of these articles is occupied with the European Mediterranean - other meanings are under Mediterranean.
Das Mittelmeer aus dem All betrachtet
The Mediterranean from the universe regards
Karte des Mittelmeers
map of Mediterranean

the European Mediterranean (usually only Mediterranean and/or. also Mediterranean sea mentioned), that about 2,5Million km ² largely and up to 5.267 m is deep, is a Mediterranean between Europe, Africa and Asia, which are enclosed by its own narrow climatic belt and coined/shaped by its own Flora and fauna.

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that European Mediterranean, which is also a Binnenmeer of the Atlantiks, lies as most strongly from mainlands surrounded and/or. by the ocean separated Mediterranean between the continents evenly specified. In the west it is connected by the road by Gibraltar with the Atlantic,in the northeast over the Dardanellen, the Marmarameer and the Bosphorus with the black sea and in the southeast over the Suez channel (since 1869) with the Red Sea, a Binnenmeer of the Indiks.

To this wide Mediterranean, thatamong the oceanic Nebenmeeren are ranked, belong beside numerous small islands, large and small Inselgruppen and isles the large islands Korsika, Sardinien, Sicily, Crete, Rhodos and Cyprus; into the European Mediterranean rises up from the norththe Apenninenhalbinsel with the majority of Italy; it separates the actual sea from the Adria.


3.02 millions km ² surface covers data the European Mediterranean. Its largest sea depth is with 5.267 m (see bottom of the sea).

Roman name

in the antique one the European Mediterranean by the Romans Mare Nostrum were called, which means our sea. This naming results from the fact that the Roman realm (Imperium Romanum) occasionally the entire Mediterranean umschloss.

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the European Mediterranean is remnants of the Tethysmeeres of the earth Middle Ages. 6 million years ago the road closed of Gibraltar due to the disktectonic collision of Africa with Europe. Parts of the Mediterranean dried repeated out, so thatitself at the bottom of the sea powerful tertiary gypsum - and salt deposits find. The Nebenmeer of the Atlantiks had at least partly drained last during the ice ages. Therefore Henry Cosquer, a French diver, 1985 found close Marseille to late cave designated after it with prähistorischen rock designs, whose entrance of 36 meters is under the sea level.

In 2. World war was the European Mediterranean theater of war (see for this under Mediterranean Theatre OF operation).


the Salzgehalt of the European Mediterranean lies with round38 parts per thousand more highly than that of the Atlantiks. This is a consequence of the strong evaporation, which does not become balanced by the supply of fresh water of the large rivers and rivers. Therefore a strong seawater stream flows into at the reason of the road of Gibraltarthe Atlantic off, while at the surface accordingly a return flow still stronger to the net loss of water transports salt-poorer and therefore lighter ocean water into the Mediterranean.

sea world

bottom of the sea

within the European Mediterranean and/or. on its bottom of the sea are thresholds, deep sea basins and a sea low.

In the western part of the sea lies the Algerian Provenzali basin, which is deep up to 3.255 m. In its western center section the Tyrrheni basin is in the Tyrrheni sea, toto 3,758 m is deep. In its eastern center section the Ioni basin lies in the Ioni sea, which in the Calypsotief - which deepest place of the European Mediterranean - up to 5.267 m is deep. In the east is that Levanti basins in the Levanti sea, which is deep up to 4.517 m.

horizontal arrangement

the European Mediterranean is arranged by numerous Nebenmeere , gulfs , bays and meeresstrassen; at its west and east edge it pushes in each caseto a strait, to the ocean and/or. lead up to a Binnenmeer.

In the west the European Mediterranean is connected by the road by Gibraltar with the Atlantic. In the northeast it is over the Dardanellen, the Marmarameer and the Bosphorus with the black sea connected and in the southeast over the 1869 finished Sueskanal also with the Red Sea, a Binnenmeer of the Indian ocean. The Marmarameer - not however the black sea - is ranked frequently still among the Mediterranean.

While its western part carries sometimes no special name (because of the island Alboran also Alboran lake is designated), is the European Mediterranean by own Nebenmeere and strongly subdivided bays: In the north lies the Liguri sea with the gulf of Genova, inCenter section are the Tyrrheni sea, the road of Messina, the Ioni sea, the road of Sicilies, the small Syrte (gulf of Gabès), the road of Otranto, the Adriati sea, those Large Syrte, the Ägäis and in the East part the Levanti sea.


acquaintance of coast regions are for example:

island world

the most important islands, Inselgruppen and peninsulas in European Mediterranean are (from west to east): Balearen, Korsika, Sardinien, Sicily, Malta, the Croatian islands, Peloponnes, Crete, Kykladen, Dodekanes (Rhodos), Cyprus.

The largest island in the Mediterranean is Sicily.

For further islands in the European Mediterranean see here.


into the European Mediterranean and/or. into its marginal seas these rivers and rivers , those flow up to the Muluja, some smaller brooks and/or under others. Riversand in particular the Nile everything from northern directions lead into:

states & dependent one of areas

neighboring states are:


  • yard judge, Robert: The Mediterranean, Bd. 1: General part. Spectrum academic publishing house, 2002. - ISBN 3-82741-050-9
  • Ders., the Mediterranean, Bd. 2/2 : Regulation leader. Spectrum academic publishing house, March 2006. - ISBN 3-82741-170-X
  • Mountain peasant, Matthias/Humberg, Bernd:What lives in the Mediterranean? Franckh cosmos publishing house, 1999. - ISBN 3-44007-733-0
  • Bärtels, Andreas: Plants of the Mediterranean area. Ulmer, 2003. - ISBN of 3-80013-287-7
  • Wagner, refuge Günter: Mediterranean area. Geography, history, economics, politics. Darmstadt 2001 (scientific book company), 93 fig., 29 Tab., 75 pictures,381 S. - ISBN 3-534-12339-5.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Mediterranean - word origin, synonyms and translations

see also

coordinates: 35° N,18° O


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