Walther von der Vogelweide (Codex Manesse, um 1300)

Minnesang nennt man die schriftlich überlieferte, hoch ritualisierte Form der gesungenen Liebeslyrik, die der westeuropäische Adel im hohen Mittelalter pflegte, den Kaiser selbst eingeschlossen.

In the German-speaking countriesone can speak starting from approximately 1150 of a Minnesang on medium high German. The version of the high German maintained in the Minnesang is the attempt of a first all-German literature language. (Only 400 years later the second attempt takes place via Martin Luther.) In the late Middle Ages (off about1350) replace other kinds the höfisch knightly Minnesang.

First testified Minnesänger are the Trobadors in Southern France. The language of their songs is often called in modern time Provenzalisch, whereby under it however not the okzitanische dialect of Provence,separates a kind okzitanische Koiné or literature language to understand is, the elements from different okzitanischen dialects takes up. The Minnesang of the Southern French Trobadors, later also the northFrench Trouvères has substantial influence on the beginnings of the German Minnesangs.

Most clearlydemonstrably this influence is on the basis retort invoices so mentioned, thus (Germans) the Neutextierung of provenzalischer “tones” (under a 'clay/tone 'the unit of verse is to understand Metrum and Strophenform plus melody). As in such retort invoices becomes just as clearthe French influence in the recognizable effort of German Minnesänger, with refined Metren and Reim techniques just as artifiziell to shine as the French singers.

The language art of the German Minnesangs can be described however also without resort to the French influence.

Table of contents


Minnesang understands itself substantially as knightly Hobby and within the höfischen knight culture as competition of high-noble knights among themselves, - similarly to the other forms of the match, for instance the tournament.

The successful lecture of a Minne of song by a knight is primarily as cultural authority proof toounderstand - similarly a hunt success or a victory in the knight tournament. The song addresses itself to an admired lady of the society (woman service), is however no expression of life-lay conditions. A biographic authenticity, as it accepted the all-earliest literature research, is not in principle and in all cases to exclude, however only a small role might have played: Minnesang is not romantic feeling expression, also no Erlebnislyrik, but an ritterlich--ethicalally coined/shaped speaking and music ritual, - comparable to that the Minnesang in Italy the following petrarkistischen Liebeslyrik dolce style nuovo since Francesco of the Petrarca, which was incumbent on now, in the Renaissance beginning, however no longer only the noble knight.

the historical operational sequence

as first Trobador applies for duke William IX.of Aquitanien(1071-1127). The art of the Trobadors reaches 12 in the center. Century by kind of Berne de Ventadorn their purest representation and spreads northward (“Trouvères”) and the east (German Minnesang).

Important Trobadors was: Jaufre herd, Marcabru, kind of Berne deVentadorn, Giraut de Bornelh, Beatriz de Dia, Peire Vidal.

Important northFrench Trouvères was: Gace Brulé, Colin Muset, Jean Bodel, Thibaut de Champagne, Conon de Béthune, Blondel de Nesle, Adam de la, In addition, Chrétien de Troyes resounds (as Artus Epiker substantially more well-known is as a poet).

The oldest German Minnesang is provable with the poetKürenberger “; the falcon song is famous in the 'Nibelungenstrophe ': “I zoch mea falcon… “(to the verse form see. the Nibelungenlied).

This “donauländische” Minnesang (1150-1170, geographically: Passau, Linz, which area thus, from which also the Nibelungenlied originates), e.g. represent. by Dietmar of Aist, has older German roots and is ofthe refined provenzalischen Trobador art still uninfluenced. The songs are coined/shaped by a natural and ungekünstelte view of love. The characteristics to let the woman speak in I form or in the “changes” man and woman become by the later provenzalischen influence outthe Minnesang erased. Exterior formal characteristic is those the epischen seal intimate long line. In this phase the German Minnesang found to a certain extent still no own form. The roots of these native Minnelyrik lie to a large extent in the darkness.

The new Minnesang after provenzalischemModel (under others demonstrably imports by the far-traveled Friedrich of living) flowers in the alemannischen and Frankish west starting from 1170 up. Starting from this time develops a lyric poetry, which is formally substantially more diffenzierter and contentwise the ideal of the high Minne contains(and in all rule the renouncement attitude of the man and the unattainableness of the Frouwe stress). To call here representatives are such as Albrecht of Johansdorf, Reinmar and Heinrich of Morungen.

Roll ago from the bird pasture goes as the first away from the idealthe high Minne and sings songs of the “equal love” (“low Minne”, more exactly said, songs of the “heart love”, also “girl songs” mentioned). However the terms “high” how “low” Minne are not contemporarily occupied - only a formulation with roll ago becomes from the literature scienceas voucher taken -, but Konstrukte of the romance, which were possibly not yet sufficiently analyzed by later researcher generations. So it must remain at least questionable to what extent of the Germanistik accepted ideal of the unfulfilled love in the so-called. “High Minne”not a conception of the romance represents, which was projected on the time of the Hochmittelaters. In particular the seal Heinrichs of Morungen does not only permit an interpretation. The newer research questioned the picture prevailing so far anyhow partly energetically (sofor instance EH Willms).

In 13. Century loses itself the first apparently clear picture completely: While in Switzerland still after 1300 high Minne in classical tradition (although less original) will besungen, parodierende and erotisierende in another place already seize starting from 1220/30Tendencies (envy hard, Tannhäuser). The term “Minne” changes to the synonym for the sex act.

kinds of the Minnesangs

a large part of the “German Minnesangs”, i.e. the medium high-German lyric poetry strictly speaking no Minnesang is and should thereforeto be designated not in such a way. Regarding their topic and their seat in life must two large kinds be differentiated: the ritterlich--noble Liebeslyrik (Minnesang) and the saying seal spoke themselves, exclusive by occupation poets and - singers and with political,moral and religious topics of all Couleur concerned.

Minnedichtung reflected unfulfilled by program love, praises the Angebetete or describes erotische experiences (starting from center 13. Century). In the cross song the singer a forthcoming or experienced crusade, thus its service at God, contrasts alsoits woman wife. In the woman song again the Minnedienst from the view of the angebeteten woman is regarded. It receives the Minnedienst and expresses its regret that it must reject it - naturally -. “Dramatically” the day song put on finally describes thatfictitious Liebespaar with the morning-grey before the inevitable separation. (We still meet the poetic organization of this situation in principle in Shakespeares Romeo and Julia.)

saying seal requests too religiously and ethicalally correct acting, publicises usual Lebensweisheiten or criticizes the Zeitgeschehen.

Therethe social status of Minnesang (high-noble representation art and luxury) and saying seal (on payment instructed 'Gebrauchs'kunst) is different, works a poet only very rarely in both areas at the same time; the most well-known exception of this rule is roll ago of the bird pasture, thatin both areas protruding carried out and therefore with good reason as the most important representative of the medium high-German lyric poetry applies.

The contentwise generic differentiation can be regained also in the lyric forms:

There are formally the kinds to song, Spruchstrophe and Leich:

The song(only in the Minnesang!) has to today usual strophische repetition form, often with three or five Strophen. The Liedstrophe is for their part in most cases divided into two equivalent “lugs” and a “Abgesang” (Kanzonenform).

Saying seal uses often more complexand more extensive Strophenformen. This probably not last, because the same form for different contents should be used again and again and be recognized also without strophische repetition clearly and assigned to the poet composer (e.g. Walthers Philipps clay/tone or realm clay/tone). The Minnelied is howeveralways a firm final whole with 2 to 7 Strophen. Some poets (e.g. In addition, Heinrich of Morungen) maintain in the Minne category the einstrophige form.

The Leich is the splendor form of the people-linguistic German lyric poetry; it is substantially more extensive and has onemore complex form than the strophische song. While in the song the same building structure and melody is several times repeated (= Strophe), consists the Leich of not-identical construction units with own in each case melody, which are individually or several times repeated connected in series.

excessive quantity of theMinnesangs, important handwriting, scientific care

the first pressure of texts from the Codex one-eats 1748
worked on page from Karl Bartsch, song poet of the three tenth and four tenth century, 1900
title page of an expenditure for luxury 1850
cover of “the Minnesangs spring” 1935

the earliest handwrittenCertifications of the German Minnesangs come from the end 12. Century. Toward end 13. Century becomes the attempt large “musealen” Lyriksammlungen in song handwriting recognizably. Possibly these collections had predecessors in the form of do not receive remained repertoire handwriting from around-pullingSingers, who were collected now in an as it were literature-historical effort by wealthy private individuals. Peak point of the recordings is the pure collection of texts of the so-called “Codex one-eats”.

  • C: Codex one-eats (also large Heidelberger song handwriting or Paris song handwriting called), Cod. Pal. germ.848 thatPRACTICE Heidelberg; Codex one-eats because of the assumed client, inhabitants of zurich the Patriziers Ruediger one-eats). It is the largest and splendour-fullest collection of the German Minnesangs, one of the most meaningful handwriting of the German Middle Ages at all. It originated in only in 14. Jh., butthe present texts go back until approximately 1160, i.e. into the earliest time of the Minnesangs. The classical authors roll ago, Reinmar, Morungen are just as contained as the saying seal, the Leich and Swiss Epigonen. On 426 Pergamentblättern (=852) The Codex contains sides nearly 6,000 Strophen of 140 poets. A full-page miniature is dedicated to 137 singers. The articles added wastefully on the miniatures, heraldischen details and culture-historical reference are from highest force of expression.
  • E: Peppering citizen handwriting (PRACTICE Munich, Cod. Ms. 731; written around 1350in peppering castle; House book of chancellor Michael de Leone)
  • t: Kolmarer song handwriting (Munich, Bavarian. Staatsbibl., Cgm 4997). t is a very late Hs., around 1460 in Rhine-Frankish written, predominant “masterly song seal” -Sayings and songs in the tradition of the singing saying poets 12. , 13. and early 14. Century. Transition from höfisch noble song art to urban master-sang.

Almost all important handwriting is limited to the recording of the texts. They are deceptive thereby over thoseFact away that Minnesang says, like the word completely by right, always Gesangslyrik was - in many cases probably more than: As various miniatures occupy, the speaking singers became von Rhythmus-, Streich - and wind instruments accompanied.

Of specified the aboveHandwriting offers only the Jenaer (J) and Kolmarer (t) also associated melodies. For the music excessive quantity of the German Minnesangs the “Viennese in such a way specified Leichhandschrift” (national library Vienna, cvp 2701, is furthermore important Sigle W).

Beside these three handwriting (J, t, W)exists sporadic, fragmentary, only in vague Neumen noted or by retort invoices opened melody material. A total view of this material can obtain together with the delivered miniatures and the text statements for performance situation very probably a speaking overall view over it how Minnesang was realized in music;the historically authentic reconstruction of individual pieces remains however even during apparently reliable melody excessive quantity illusion. Also those best delivered melodies are limited to the rendition of the singing melody. Clock, rhythm, speed, dynamics, Harmonik, Begleitinstrumente, polyp-hone techniques - are opened for us so farnot.

The philological-Germanistic occupation with the texts uses 1748 by Johann the Jakobs Bodmer and Johann Jakob Breitinger , became particularly from Karl laughter man, Moritz head, William Wilmans, Friedrich Vogt, Karl Bartsch among other things up to Carlby Kraus - 1935 appeared its treatment of laughter man “of the Minnesangs spring” -, Hugo bold and Peter Wapnewski to in 20. Century led. Beside this in diachroner loyalty to scientific text editions updated today there were also splendourful luxury pressures alreadyin 19. Century (also two technically very complex facsimile printings of the Codex one-eat in 20. Century were organized by the island publishing house). Because similarly as in the Nibelungenlied and in tungsten Parzival one became expressly “German” culture achievement for the romance also in the German Minnesangseen, even a model for “völkische identity”. This does not agree however with politico-cultural conditions during the regency of the last two Stauferkaiser. Emperor Heinrich VI. still even his son emperor Friedrich II., that stepped out as German Minnesänger,“puer Apuliae”, maintained then at its sizilisch apulischen yard already a poet school, which availed itself under its personal co-operation the Minnesang inheritance, but now and during the first moving of the Italian Renaissance finally over Petrarca and Dante one sealed Italiannew development introduced, to in early 17. Century to William Shakespeare was enough. This international instead of only national meaning of the Minnesangs is seen stronger lately.

meaning German Minnesänger

expenditures and literature

  • the large HeidelbergerSong handwriting (Codex one-eats), in faithful text casting given change of Friedrich Pfaff, Heidelberg 1984
  • Codex one-eats. The large Heidelberger song handwriting. Texts - pictures - things, catalog to the exhibition of the university library Heidelberg 1988, given change of Elmar intermediary and Wilfried Werner, Heidelberg1988. This is the relevant documentation for the excessive quantity of medium high-German lyric poetry.
  • Thomas Cramer: The smaller song poets 14. and 15. Jhs., 4 Bde., Munich 1979-1985
  • Carl von Kraus: Song poet 13. Jhs., 2. Edition, Tübingen 1978 ISBN 3-484-10284-5
  • Hugo bold: Minnesangs turn, (=Hermaea; New consequence 1), 2. Edition Tübingen 1967
  • Hugo bold: Minnesang 13. Jhs, selected by H. Boldly, with transmission of the melodies of George, Tübingen enriches 1953
  • Minnesangs spring, given change from HugoMoser, Helmut Tervooren, 38. Edition Stuttgart 1988 ISBN 3-7776-0448-8
  • Harald oats country: High Minne. To the description of the Minnekanzone, Berlin 2000 (supplements to the magazine for German philology 10)
  • olive Sayce: The medieval German lyric. 1150 - 1300 Oxford 1982
  • Günther Schweikle: Minnesang, 2. , edition corrected, (=Sammlung Metzler; Volume 244), Stuttgart/Weimar 1995 ISBN 3-476-10244-0
  • EH Willms: Dear wrong and singing desire. Investigations to the German Liebeslyrik late 12. and early 13. Century, (=Münchener texts and investigations for the German literature of the Middle Ages; Volume 94),Duesseldorf 1990 ISBN 3-7608-3394-2

Web on the left of

Commons: Codex one-eats - pictures, videos and/or audio files

see also:

Minne, Höfi seal, seal of the late Middle Ages, singer war on the waiting castle, master-sang, lyric poetry, saying seal, Vagantendichtung


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)