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the state under Hong Wu
one based the dynasty of Zhu Yuanzhang. 1363 decided the rebel leader the fleet battle upthe Poyang lake against its most important rival, - princes Chen You liang, for itself and remaining opponent eliminated the “Han” in the subsequent years also its. Parallel to it it began with the organization of a normal administration and published thereby already 1363 38 million coins. its army hunted 1368 underHsü TA the Khan Toghan Timur from Peking. With it the Mongol rule ended.
As first emperors of the Ming dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang selected itself the government foreign exchange Hong Wu. In its reign the economic reconstruction stood in the center of the efforts. It came through to innumerable land development and irrigation projects,½ up to five million the hectars country per year were opened. The incomes from the grain-expensively trebled itself in six years. One estimates that in 20 years up to a billion utilizable trees were planted (fruit trees, trees for the fleet, Maulbeerbäume for the silk production).
Inthe Ming time came it also to enormous bureaucratic efforts. These come down - compared to the liberal Song time - to an absolutist government. Already 1380 came it to a process of the emperor against a former familiar one, into whom 15,000 persons were entangled. That led to it,the fact that all power concentrated on the emperor, to who directly now all Ministries were subordinated (is called without imperial secretariat). In the years 1385 and 1390 Hongwu repeated these processes.
Emperor Hongwu was hardly still accessible to contradictory opinions for the end of its term of office, he governed underHelp secret civil servants and the secret police (1382: the guards with the Brokatkleidern). The first Ming emperor nevertheless put the foundation for an extremely stable state apparatus, which existed with only marginal changes until 1911 have should.
structure of state and economics
the population was divided soldier and craftsman families into farmer, them became per its own Ministry (with ever own taxation) and main settlement areas assigned, changes of profession were suppressed. Besides one made ever ten families (lijia) collective in relation to the administration for taxes, public services and orderresponsible. Da die Zahl der Beamten für die Kontrolle nicht ausreichte, kam es bald zu Orts- und Berufswechseln, verbunden mit Abweichungen in den Steuereinnahmen und - noch schlimmer - zur Verdrängung der ärmeren Mitglieder einerlijia auf dem Land.
The social structure turned out soon exceptControl, so that one these regulations in the second half 15. Jhdts. to change had, after already several times social unrests had broken out and ever more humans of the tax and military service extracted themselves.
With the administrative problems already described associated in 15. Century the rule that Palasteunuchen and the Haremsdamen, soon which got large influence on the private advice ( slope), all-powerful since 1426, and also over the secret police. Not few emperors withdrew themselves even as far as possible from the policy, in the area of conflict resulting from it between the Eunuchen (usually poor originfrom north China) and the high officials (of south China prosperity and education elite) it came continuously to plots and arbitrariness, which decomposed the state internally, particularly in the period 1615-1627 and/or. under the emperors Wanli and Tianqi.
Making more difficult for the economic progress the traditional Verachtung that came Konfuzianer opposite the trade and the dealers in addition. In the Ming time this attitude reached a high point. But against the legend China 1433 stopped its foreign trade not and gave themselves also no isolationism. The Ming knew the realm of the center as the most important sea andEconomic power in Eastern Asia maintain. However it came into early 16. Century among emperors Jiajing to commercial restrictions, due to a conflict with Japan. In order to prevent smuggling to Japan, one destroyed 1525 all high-seaworthy ships. After this had hardly an effect, 1551 tries the entireTo prevent foreign trade. The consequence of the prohibitions was a still larger upswing of smuggling and Piraterie in the coastal regions - the dealers changed there simply their source of income. Already 1567 had to be dropped all restrictions again. Besides the silver money replaced again the paper money.
But that16. Century stands also for an enormous high point in economics and culture. As a cause one can regard the new European colonies in America. The majority of the silver diminished there was spent by Portugal and Spain in China, in order to purchase goods on the European market.After 1520 one registers then an upswing of the wholesale and the handicraft as well as technical progress and innovations in the handicraft (weaving mill and printing), the agriculture (new useful plants partially owing to the Portuguese), furthermore military affairs (beginning in 15. Century). Wholesale merchants, businessmen and bankers rose as suppliersthe state socially. A wealthy Chinese middle class came to the first bloom. One strove under chancellor Zhang Juzheng (1525-82) also to moderate the loads of the Kleinbauern.
Thoselargest load of the Ming were the eventful fights with the Mongols - this time however in that Mongolia. Thereby the victory of the Buinor lake is worth mentioning 1387, which entailed the imminent deprivation of power of the Kublaiden. However now the west Mongols (particularly the Oiraten ) stepped into thatForeground. This was one of the strategic reasons, why emperor Yongle let the imperial capital from Nanking shift starting from 1406 to Peking. In this connection also the emperor channel for rice transport was removed.
The Ming suffered a serious defeat 1449, as the west Mongols under Esen Taijiwith Tumu triumphed and the inexperienced emperor Zhengtong imprisoned took. In 16. Century renewed itself the pressure of the Mongols under Dayan - and Altan Khan, so that to the protection from their would attack the Chinese wall on the today's conditions one developed.
Worth mentioning are alsothe Chinese discovery travels to sea under the Islamic Eunuchen Zheng He. Such sea voyages were already usual at the Song time, but now they were accomplished officially and exclusively financed by the state. They served mainly to show to the world that again Chinese in China governed. The commercialUse played a subordinated role, so that one could do after 1433 without such fleet politics again. When the Portuguese 1557 with permission of the emperor yard Macao took over, China straight was subject to the restriction edicts of the emperor Jiajing, why from the Chinese sea power nothing was to be noticed, insteadcontrolled Japanese Piraten (Wokou) the coasts. Only the Chinese victories after 1556 made an end slow for that.
attacks of the Mandschu
rang to fall of the Ming the fall of the dynasty, with which violent farmer rebellions associated. As the Ming army of 1583 family membersthe Mandschu prince Nurhaci († 1626) killed, became this an enemy of the Ming. 1619 it struck four at the same time Ming armies advancing against him. Similarly to it repeated harvest failures 1627/28 had released a hunger emergency. It found accomodation to farmer rebellions, those starting from 1636 by two men was organized and 1641 Left Zicheng (1606-45) the fall of the dynasty to the goal had. 1644 drew left Zicheng into Peking, the last Ming emperor Chongzhen erhängte themselves.
Left Zicheng made however a frequently quoted error. He “kidnapped” the Konkubine of the general Wu Sangui, to that the Ming army at thatNorth border befehligte. Wu Sangui followed the Mandschu, whereupon their regent prince Dorgon in the name of the then six-year Mandschu emperor Shunzhi, (1644-61) to Peking advanced.
- Jacques Gernet: The Chinese world. Frankfurt, Suhrkamp 1997 (suhrkamp paperback). ISBN 3-518-38005-2.
- Denis Twitchett & Frederick W. Mote:The Cambridge History OF China volume. 7 - The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 part 1. Cambridge University press 1988. ISBN 0-521-24332-7
- Denis Twitchett: The Cambridge History OF China volume. 8 - The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 part 2. Cambridge University press 1998.To ISBN 0-521-24333-5
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