X
  • Mikis Theodorakis: Poems - in the paradiesischen gardens of my head. Bilingual expenditure: French - German. French transmission: Héraclès Galanakis & Guy Wagner. German transmission: Ina & AsterisKoutoulas. With designs of Theodorakis, comments, interview and time board. Genuine after (lux.): Phi, 2001.ISBN 3-88865-208-1
  • Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece, genuine after (lux.): Phi, 1995. ISBN 3-88865-125-5

Web on the left of

| |* Literature of and over Mikis Theodorakis in the catalog of the DDB

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