Mobile telephone

Smartphone aus dem Jahr 2004: das Siemens SX1 mit integriertem Radio und MP3-Player
Smartphone from the year 2004: Siemens the SX1 with integrated radio and MP3 - Player

a mobile telephone, a radio telephone, a GSM telephone, a radio operator or a mobile phone mentioned, (Swiss-German Natel, way of writing also as “Händi”) is a small, portable radio - telephone.Up to the beginning of the 1990er years in-car telephone was likewise called mobile telephone.

The largest portable radio manufacturers world-wide are Audiovox, BenQ (formerly Siemens mobile), Kyocera, LG, Motorola, Nokia, Panasonic, Samsung, Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, sports club Teletech and Sony Ericsson. Alcatel will step out of the division of mobile telephones. Siemens already sold the range, whereby the mark Siemens may be still used.

Satellite telephones are based on another technical basis, become however likewise toothe mobile telephones counted.

The average life span of a mobile telephone amounts to in Germany between 18-24 months. In Europe become annually approx. 100 million old devices disposes, which corresponds to a quantity of 20.000 tons. If one wanted to transport all radio telephones at the same time, one became 500 trucks need.

Since that 24. March 2006 mobile telephones can be disposed because of electrical and electronics equipment law by the consumer free of charge in Germany.

Table of contents

history

the development of the portable radio actually began 1926 with a telephone service in courses of the German National Railroad and realm post office on thatDistance between Hamburg and Berlin. This telephone service became only the passengers the 1. Class offered, but 1918, approximately five years after the invention of the Meissneri tube transmitter, by the German National Railroad attempts with radio telephones were already accomplished in the area Berlin.

There were the first in-car telephones, which were Germany far usable, since 1958. The devices were quite large because of the vacuum tubes used for the radio engineering. Discussions were handobtained, the equipment prices lay with approx. 50% of the car price. Starting from 1974there was the B-net , which was already obtained without Ms by the office in Austria. Later there only 1,000 users were 7 years. Starting from 1985 there was the smallcellular similar C-net in Germany and Austria. It made a smaller possibleTransmitting power of the telephones and thus a reduction of the devices. The so-called „portable “, small Kistchen with carrying handle and an attached telephone receiver as well as a longer antenna, were born.

1983 presented Motorola that world-wide first commercial mobile telephone „to Dynatac 8000x “.

Handys: Icom IC2E, FM 1981 (links), Siemens S45 mit GSM 2115 (Mitte)
Mobile phone:Icom IC2E, FM 1981 (left), Siemens S45 with GSM of 2115 (center)

digital portable radio nets surface covering by the introduction (D-net starting from approximately 1990 in Germany as in Austria) knew the necessary battery performance of the mobile telephones and concomitantly their housing size again decreasedbecome.1992 were introduced the first GSM - capable mobile equipment by Motorola, the international 3200. For usual name for the again introduced GSM Mobiltelefone the word was patriated „mobile phone “in in German. The term became probably from the linguistic usage English andGerman radio amateurs of the 1980er years and originates possibly even from US military jargon takes (see below).

In North Korea the use of mobile telephones became to 25. May 2004 forbade. The mobile telephones were again removed the citizens, as the press agency Yonhap announced.Approximately 20,000 north Koreans had used the portable radio service since its introduction in November 2002.

The development goes increasingly toward combined multi-function equipment with functions as telephone, clock, camera, MP3-Player, navigation equipment, computer and play console. For these devices hasitself in the meantime the designation Smartphone or also PDA Phone interspersed.

See also: In-car telephone

structure and technology

like the wire-bound telephone consists the mobile telephone of a loudspeaker, a microphone, an operating sector (Keyboard and announcement) and a control (usually a Microcontroller). The displays are nowadays already small computer screens. Additionally it has one transmit-hurries (transceivers and antenna) and its own current supply (usually an accumulator). Is general to the enterprisea SIM map necessarily, which is used for identification opposite the portable radio net. Like all devices with integrated computer also a portable radio telephone is not free from software faults. So far some few Handyviren are well-known for Symbian based devices, which number will however rise.Alleged viruses, which are able to paralyze mobile telephones are usually based on software faults. Driven exist v.a. in the form of harming programs, which spend themselves in reports of service under wrong names or through Bluejacking so mentioned, which error in the Bluetooth- Implementation uses. It is advisable to switch Bluetooth on only if necessary or make themselves invisible at least for others. Unexpected Bluetooth messages should be simply rejected.

Nearly all newer mobile telephones contain an interpreter for the programming language Java in a minimum expenditure (mobile informationDEVICE of profiles, MIDP), which contains however the substantial functions of Java. An increasing scene of programmers supplies the users with Freeware, crowd commodity and liable to pay the costs plays. Mobile telephones in Europe function nowadays after the GSM - to standard. They use frequenciesaround 900 MHz (D-net) and/or 1800 MHz (E-net). Newer tri volume - mobile phones can operate additionally still on 1900 MHz, these frequencies become however almost exclusively in the USA used. While the basis stations for mobile telephones transmitting powers around 50 Watts have, come mobile telephones with transmitting powers of max. 2 W (D-net) and/or 1 W (E-net) out. For the transmission as type of modulation GMSK (Gaussian minimum SHIFT Keying, a further developed, optimized version of the FSK) one uses.

Thosenext generation of the portable radio devices is in the introduction on the market. There are two competitive standards, universal mobile Telecommunications system UMTS as an advancement of the GSM - standards and CDMA2000 as advancement particularly in the USA far spread CDMA - standards. Both workwith frequencies around 1800 to 1900 MHz, many small radio cells use and are optimized for higher channel transfer rate and higher user number. Because of the smaller radio cells and under further developed modulation procedures the transmitting power of the mobile telephones could opposite GSM reduced to 0,125-0,25 Wbecome.

solarclaimant mobile telephones

after introduction the solarclaimant mobile telephone loading stations already in the year 2001 a solar Mobil telephone was presented to CR Telecom by the South Korean company „“. The load times corresponded to shop of the devices in approximately the discussion times, an effective were howeveronly in incident sunshine possible.

In the same year „the institute for Fraunhofer for solar energy systems presented “ to the prototypes “Siemens of a C25” - mobile telephone with solarclaimant Akku. These new modules were economical, in addition, these supplied too little energy for acceptable discussion times.

equipment

short report

a short report received

actually each mobile telephone can dispatch today also short reports. First short message in December 1992 by a PC to a mobile telephone in the British Vodafone net was sent. Falsely has itselffor the short reports the name SMS in-patriated, although the contraction SMS only the carrier service designation (message service short). The correct name for the short report would be SM.

Originally as pure “waste product” free of charge offered, developed itself the SMS for the Hauptertragsbringer forthe network carriers. In the year 2003 to Europe over 16 billion short reports per month were dispatched. During a thorough view the success of this service does not surprise, because it is to be used in the combination with a mobile phone very many use-more suited thanits in the meantime nearly predecessor already forgotten, the digital radio reporting receivers (and. A. PAGER).

For the minority of the gehörlosen ones and that high-grade Schwerhörigen in the population the “SMS” offers - to function the only possibility at all of using a mobile telephone apart from the face-to-face phone and from Write telephone.

Advancements of the SMS exist under the name Enhanced Message service (EMS) and Multimedia Messaging service (MMS). The MMS offers the possibility, with a mobile telephone multimedia message (video, pictures, clay/tone and text) of up to meanwhile 500 KBto dispatch other mobile terminals. MMS is not compatible to SMS or EMS, Endgeräte must MMS explicitly support.

camera

Fotohandy S65 mit integrierter 1,3-Megapixel-Kamera auf der Rückseite (erschienen 2004)
Fotohandy S65 with integrated 1,3-Megapixel-Kamera on the back (2004 appeared)

since 2002 become ever more mobile telephones with more integrated Camera equipped. With this Fotohandys the image pick-up equipments are usually on the back of the mobile telephone.

The photographic quality of the first Kamerahandys left to be desired at first still much. Since center 2004 however some models can already with simple digital cameras keep up. In Germany the Sharp GX 30 was the first Fotohandy with a 1-Megapixel-Kamera. Siemens the S65 was for the first time equipped with a 1,3-Megapixel-Kamera. The integrated camera could take up pictures with up to 1280 × 960 pixels. Above allsufficiently good pictures can be made for brighter environment. With darkness the pictures show however a strong color noise, since integrated lightning is missing (only as stick onable accessories available).

Since newest can also videos are taken up, usually limits on up to 30or 60 seconds. The quality from Fotohandy videos is, compared to Camcorderfilmen, i.d.R. strongly below average. Also videos with very bad quality of up to 176 × 144 pixels can be taken up at present (conditions 2005).

Sharp TM200 mit 2-Megapixel-Kamera und MP3-Player
Sharp TM200 with 2-Megapixel-Kamera and MP3-Player

The photographed pictures are stored in the mobile telephone and can be dispatched as multi-median oh arranging (MMS ). Fees result, which are at present with approximately 30 to 100 euro cent per MMS. Depending upon type of telephone these pictures can also as E-Mail, over infrared or by Bluetooth dispatches - or however over a USB - and/or. Manufacturer-specific cable to be transferred. Many telephones are not limited to simple pictures.

Das erste 7-Megapixel-Handy der Welt: Samsung SCH-V770
The first 7-Megapixel-Handy of the world: Samsung SCH-V770

on the CeBIT 2005with Samsung the SCH-V770 the first 7-Megapixel-Handy of the world was presented. It acts with the equipment rather around a digital camera with mobile telephone, because the SCH-V770 has wide angle and Televorsatzlinsen, an inserted optical three-fold zoom shot, besides know sharpness, focal length (7.8 mmuntil 23.4 mm) and the Verschlusszeit (from 15 s to 1/2.000 s) to be adjusted. The front looks like a mobile phone, while the back accommodates most digital camera functions.

In Asia mobile telephones with integrated camera are for a long time common. In the year2004 was already 87% of all sold mobile phones equipped with a camera (source:[1]). Handykameras make it also possible to read on products imprinted ailerons codes those in Japan as mobile Internet on the left of e.g. for the participation in profit plays likes are.

Increasingly however larger companies forbid to their coworkers bringing mobile telephones with camera function on the work area. Before the background of the ever better dissolution of the Handykameras this represents a safety risk in particular within the range of the industrial espionage.

music and Videoplayer

Sony Ericsson K750i with 2-Megapixel camera, MP3 and video Player
since beginning of 2004 are available mobile telephones also with integrated MP3-Player and radio in the trade. And. A. possesses Motorola E398, the Sharp V902, Sony Ericsson K700i or that Siemens SX1 this function. With such Smartphones music files can be loaded as with a MP3-Player into the equipment memory. Mobile telephones of the newest generation, those beside a megapixel camera also Multimediafunktionen such as music rendition and video admission and - offer rendition - like e.g. the SharpTM 200, Sony Ericsson K750i and Nokia 6230i - offer, the possibility of extending their respective storage capacity by means of a memory card substantially - depending upon model up to several GB, like e.g. Nokia 6270.

data communication

with many mobile telephones are possible it, data by serial or USB cable to transfer via infrared or Bluetooth to a computer and back. It is possible to synchronize the own directory in the Internet (via WAP or To transfer mobile HTML) to surfen or pictures and bell tones on the mobile telephone. A transmission of Java programs (v. A. Plays) by practically all manufacturers is permitted, whereby each Java program with each mobile telephone model is not compatible.

routine orders/Handy codes

With fixed sequences of numbers and indication (usually with each manufacturer differently) certain functions switched on or off or indicated can and/or. are queried, from which most are accessible over the normal menu also. Here some examples on the basis Nokia a 6310i:

*#0000# = firmware design and date are indicated; with other manufacturers possibly: *#9999#
*#06# = announcements of the serial number (IMEI) of the equipment
#31#Nummer = the own call number uniquely at the calling transferred
*#21# = status to call up whether a Rufumleitung(also over the menu) ** 04*alt*neu*neu#
= pin is furnished changes (also over the menu)

device-independent is the GSM codes.

Further routine orders for the most different models are on Web on the left of

Push ton talc

for the portable radio service the Push ton talc („reprintsto speak “), which makes it possible to dispatch short language messages at individual users or groups special mobile phones are needed, which support this function. There is the service in the USA since 1998 in the portable radio net Nextel. In Germany the service functionsat present only with T-mobile. For this function, since in the middle of 2004 in some mobile telephones like for example in Nokia the 6270, Siemens CX 70 or Nokia 6230i and. A. , liable to pay the costs the GPRS net was inserted to the data communication is used (daily use fee1 €). The function is comparable with that by milling IE valley gravel: After pressing a press-to-talk bar a language message of limited length (i. becomes. D. R. transfer up to 30 seconds). It is possible, the message on up to 10 personsat the same time to send.

Java

in the meantime have all again on the market of mobile telephones brought Java - support (on CLDC - and/or. MIDP - Basis), which may surely be considered as one of the most popular uses of Embedded Java. The offer onReaches so-called Midlets to programs, from simple implements such as bag and currency computers up to aufwändigen plays (in the newest generation also with 3D-Grafik).

Branding

many network carriers offer service Provider over their Independent - also „fire “, thusSubsidiary company mentioned - only such mobile telephones on, which are equipped with a software adapted particularly by them (so-called. „Branding “or „Customization “). Many changes are made particularly for the network carrier or for the service offerer of the customer, before this acquires the mobile telephone.Thus functions of the telephone are extended, removed or changed. Thus customers become z. B. by additional menu entries in the Browser („favorites “) automatically to the portal sides of the service offerers or „the fire “led, FAQ sides deposited, SIM LOCK furnished, call number entries for Hotlines leave, the network carrier nameas well as the background in the display changed, etc.

designations

emergence of the designation mobile phone

according to a theory is the designation mobile phone on the product names „Handie Talkie “of the company Motorola for a militarily used walkie-talkie from the 1940er-Jahrento lead back. The backpack radiotelephone at that time was called by the wayWalkie Talkie “, which itself later than generic term for walkie-talkies the CB-radio - class established. General admittingness reached the term mobile phone probably only by the poster campaign of an equipment manufacturer in the middle of the 90's.

Of some- and. A. of the association German language - the eingedeutschte way of writing Händi is recommended. It could not itself intersperse however so far yet. The majority of mobile phone is in accordance with the Duden mobile phone.

There in the English-language area the word „mobile phone “originallynot when name for a mobile telephone was used, but when adjective is translated “handily”, it is arranged in the German language as Scheinanglizismus. The traditional English-language terms for mobile telephone read in American cell (ular) phone, in British mobile phone ormore briefly only portable ones or mobile. In Slang - dictionaries however the noun “mobile phone” is already specified in the German meaning.

designations in other languages/countries

also in other languages have themselves partly very plastic names for thatMobile telephone in-patriated. Mostly the designation depends on an obvious characteristic of the equipment.

As its most important characteristic the portability is considered: Latin word trunk mobile is - as for instance in the German designation mobile telephone - also in English (mobile phone, mobile) again, in the same way in very many other languages. In the USA one hears the term “cellphone”, cell often means radio cell or battery. Besides the designations “portable” (portable in the French , Keitai in the Japanese have themselves) or “travel telephone” (matkapuhelin) developed in the Finnish one.

In some countries the designation of the mobile telephones depends on their repository: “Trouser pocket telephone” (cep telefonu) in the Turkish, “bag telephone” (fòn phoca and/or. fón póca) in the Scottish and/or. in Irish Gäli.

In again different languages the designation aims at the fact off that mobile telephones are held for telephoning in the hand: “Hand telephone” (fòn làimhe) in Irish Gäli, hand phone in many asiatic countries, sow kei and/or. shǒu jī手机 (in each case “Handmaschine”) in Hong Kong and/or. China.

Often the designation takes up also the “cellular” character of the mobile telephoning; a frequent designation is therefore “net” - or “cell telephone” - so for example the English cell phone (above all American English), khelyawi in Lebanon, komórka in Poland or Ponsel (tele pon sel ular) in Indonesia. In the Italian cellulare - those the American linguistic usage reflects - is also the Diminutivform telefonino, thus apart from the designation (telefono): “Telefönchen”common.

In other countries again the designation of the GSM is derived - standard: Bulgaren bezeichnen Mobiltelefone neben Mobifon (мобифон) auch als dzhiesem (джиесем), Isländer als Gemsi (was auf Isländisch außerdem so viel bedeutet wie junges Schaf).

Beyond that finditself also completely different designations: In Iran mobile telephones are called “friendship telephone” ( telephone hamráh or hamráh - تلفنهمراه), in Israel as “miracle telephone” (pelefon). Here it is to be noticed that pelefon also a net offerer is.

On Swedish mobile telephone is called mobile telephone or briefly mobilely. Colloquially beside it nalle is to be heard, what means “Teddybär”. This originally came from the expression Yuppie nalle, since into the late 80's only rich Yuppies mobile telephones could afford; they carried it then proudly“like a Teddybär” around.

In Switzerland the expression Natel (as abbreviation for N of ationales A uto tel efon) was in-patriated. The expression is stressed however mark protected of the Telefongesellschaft Swisscom as alone for its services.

In manyArab countries like the united Arab emirates, Saudi Arabia or Palestine it becomes Jawwal - جوال designates, what “that, which means by the area walked”.

mobile telephone industry

manufacturer sold portable radio telephones
in the 1. Quarter 2006,
altogether: 229 millions
Source:Strategy Analytics
Nokia 32.8%
Motorola 20.1%
Samsung 12.7%
LG Electronics 6.8%
Sony Ericsson 5.8%
other 21.8%

is the mobile telephone industry an increasing industry at present: however in the year 2003 the number of the sold mobile phones transferred23.3% on 533 million. In the years before never more than 500 million mobile telephones in one year were sold. Thus the manufacturers of the devices profited from the strong demand particularly in the developing countries of Asia and Eastern Europe. In addition replacedin the year 2003 many users their old mobile phones by modern devices. In the year 2005 817 millions became Devices sells. After a prognosis of Strategy Analytics become 2006 for the first time 1 billion Mobile phones sells.

The industrialized countries are considered however meanwhile as satisfied markets,even if one tries, to win for high-quality mobile phones (digital cameras, MP3-Player and color display integrated) by new sales ideas new consumers. The network carriers - in Germany e.g. the German Telekom, Vodafone, E-Plus and O2 - subsidized devices sell,in order to win market shares. In the years 2003/04 there was above all a large demand for favorable Einsteigerhandys. In developing countries like the People's Republic China, Indonesia, India, Russia and Brazil have the sales 2004 expectations of the manufacturersfar exceeded. In these countries extremely inexpensive models are particularly in demand. Here some manufacturers undercut themselves mutually with „abgespeckten “Handymodellen. Cheapest entering suppl. advice offer the enterprises to Konka for 48€ in China and Motorola for 40€ in India and Indonesia.

Siemens auf der CeBIT
Siemenson the CeBIT

world market leader with mobile telephones the Finnish enterprise is Nokia with a world market portion of 33% in the year 2004. However the net profit in the conclusion quarter fell 2004 by 13 per cent smaller out than one year before with Nokia. With Samsung, world-widethe number three, sank however the profit margin of 13% in third on 3% in the fourth quarter. Above all the asiatic manufacturers such as LG Electronics, Bird, Haier, Konka, Spice Telecom and TCL could increase their market shares. Between thatTo manufacturers and network carriers prevails an increasingly strong competition, which led to the fact that Siemens its portable radio section sold deficit acres in October 2005 to the taiwanesische BenQ.

The strong turnover growth of the years 2002 and 2003 abates with mobile telephones at present. 2004 have itselfgrowth on 32% nearly halves. For 2005 a world-wide growth is only expected of 8%. It seems already, as if the mobile telephone manufacturers would have to likewise furnish themselves 2006 on one-digit growth rates. The large-scale sale will continue to rise, but thoseProfit margins remain under pressure. Even in some metropolises of new market regions such as Peking and Jakarta 2005 seem to become an easy saturation apparent.

At the beginning of 2005 the so-called Smartphones registered particularly strong growth, thus mobile telephones with PDA - functionality. ThatParagraph of these devices climbed already 2004 by 181 per cent on 9.6 million.

theft

SIM-Karte mit Foto-Aufdruck
SIM map with photo print

of mobile telephones are popular thief objects, whereby only not turned on, announced mobile phones are there interesting (the thief with them without own costs telephonesknows), but also switched off telephones secured over the pin on the SIM map. The SIM map can be removed at any time problem-free. If it concerns a special network carrier certified equipment not on, a new SIM map must be only inserted, around thatComing on the grey market as adequate to offer to be able (for example over Internet). In order to prevent this, the protection of the equipment is recommended by a check code or also a Sicherheitscode in such a way specified. In accordance with its respective attitude the equipment becomesthen after a certain Inaktivitätszeit or after switching off deactivated and is to be activated only with the help of the code again. Therefore this code closes the mobile telephone, whereby the pin code closes the SIM map. With theft of a mobile station two different kinds is thus recommended:

  1. Requesting the blockage of the number (dependent on the SIM map: Indication of the own number and one possibly. agreed upon password)
  2. requesting the blockage of the entire equipment over the indication of the device dependent IMEI - number (often indicated on the sales contract or the original packaging. ThoseIMEI number can be indicated also by input of *#06#.). Despite the existing technical possibility however only few net offerers devices close on the basis the IMEI number.

Simlock

Simlock (also net code) is a procedure, with which mobile phones to a certainNet offerer and contract form to be bound. Example: Contract maps a mobile phone with SIM LOCK using does not permit to a Prepaid map of the same offerer.

Meanwhile to changed only use however for it over the so-called NetLock. Thus it is possible each Sim mapto use from the same offerer to. With Simkarten, to which a subsidized (favorable width unit) is attached mobile phone, the offerer secures that the customer does not use it, over with it with the competition „to thus foreigntelephone “. Only so it can guarantee to adjust the hardware costs by discussion incomes.If a strange Simkarte is inserted, then that can not be used mobile phone.

The connection exists not to a certain SIM map, but to the net offerer. Who e.g. its mobile phone of E-pluses has, can usually also problem-free to the daughter marks simyo, COUSIN etc. change, by exchanging simply the Simkarte. Simlock persists usually two years. Afterwards the customer can receive a de-energising code free of charge. If he would like these before expiration of the term, then he can do him often only against payment of100 € or more receive.

Frequently is to be heard also from illegal methods to, around the SIM LOCK “crack”.

Handytarife

Handytarife are fees per telephoned discussion time. The individual offerers (“Provider”) differ frequently in their monthly fees- often the Handytarife for Gepräche is cheaper in idle period than in the production time. There are offers with included discussion minutes as well as different fees for discussions to different nets. Also one differentiates between clocking: there is customer-friendly 1-second pulse, 10-1-second pulse orthe 60/1-Takt, with which the portable radio customer already pays the full call unit for a begun minute. Discussion tariffs for UMTS mobile phones are usually more favorable because of her higher available range (more participant per portable radio cell possible) than for GSM mobile phones. Some UMTS offerers offer alreadymonthly contracts with unlimited, free discussion time between UMTS mobile phones on.

One differentiates thereby between contracts with monthly account (Postpaid) and such with pre-payment (Prepaid).

In Germany there are the following net offerers:

beside itthere are still Serviceprovider, which use the nets of the net offerers. Due to the call number taking along the used network carriers no more is not often to be recognized by the preselection. A former German net offerer on E2-Basis is Quam.

On pressure of Verbraucherschützernand the large offerers offer such as T-mobile, Vodafone or mobilcom new tariffs (Postpaid) to damaged portable radio users, the one Kostenbegrenzung contained. In addition call goals can be blocked, z. B. Blockage for increase in value numbers such as 0190, 0900, 0137, 0138-Nummern and 118er-Auskunftsdienste in Germany. Further one Protection possibilities offer among other things the blockage of foreign telephone calls, Premium SMS, MMS services, GPRS services, WAP gateway, m-pay and Voucher loadings.

Austria belongs to the countries with the lowest Handytarifen. The market in Austria is much contests and momentarily by the following companies is served:

the tariff variety is enormous and reaches from value maps over the normal basic charges up to Inklusivpaketen. In Austria the telephone number may to another offerer to be carried forward. Some offerers charge for it however fees.

Until at the beginning of this yearly only contracts could be locked with one connection period by one year and in some cases with 18 months. Meanwhile there are already contracts, thoseas are limited on 24 months in Germany.

In Swiss portable radio market gives it 5 network carriers:

dangers and health

of mobile telephones stand in the suspicion to be health-endangering. Although up to the present time nonedirectly acute or at short notice arising damage was free of doubts proven, is the possible dangers a strongly discussed topic (see also electrical smog, electromagnetic radiation). An innocuity cannot be proven for reasons in principle.

Feared one, however so far scientifically not proven effectsis from portable radio radiation among other things cancer production or loads of the nervous system. Eine 2006 dagegen médicaux britanniques de zeigte de Studie de publizierte du journal im, dem de MIT de Telefonieren de das de dass à portée de la main - l'einer de nach d'Auch längeren Nutzungsdauer (ca. 10 years) - not the riskincreased to get sick with a brain tumor. To evaluation of the data of altogether 2,682 persons, of it 966 tumor patients, the researchers came to the conclusion that portable radio radiation separates as factor of risk at least for the Hirntumore of the Gliom type, regarded in the study, (resultthe study (pdf)).

Further one assumes, the radiation of the mobile telephones can make, if they are carried in the trouser pocket or at the belt, men unfruchtbar, since sperm cellses could become stuck by the radiation. The measurements are based however partly only upinaccurate, unscientific methods, partly in addition, on diverging investigations of several universities, to which one cannot accuse lack of scientific accuracy, which come however depending upon study Design to different results. There are scientifically serious referring to potentially negative effects of the portable radio radiation to the sperm cells.

Generally it is assumed that microwave radiation could cause the disturbance of other technical devices, so that the use of mobile telephones is partly still forbidden in sensitiven ranges such as hospitals or airplanes. These prohibitions are however recently increasingly loosened. Persons with cardiac pacemakers becomesadvised against the use mobile telephones.

With examining the effects of portable radio radiation the following frequencies are relevant: Apart from the basic frequency of 900 MHz and/or. 1800 MHz is added still the pulse frequency of approximately 9 kHz by the modulation technology TDMA, in addition stepSecondary and harmonic waves (frequency multiple) in transmitting antenna proximity up, whose biological effect is not yet sufficiently investigated.

Possible effects:

ionization

the used frequencies of 900 MHz and/or 1800/1900 MHz lies the still far ionization energy of typical molecules characteristic below (at least.800 THz = 800.000.000 MHz, thus for instance a millionfold), so that damages are to be excluded similarly those by UV-RADIATION or radioactivity ( sun fire, cancer) by this effect.

leads thermal

effects in the not-ionizing frequency range the absorption ofRadiation by the body fabric for an increase of the fabric temperature. The strength and the place of the heating up depend on the SAR value , which describes the penetration depth of the radiation into the fabric. The today's radiation limit values are on a maximum heating up of 0.02 Kelvinlaid out. A rise in temperature around 1 Kelvin (= rise around 1 °C) is regarded generally as harmless.

The last WHO study to this topic according to no justified connection between portable radio radiation and rising risk of a cancer illness exists. These studies become in distancesrepeated and examined, there is no final result (see English Wikipedia to the topic).

ether-mix effects

electrical sensitivity
it gives humans, who react probably sensitively to electromagnetic alternating fields. These symptoms (indisposition, headache, difficulty in breathing, nausea, heavy sleep disturbances and.A.) are at present not yet sufficiently investigated and because of contradictory study results not as illness recognition. Often the symptoms, which actually observe humans with assumed electrical sensitivity, resemble remarkable those from vocational or personal stress. It was allegedly observed thatHumans after installation of a portable radio basis station in the neighbourhood suddenly symptoms of electrical sensitivity deplored, although the station was not yet in enterprise.
Influence of brain stream
by the direct proximity of the mobile telephone to the brain exists the possibility that the high frequency alternating fields too Alternating currents in the brain lead. Since the nerve cells transport information by means of tensions and rivers, the radiation could affect the data processing. This effect becomes because of the strongly different ranges of the frequencies of the biological processes as well as the technically arising radiation frequency as very improbablejudged.
The last WHO study to this topic according to no justified connection between portable radio radiation and nervlichen loads exists. These studies are repeated constantly and examined, it give no final result (see English Wikipedia to the topic).

mobile phoneand driving a car

the Handy use without free speech mechanism is forbidden to drivers in many countries (z. B. in Germany, Austria and Switzerland). During neglect of the prohibition penalties are imposed, in Germany also an entry by one point in Flensburg. Also is it does not admit many that „a Head set is not recognized “in all countries as free speech mechanism. As „use of the mobile phone “into the German Rechtssprechnung also reading off the time one judges. But even with mentioned free speech mechanism a driver can, hownewest studies show, substantially from the traffic happening to be diverted. According to British studies the driving impairment must be equated effected via the Handytelefonieren with that, under influence of alcohol.

mobile telephone as „Ruhestörer “

in some environments, in particular with performances in cinemas, theatresor operas as well as only quite in places of worship the use of mobile telephones is usually felt as disturbing. Therefore some operators turn into from cinemas to prevent the use actively or passively. In countries like the USA is the employment of Jammers meanwhile usual practice, in order to ensure a troublefree performance. Other countries such as Germany forbid the use of the transmitter frequencies, which exclusively the network carriers are reserved. The operators set therefore there on the passive disturbance of radio telephones by a good screenthe halls, which disturb the receipt considerably (and in addition it leads that mobile telephones radiate the maximum transmitting power). Often monitoring strange portable radio discussions in public means of transport is felt of the indifferent ones riding along as disturbing and as indirect obligation to monitoring, particularly therebyusually louder one speaks than in the discussion with present persons.

to Handyrecycling

see the entry Handyrecycling

see also

Wiktionary: Mobile phone - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikibooks: Handy encyclopedia - learning and teaching materials

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