Military dictatorship

a military dictatorship is a collective term for authoritarian regime, in which the political guidance is exercised by the military or parts of the military. It possesses thing in common with the Stratokratie, is however not identical not to it. Typical military dictatorships become from a junta (group of officers) or oneindividual officer controls. The term junta originates from the Spanish and means („government “, „administration “). Here it means strictly speaking a form of the oily archie, i.e., some few (for example the military) places the government within the most important ranges of the executive, legislation and Judikative. A military dictatorship mostly results from a Putsch, which is directed against the order existing in each case and the associated government.

Table of contents

spreading and categorization of military dictatorships

military dictatorships stepped in the last decades particularly intothe developing countries up. They are particularly characteristic and importantly for the political development of Latin America in 20. Century, in which all states of Latin America a more or less long time were governed by a military dictatorship. In the context of the comparative government teachings the politics policy computed Gabriel Almond 1993 thatEnd of the 80's over a third and a at the beginning of the 90's over a quarter of the states were governed of Militärregimen. Within this politics-scientific specialist area one differentiates such systems of government according to the development intensity of the prevailing authoritarianism and its government goals.

military dictatorships of new type

historicalmilitary regime a new publication of postwar history is not seen, however a new type of military dictatorships formed in the 60's particularly in Latin America. They differed from the traditional military dictatorships in their rule goals, those now mainly the authentication of their power from an alleged or an actualThreat of state and society by so-called system-hostile groupings, which stood usually - however not only - in the political spectrum left, deduced. The military dictatorships often appeared with it as rescuers of state, economics and culture and used themselves usually for political structural reforms.In few cases the seizure of power and exercise of power of the military did not accompany with excessive force and illegal measures. In connection with the excessive national use of force the two American politics policies developed R.D. Duvall and Michael Stohl in the year 1983 the term state terrorism, itself howeverto military dictatorships does not naturally only refer.

Due to the unusual hardness of the repression the military dictatorships under general attained Augusto Pinochet (1973 - 1989) in Chile and in Argentina in the time of 1976 - 1983 sad celebrity.

ideology of the military dictatorships by the example of Latin America

Arising the new military dictatorships is to be seen apart from social and factors relating to domestic affairs in each case before the background of the cold war. The military governments come thereby to power reduce however not to an anticommunist defense movement, but relied beyond that on their own ideology,their most important Ideologem the “doctrine of national security” was. This Ideologem coined/shaped by geopolitical thinking stands in the majority of the military dictatorships with a conception of the world typical for it in connection. Only by this ideological basis those were to be justified military regime in a the position their illegal procedureto legitimize and. The substantial elements of this conception of the world are in Latin America after Spitta (current director/conductor of the DAAD - offices in Mexico):

  1. catholic Traditionalismus of Spanish origin
  2. nationalism (overemphasis more ser nacional)
  3. cult military as educating ideal - transmission consciousness and Messianismus
  4. of the racingism
  5. anticommunism

a voucher for thoseEfforts that of military one out its view integrative ideology to develop, supply numerous geopolitical writings. Some famous examples are the writings of the “Escola Superior de Guerra” (ESG), a famous military academy in Brazil and the 1978 published work Pinochets with the title “Geopolítica de Chile”. Thoseradical consequence from this ideology occupies the quotation of the Argentine Brigadier General Ibérico Saint Jean at the end of the article.

theoretical attempts at explanation

the ascent of Militärregimen in the past with different theories one explained. Different beginnings develop, depending on whether one rather thoseinternal process of a country, or the external influences stresses. In the first case one can argue with the help of the modernization theory, which takes off particularly on economic factors. If one stresses rather the external influences, then the ascent of the military dictatorships can be justified also dependency-theoretically, by one interventionsfrom the foreign country, imperialism or the putschistische behavior of the political middle class stresses.

With the attempt of an explanation however none of the two macro theories mentioned should be overemphasized.

examples of military dictatorships outside of Latin America

current development of the military dictatorships

many developing countries are susceptible to Putsche and thus also to military dictatorships. Thus numerous were established also in Latin America in the 1960er , 1970er and 1980er yearsMilitary dictatorships, which however majority were eliminated by the democratic Transition at the beginning of the 1990er years. The reasons for it are mostly social and economic bad states, political crises, confidence loss of the population in the political institutions and the self understanding of the military grown historically.

For years those has the 1990erNumber of the military dictatorships removed, which stands with „the democratization waves described by Samuel Phillips Huntington “into the 90ern in connection. In addition the end of the cold war caused the meaning loss one of its most important ideological elements (anticommunism). Whether it to a new form of Militärregimen with for example more populistAdjustment comes, remains being waiting.

example of States of, those at present by the military to be governed

quotations

Wikiquote: Saint Jean, Ibérico - quotations
  • “we will only kill the subversive ones, then the sympathizers, thereafter the indifferent ones and in the end the Lauen " (general Ibérico Saint Jean, Argentine Brigadier General and governor von Buenos Aires at times of the military junta (1976 - 1983))

literature

  • Almond, G.A./Powell, G.B./Mundt, R.J. (Hrsg.): Comparative Politics, New York 1993.
  • Duvall R.D. /Stohl,M.:Governance by terror, in: Stohl, M. (Hrsg.): The Politics OF Terrorism, New York 1983, S. 179 - 219.
  • Huntington, S.P.: The third wave - Democratization into the late Twentieth Century, Norman 1991.
  • Janowitz, M.: Military and society, Boppard on the Rhine 1965.
  • Tobler, H.W. /Forest man, P. (Hrsg.):National and parastaatliche force in Latin America, Frankfurt A.M. 1991.

see also

 

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