the designation middle class common in the German linguistic area (in former times more than 2005 ) covers the free occupations and small and middle entrepreneurs (KMU) or Small and medium sized Enterprises (SME). See historical also middle class.
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conventional a strong middle class a Stabilierung of a state and a society one attributes. That is sociologically unfundiert, there it the large-scale enterprises andto the “political class “efficiently to resist and the social layers present under it a realistic ascending chance can offer and thus their disfavor against “those up there” entradikalisieren can.
this put economicalally a further partitioning into small and middle enterprisesclose. Some authors oppose the Kleinstunternehmen to the small enterprises , e.g. the owners of kiosk or family AGs under the small firms. The designation middle class therefore covers the subsets of the small and of the Kleinstunternehmen as well as a quantity of enterprises, which can be determined more near, which do not belong to these subsets. Out more quantitativelyView refers the middle class term to enterprises from trade, handicraft, industry, production and services as well as free occupations, which do not exceed a certain size. Auxiliary way for the size regulation the criteria annual turnover, number of the jobs, balance sheet total and participation height are consulted with connected enterprises and this quite contradictory.
There the industries economical peculiarities regarding Kapitaleinsatz, number of the jobs and conversion exhibit, are to be asked whether qualitative criteria the middle class term help to define. Unit of property, line, adhesion and risk, thus unit of economic existence and guidance as well as the responsible person co-operationthe management at all enterprise-politically relevant decisions (company independence) here of Institut for middle class research (IfM) are not only called. Expression for it is the minority clause for participation in the context of the European Union - definition. In the international comparison the Small becomes by the way Business or the medium sized enterprise on the basisan upper limit defines, which varies depending upon state between 100 and 500 persons employed.
KMU definition of the European Union
the European commission has to 6. May 2003 a new recommendation assumed for the definition of the Kleinstunternehmen as well as the small and middle enterprises. This recommendation comessince that 1. January 2005 in the European marketing area for application and addresses itself to the member states, the European Investitionsbank and the European investment funds.
- Middle enterprises
- coworkers to 249 and conversion to 50 millions Euro or balance sheet total to 43 millions Euro.
- Small enterprises
- to 49 persons employed,Conversion to 10 millions Euro or balance sheet total to 10 millions Euro
- to 9 coworkers, conversion or balance sheet total to 2 millions Euro (both financial threshold values were not here so far defined)
solidarity criterion:To all KMU it applies besides that it not to 25% or more of the capitalor the being correct portions in the possession of to one or more enterprises together are located, which do not fulfill the definition of the KMU.
|type||person employed|| conversion|
| balance sheet total|
|middle one enterprise||< 250||and||≤ 50||or||≤ 43|
|Small enterprises||< 50||and||≤ 10||or||≤ 10|
|Kleinstunternehmen||< 10||and||≤ 2||or||≤ 2|
meaning of the middle class
the middle class in the Federal Republic of Germany covers about. 99.7% of all value added tax-requiring enterprises, in those scarcely 76.3% allperson employed liable to social security 41.2% of all conversions to be gained and 68.5% of all training trained. These numbers alone however point already on a large economic entwinement with the large enterprises and on a dependence of the middle class on the large-scale enterprises.
financing of theMiddle class
honour of the middle class
since March 1995 is distinguished the German middle class with the “large price of the middle class”. That“Large price of the middle class” is one of the Erfurter artist Karsten I. W. Kunert arranged bronze - sculpture, which is lent each year to successful enterprises by the Oskar Patzelt donation.
see middle class company
- European commission: Recommendation 2003/361/EG: KMU definition, [13.12.2005] ↑
- Institut for middle class research (ifm) of the University of Mannheim: Meaning of the middle class in Germany, [13.12.2005] ↑
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