less city is the name for a category municipal law reduced by places with. Designations, which point on the character of a less city, have a historical character, however today still in some Lands of the Federal Republic are used.
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market municipality designated in former times in Bavaria a municipality, which had the market right, but no full municipal rights. 382 municipalities in Bavaria (conditions 2004) lead the “title” market municipality. The title is this very day lent after Bavarian local legislation. Youngest less city (since that 17. September 2005) in Germany is post office build RH close the market municipality in the Upper Palatinate. Also in Austria the designation is used.
in Northern Germany the designation marks was common for less cities. Also this designation was connected with the market right. In Lower Saxony 55 municipalities (conditions 2004) lead the designation “marks” as title, which has actually no more meaning. In Saxonia-Anhalt four municipalities in the ear circle and in the old Mark lead again this title. In Hessen three municipalities in the circle Limburg because castle lead the title “small market town”. In Schleswig-Holstein the title “marks” was abolished 1932. In Brandenburg still the place marks Zechlin leads the title with Rhine mountain.
in Westphalia gives it the old designation to Wiegbold (also Wigbold, Weichbild). Still in 20. The places Schöppingen, Nienborg, south wages, Ottenstein, Metelen, Westerkappeln led and curve-hit a corner century the designation “Wiegbold”.
a further westfälische form of the less city to 1456 is the liberty. Approximated their rights those the city much. An example of it is Bödefeld in the sour country. Since 1342 the place carries “liberty Bödefeld” for the names. With the title “liberty” was connected the privilege to select municipal authorities and a mayor and to administer the place. The privilege ends 1803, the name remained. Additionally the right of the attachment of the liberty with barrier and ditch usually stepped.
Also in the Ruhr district some places in the Middle Ages had the rank of a liberty. Gelsenkirchen Buer led the title in the Middle Ages as “liberty Buer” just as, as Bochum-cotton wool-separate, heart-westrecovered, Dortmund Mengede or Herne heeling. In the winner country joy mountain had the rights of a liberty.
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