Mobutu Sese Seko

Mobutu Sese Seko 1973

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Zabanga (* 14. October 1930 in Lisala; † 7. September 1997 in Rabat) was from 1965 to 1997 a president of Zaire.

Its brand names were a Leopardenfellkäppi and its prodigality. Zaire was renamed after its death again into democratic Republic of the Congo.

Mobutu was born as Joseph Desiré Mobutu in Lisala in the Belgian Congo at that time. With 19 it joined the Force Publique, the Belgian-Congolese army. During its office hours it reaches the rank of a Sergeant major, which corresponds for instance to the German main sergeant.

After it had left the army 1956, it worked first as journalist and a newspaper editor. 1958 it followed the nationalistic party Mouvement national Congolais . After the Congo to 30. June 1960 independence had received, it in the first government as the undersecretary of state with the prime minister, thereafter as Colonel and a chief of staff of the Congolese army was briefly appointed. The new government was a purpose alliance and. A. between the prime minister Patrice Lumumba and the president Joseph Kasavubu, which struggled against each other for exclusive power. To 14. September 1960 was fallen Lumumba in a coup d'etat. At this venture Colonel Mobutu was active in exposed position and for it also by Kasavubu was plentifully promoted.

After further internal struggles for power of the government between Kasuvubu and its new Prime Minister Moise Tschombé, in which again Kasuvubu than winners came out, Mobutu, meanwhile, decided to take over general Lieutnant now power and led to 24. November 1965 a successful coup d'etat against Kasuvubu through. Afterwards it appointed itself for the next five years the president. Not will to repeat the errors of its predecessors Mobutu concentrated power in its hands. Thus it was also possible for it to strike down 1967 a coup d'etat directed against it. 1970 he could “be selected” again to the president.

In October 1970 it let the country in republic of Zaire rename, since it regarded the old name as of the Belgians oktroyiert. it called itself 1972 then also in Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga over. The rough translation for the name reads approximately „the all-powerful Krieger, that, due to its perseverance and its victory will, flaming step from victory to victory walks “.

Mobutus economic policy was led at the beginning also from the thought of the new African self-determination. It nationalized foreign companies and forced European investors to leave the country. Similarly as it in Simbabwe to observe at present, had this all thing a strong economic fall is to the consequence. This was so strong that he asked 1977 foreign companies to invest again into his country. This had to do however possibly also with the fact that he needed the assistance of Belgium for the same time also for thrashing in order a Katanga - rebellion which, coming from Angola, endangered its rule.

1977 it was red-elect likewise again „“. Mobutus ambition was less to increase the prosperity of the inhabitants but rather to its own. It let the profits on exchange speculation originating from the resources dismantling deposit at private accounts. 1984 became its personal fortune on four billion US Dollar estimated. This sum corresponded for instance to the foreign debts at that time of Zaire. Mobutus government was similar to regime on the Philippines, a typical Kleptokratie , as the Marcos -. Foreign powers watched driving usually doless, because Mobutu was a good allying against the USSR.

Mobutu Sese Seko auf einer alten zairischen Banknote.
Mobutu Sese Seko on an old zairischen note.
Due to internal unrests and continuous economic problems Mobutu permitted opposition parties in May 1990 for the first time. He promised democratic elections and used an interim government, however he furnished it in such a way that he had also in the future the most important power threads in the hand. After further unrests and revolts of unpaid soldiers Mobutu summarized all opposition parties in a purpose alliance, however further control of the relevant safety organs kept. After that develop for a Gegenregierung under Laurent Monsengwo and Etienne Tshisekedi continued to worsen economical conditions still, so that both governments in the high advice of the Republic of (transition parliament) were summarized. Mobutu appointed Kengo Wa Dondo, which for austerity policy and market reforms, at its point.

Meanwhile Mobutus state of health continued to worsen ever and during one of its hospitalizations in Switzerland conquered Tutsis a majority east Zaire. The Tutsis was for a long time Mobutu hostilely gesinnt, since this stood rather on sides of the Hutu, which were responsible for the genocide at the Tutsi in Rwanda. When Mobutus government issued a law, which proved all Tutsis under menace of the death penalty, they changed into open rebellion. They started an offensive westward, whereby they allied themselves with other groups of oppositions. After failed peace discussions in May the insurgent Kinshasa conquered 1997. New president became Laurent Desire Kabila.

Mobutu went to Morocco into the exile, where he succumbed to the Prostatakrebs in September, at which it since 1963 had already suffered.

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