the term central Rhine designates on the one hand geographically the distance section of the Rhine between being gene / Rüdesheim and Bonn, on the other hand the German Weinbaugebiet lain there. With its high-ranking architectural monuments, which vine-occupiedHe is considered to slopes, its together settlements pushed on narrow bank borders and the elevator castles lined up on rock projections/leads as epitome of the romantic Rhine landscape. Other sections of the Rhine are high Rhine, upper Rhine and Niederrhein. The upper central Rhine Valley from being gene to Koblenz is since 2002 UNESCO - world inheritance.
Table of contents
the geographicalDesignation central Rhine refers to the close break-through valley of the Rhine by the Rheini slate mountains between being gene and Rüdesheim in the south and Bonn Bad Godesberg and Bonn upper Kassel in the north, thus the classical Rhine landscape. To 27. June 2002 became the upper central Rhine Valley between being gene/Rüdesheim andKoblenz taken up to the list of the world cultural heritage of the UNESCO. The central Rhine Valley runs nearly on whole length, to Roland-hits a corner and Rhine broad brook in the area of the Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate, then on from North Rhine-Westphalia. Geographically also the right Rhine bank between Rüdesheim and Lorch ranks among the central Rhine Valley, to Hessen and to the area of cultivation of wine Rhine gau belongs. Newagain the basin separates the upper from the lower central Rhine. An important traffic facility on the central Rhine is the linksrheinische railroad line. On the Namedyer Werth is the Geysir other oh one, once with 45-50 m height the largestEuropean Kaltwassergeysir. A reactivation and a routistic use of the Geysirs are intended for 2006.
the most important cities on the left bank are being gene, Bacharach, Oberwesel, sank Goar, Boppard and Koblenz at the upperas well as other oh one, bath mash victory, Sinzig, Remagen and Bonn on the lower central Rhine. Because of the right river bank Rüdesheim , are Kaub, sank to Goarshausen, brewing brook and Lahn stone at the upper as well as Vallendar, Bendorf, Neuwied, bath Hönningen, Linz on the Rhine, Bath Honnef and king winter on the lower central Rhine.
castles, fortresses and locks
- castle Klopp
- castle Rhine stone
- castle realm stone
- castle Sooneck
- home castle in Niederheimbach
- ruin prince mountain (Rhine thief oh)
- castle steel mountain
- castle steel-hit a corner
- beautiful castle (Rhine)
- castle Rhine rock
- old person castle (Boppard)
- lock proud rock
- away large prince Konstantin
- old person castle (Koblenz)
- Kurfürstliches lock in Koblenz
- lock Namedy
- castle Rhine-hit a corner
- castle honour rock (Hessen)
- ruin Nollig
- castle good rock
- castle Katz
- castle realm mountain (Rhineland-Palatinate)
- castle mouse
- castle love stone
- castle Sterrenberg
- Mark castle
- castle Lahn-hit a corner
- away aster stone
- fortress honour broad stone
- lock Sayn
- castle Sayn
- lock Engers
- lock Neuwied
- castle Altwied
World inheritance “upper central Rhine Valley”
criteria of a culture landscape
a condition is a closed landscape area, the onecertain singularness exhibits and of humans a special arrangement experienced. In the upper central Rhine Valley this is given in the Rhine break-through by the Rheini slate mountains. The valley with steep rock slopes forced special forms of the economic use, which arranged the valley in the course of the centuries. Particularly it was coined/shapedby the again developed cultivation of wine on terraces, slate production and the Niederwaldwirtschaft. Agriculture was possible only on the high surfaces. Singular is also the multiplicity of the castles, which developed along only 65 current kilometers. The upper central Rhine Valley is the classical traffic landscape (since the Roman time), tourism landscape andby the Rhine romance coined/shaped.
building of castles
the castles in the central Rhine Valley are except for few exceptions in 12. into the first half 14. Developed for century. They were usually built on the averaging races, which developed with the formation of the valley. In 10. and11. Century was the building of castles a privilege of the realm (king, high aristocracy). Buildings before this time were usually in wood and earthwork way implemented. Starting from that 12. Century used an attenuation of the Königtums. The power of the princes and Reichsministerialen (an official) grew (starting from 1273 Wahlkönigtum, 1356 finalTraining of territorial states). This was also the time of the building of most castles. However four of seven cure princes possessed areas in the central Rhine Valley. The political map showed a patch carpet, since these areas were not coherent. First the castles developed to the area safety device. Starting from late 12. Centurydiscovered the princes the tariff as source of income, so that also castles were built now for Zollsicherung. Castles in the Stadtbering were built under normal conditions as forcing castle against the Städter striving for liberty. End 14. Century arose also here in the region Feuerwaffen. At the latest offthat 15. Century were necessary structural reactions, which could afford only wealthy owners of castle. By the Feuerwaffen many castles already lost their strategic meaning in the high Middle Ages. Usually now slow purge uses or it is given up. Already in the dreissigjährigen war it notified numerous destructionpulling through troops. Then the troops Ludwig of the XIV procure the final destruction of nearly all castles. in the Pfälzi succession war 1689 (excluded with the elevator castles only fortress honour broad stone, Mark castle and Rhine rock). With the arising of the Rhine romance many castles became after 1815 to end 19. Century againconstructed.
major items: Weinbaugebiet central Rhine
Brought the viticulture the Romans. However it developed onlyin the Middle Ages of the Mosel out to the south. This development ran in four phases of the 11. to end 14. Century.
For the development the new technology of the terrace viticulture was substantial. Surfaces from 25° to 30° and more were cultivated. The cultivation was favouredby the climate. The Rhine as well as the slates - and Grauwackeverwitterungsböden function as heat accumulators, which prevent large variations in temperature. In addition the good cool air discharge at the steep slopes comes. This benefits above all the Riesling maturing late, that here about. 75% the cultivated areas determine.The terrace viticulture was substantially more kleinteiliger than it the today's situation shows, those only after a consolidation of farmland into the 1960er years developed (see to picture verbuschte vineyard terraces - on the left of and above wide slopes verbuschte small terraces, recognizably from the many bright, transverse lines). With the oldAt that time unfortunately also a biotope for small organisms was lost to Trockenmauern. Partial still terraces are in old form in management in the central Rhine Valley (also recognizably from the old connection of the impulses - per stick a stake).
Wine was in the Middle Ages the only germ-free people beverage, there beerusually badly and more expensively, coffee and dte were still unknown. It was favoured one of the most important merchandise in the Middle Ages, by the Rhine as most important water way and existing Roman roads. Therefore it was interesting for basic gentlemen (increase in value). The improvement of the legal, social and economic situation through alwaysmore necessary specialists, led to new leases and to the upswing. In the late Middle Ages the main part of the population depended on the viticulture. After dissolution of many basic rule the Aufsplitterung took place into many small plots.
Up to the end 16. Century. if this industry had boom, then it cameby the dreissigjährigen war to recession and purge. Also improves beer prices, as well as dte and coffee diminished proceeds. Starting from 1815 there was a large linksrheinischen upswing by the affiliation to Prussia again (quasi monopoly). Starting from 1839 strong competition resulted from the German customs union. Thisthe beginning of the transformation from the main was to the supplementary income winegrower. Partly there was additional profit by the Rhine romance (property bar) and the arising sparkling wine industry. Starting from 1870 a new crisis took place because of the railway (improved transport), the industrialization, cheaper and better competition from the foreign country and arisingof Rebschädlingen of America over France (flour rope, Reblaus, wrong flour rope and hay - and Sauerwurm). A deeper cause of the fall were the changed socio-economic conditions. To in 19. Century hardly gave it another acquisition possibility. Then large took place because of the small profitDrifts into the arising industry. The left side was only after the Second World War more concerned (up to then there was here hardly industry, as well as more tourism). Despite the consolidation of farmland accomplished into the 1960er years with 92% of the surfaces a further decrease took place because of thatprofit situation lacking.
58% of the vineyard surfaces existing around 1900 disappeared today completely. Further 16% exhibit a fallow portion of 40 80%. Straight once approximately 480 hectars remained remaining - tendency sinking. The viticulture-fallow shrubs and are finally fetched back by the forest. This is here a large problem. If one wants to receive the character of the landscape, large efforts are necessary to keep free in order to find for the terraces new uses, or them at least.
Detailed elaboration S. the UNESCO documentation national office for care of monuments (2002) or as pdf to load the info.to the “steep situation viticulture” and about “fire wine” under www.mittelrheintal.de or to request in the central Rhine visitor center post office yard 55422 Bacharach.
original far parts of the valley were wooded. In the river valley Auwälder from silver pastures, at the slopes oaks and Hainbuchen grew - on better soils also beeches. Thosefirst economic use took place via the Romans, who made also Rodungen for field and pasturelands. With the karolingischen national development (high point in 13. Century) came it to an increase of the settlement and population density. In this period the vineyard plants and on the terraces were opened began thoseUse of the area as field and pasturelands. End 14. Century gave it approx. 50% forest less. Now one recognized the economic meaning and the Waldnutzung became survive necessary for the region.
Forest use forms from the Middle Ages to in 19. Century
- main use was the wood withdrawal as building andFuel as well as for the production of devices.
- The forest pasture supplied by grasses and herbs in the timber forest food for the cattle. With one drove acorns and beech nuts in the autumn to mast from pigs used. Green leaves were fed likewise and used as stable faithful. A popular method was that„Schneiteln “of trees. The trees were set „on the stick “as one it up to the root stick cut. That was possible only with oaks, since she newdrove the ability out for taper ratio through has, which brought rich leaves new generation. In this way „a Niederwald developed “.
- With thatForest field change economy used one the surfaces as field. After a Brandrodung 1-3 years an intermediate use followed as cultivated area (z. B. Rye), which followed a fallow of 10-20 years. During the fallow the surfaces were partly used also than pasture.
- An important source of income was the productionof calibration close hereditary crust (Lohe). The trees were cut approximately in man height and the crust with the Lohlöffel was peeled. Also one could between-use these surfaces as field.
- Further use forms were the Köhlerei (charcoal to the ore smelting), Aschebrennerei (potash for the glass industry), the Seifensiederei (than bleaches) as well as thoseProduction of Weidenruten.
Today the valley of through-grown Niederwäldern is controlled. With many oaks is recognizable from knubbeligen excrescences over the root stick. The last „drift “took place after the Second World War via the Frenchmen as reparation. Since the trees became meanwhile too large, threatenshere danger, because the meager slopes cannot carry the load any longer.
- Rhine in flames of large fireworks in May, July, August and September
- Mittelrhein Marathon Marathon from Oberwesel to the German hit a corner
- literature recommendations (world inheritance, region etc.): www.mittelrheintal.de
- Martin Stankowski, Left + right, the other Rhine travel guide, of Cologne cathedral up to the Loreley, Cologne, Kiepenheuer and Witsch 2005, ISBN 3-462-03573-8
- row central Rhine, 11 publications (so far to pre and early history, pins and monasteries, industry and technology, museum landscape and traces of history)
- the Rhine Valley ofBeing gene and Rüdesheim to Koblenz, publishing house Philipp of Zabern
- earthling Gormsen, the central Rhine Valley - a culture landscape in the change, 2003, flax path publishing house
- UNESCO Welterbe upper central Rhine Valley. Topographic leisure map 1: 25000.Jointly hrsg. of the national office for measurement and geo basic information Rhineland-Palatinate and the hessian national office for soil managementand geo information. 2. Edition. Koblenz: National office for measurement and geo basic information Rhineland-Palatinate 2005. (Set from three maps: Koblenz - Loreley - Rüdesheim/being gene.) ISBN 3-89637-363-3, ISBN 3-89637-364-1, ISBN 3-89637-365-X
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Central Rhine - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- http://www.welterbe-mittelrheintal.de/ official homepage of theCountry
- http://www.mittelrheintal.de/ information to the region, to the UNESCO Welterbe, to meetings, current
- http://www.rheinreise.de article to all places on the Rhine between Mainz and Cologne
- http://www.mittelrhein-luftbild.de/ the upper central Rhine Valley from air photographs
- http://www.mittelrhein.regionalgeschichte.net/ comprehensive portal to history on the central Rhine
- http://www.rheinischer-verein.de/ information and thought of the Rheini association for care of monumentsand landscape protection registered association, which activated and promoted the world inheritance process at the central Rhine with, to the UNESCO Welterbe upper central Rhine Valley
- further one left to the topic „central Rhine “ in the open directory Project
cathedral to Speyer | Roman architectural monuments, cathedral and dear woman Mrs. Trier | Völklinger hut | Culture landscape central Rhine | Obergermanisch Raeti Limes
Bergstrasse | Mountain angle | Castle forest | Ederbergland | Habichtswald | Hessian Ried | High Meissner | Hüttenberger country | Kaufunger forest | Cellar forest | Knüll | Lahn gau | Lahn Dill mountain country | Main gau | Central Hessen | Central Rhine | Desert forest | Pure hard forest | Rhine Main area | Rhine Neckar triangle | Rhine gau | Rhön | Sour country | Schlierbachswald | Seulingswald | Spessart | Stölzinger mountains | Taunus | Upland | Bird mountain | Forest-hit a corner | Weser mountain country | Weser valley | Westerwald | Wetterau |