Military government

a military government or rarely also Stratokratie mentioned (of griech. στρατός to “army” and κρατείν “prevail”) designates a system of government, in which the carrying out political force proceeds directly from the military.

Pure military governments are rather rare. Rather it came into the historical developments to combinations, in thosecivil governments existed, that were controlled however in the background by the military. Civilian governments received therefore full political power and cannot be set off by a military intervention of the own armed forces or controlled otherwise. Reasons of the intervention know for example the safety device of stability or retentionthe status Quo its. In militarily dominated countries the power of the army of a right of veto reaches up to the complete assumption of the government authority. The military rule following from it can be very short-lived (2 to 4 years) and only up to the re-establishment of the condition wished by the militarypersist or long-term nature its.

Often military governments are installed as temporary solutions in occupied countries. In Germany after the Second World War a military government was established, itself from the four allied powers the Great Britain, France, which built the USA up and the Soviet Union. On the summit conference of potsdamintended powers common guidelines for their future policy. They set their emphasis on disarmament, Entnazifizierung and structure of a new political order in Germany.1947 educated the Americans and the British a Bizone, which extended few time later to the tri zone (with the French zone of occupation)became. This thing should regulate the economical structure and the development of Germany. To 21. September 1949 one dissolved the military government.

To table of contents

1977 in its book

Soldiers in Politics different military rule analyzed three stages of a military rule Eric Nordlinger. It divided the political influencing control of the army in three stages:

Moderating one, appeasing form: Civilians may dress political offices also further, whereby officers keep however a right of veto. Under menacethey are capable of of a military employment to replace to politician through them probably-more deliberate persons without becoming thereby even directly in the policy active. Their goal is avoidance different arranged political ideologies. Mostly everything remains economical with the old person.

Protective form: The military takes over government control, overto repair stability. During this time it often comes to economic reforms. Public organizations and media can to be worked as used.

Controlling form: A military regime is established, which exerts also an extensive influence on the public life. It comes to fundamental social changes, howalso many fundamental rights to be hurt. The military introduces a bureaucratic system. Independent media are forbidden.

military dominated States of

each country, then it said the former president of Colombia, Eduardo Sontos, by the own army is controlled.

Particularly in the South American area seemsto be very high the dominance of the military. The reasons lie mostly in the failure relating to domestic affairs of the civil government (e.g. bad economic situation or activities of terror) and the absence of another controlling class except the military. Often it comes therefore to the formation of military dictatorships, to one Putsch against the government to be established. The Führungsriegen of these dictatorships is formed frequently from a group of struggle-high officers, who exercise political power. They regard themselves mostly just as temporary solution, which want to change sometime into civil governments.

the Soviet Union

Raymond Aron busyinto the 1980er years with the question whether the former Soviet Union a Stratokratie was.1982 were appointed the KGB chairman and army general Juri Wladimirowitsch Andropow the Secretary-General of the CPSU, whereby the hintergründige military rule stepped the carrying out force openly to the surface and the secret servicetook over. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union this military government was terminated.

Turkey

1989 was dissolved the national security council in Turkey. This advice consisted of struggle-high officers, who possessed the executive.

The origins of this military dominance agitated Kemal Atatürks from the time. Atatürk justified the ideology of the Kemalismus, with which he transformed Turkey radically. It introduced for example the woman right to vote, closed Koranschulen and leaned the Turkish juridical system against western models.

The inheritance Atatürks is protected since then by the Turkish military. 1960 led social bad statesto the fall of the government by general Cemal Gürsel. In addition, the concluding craving could not get the problems into the grasp. Left and right terror activities increased, and the economic situation worsened rapidly. 1971 intervened the army again, and it came to repressive measuresin relation to the population. In addition, remained the 1972 assigned government not for a very long time in the office. To 12. September 1980 putschte general staff boss Kenan Evren against Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel. Evren forbade the parties and imposed the state of war, “over against the terrorism in the country proceeds” toocan. The military was embodied 1982 as part of political power even in the condition and selected Evren to the president. Turkey returned only 1989 with the choice of door property Özal to a civil rule. The military nevertheless remains also today in Turkey onethe most important political sizes, as make it the relationship of the armed forces with the Islamic government clear.

see also

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