|of these articles treats the body organ spleen. The municipality of the same name spleen see under: Spleen (Thuringia).|
the spleen (lat.: Lien, griech.: Splen) is with humans an organ big as a fist with 150-200 gramWeight, which lies in the left Oberbauch, behind the stomach and underneath the Zwerchfells. It is a secondary organ of the Lymphsystems switched on into the Blutkreislauf and the largest lymphoretikuläre organ of mesodermaler origin, which are divided into segments. With mammals can , are long with the horse they take the spleen substantial extents 50 cm. With birds the spleen is spherical.
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the spleen will by a bindegewebigen, by Peritonalepithel covered cap to surround, of which a trabekuläres Bindegewebsgerüst and some smooth muscle cells into the Parenchym, which irradiate Milzpulpa. (lat.Pulpa „breiige mass “).
The spleen unites two organs in building and structure. The white Pulpa as interior organ takes over immunological tasks as lymphatic organ. The red Pulpa removes harmful particles from the blood by means of their Fresszellen (Phagozyten). It stores also white blood corpusclesand blood panels, which it can pay.
The dichtmaschige Reticulum contains the macroscopically whitish and Milzknötchen designated in their whole as white Pulpa (Pulpa alba ), also admits as Malpighi Körperchen. It concerns thereby Lymphfollikel, existingfrom lymphatic fabric with B-Lymphozyten. Besides around the containers the T-Lymphozyten arranged to the white Pulpa (periarteriellen lymphatic sheaths, PALS ) belongs.
The area between the Knötchen is filled out, of blood flowed through that of a weitmaschigen Retikulum andred Pulpa (Pulpa titles) one calls.
The blood supply is made by the Arteria occurring at the Hilus lienalis. It branches out to Trabekel and Balkenarterien, from which the Zentralarterien flowing in the center of the spleen follicles comes out.
The most important tasks of the spleen
- Phagozytose and dismantling by macro phages of obsolete and in their ductility changed or by diaphragm - or enzyme defects damaged blood cells, above all Erythrozyten (red blood corpuscles), from Thrombozyten (blood panel), which by anti-bodies are loaded, of Micro organisms, immune complexes, Fibrinmonomeren, colloidal and other particles.
- Immunological coinage of Lymphozyten and leukocytes (for the nonspecific defense) and the antigen-induced differentiation pro running ration of B and T-Lymphozyten.
- Production of different protective agents.
- Children up to the sixth Lebensjahr are upthe function of the spleen dependent. It is substantially involved in the education of the red blood corpuscles with them.
- On illnesses of the haematinic marrow the spleen can become also at the age again a haematinic organ.
investigation possibilities of the spleen
- Keys (only when clear enlargement under the left rib elbow gropable)
- Computertomografie (CT)
- Magnetresonanztomografie (NMR, March)
- a Punktion of the spleen to the Gewebsuntersuchung is uncommon and dangerous, since the spleen is a blood-rich organ.
diseases of the spleen
The spleen is an organ, which prepares problems rarely. A dangerous situation is the Milzruptur with rib injuries left, since here the possibility of the bleeding exists into the abdominal cavity.
- spleen injury
- spleen enlargement (Splenomegalie)
- OPSI syndrome = (overwhelming postsplenectomy infection)
a spleen enlargement can be also an indication of a leukaemia.
With humans with nonfunctioning spleen or without it (Asplenie) defense weakness exists particularly for bekapselte bacteria (z. B. Haemophilus influenzae B, Pneumokokken).With this humans it comes in rare cases to a OPSI syndrome, D. h. fast running bacterial infection and Sepsis with high number of deaths.
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