Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضاشاهپهلوی [moɦæˈmːæd reˈzɔː pæɦlæˈviː]; * 26. October 1919 in Teheran; † 27. July 1980 in Cairo) was as a son of Reza Schah Pahlavi Schah of Persia (late Iran)and last rulers on the Pfauenthron.
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After the forced resignation of its father Reza Schah Mohammad Reza was appointed 1941 the Schah Iran, the second king of the Pahlavi dynasty. In the start time of its regency the young wonSchah a large popularity by the successful Zurückdrängung of the Soviets from the north provinces Iran (Azerbaijan) and smashing the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad. Mohammad Reza Schah tried to drive contrary to its father a compromise course with the clergyman of the country, toExample as it reduced the veil prohibition issued by its father and would tolerate the veil.
the increasing opening of the country led to the emergence of a national movement, which into the government Mohammad Mossadegh 1951 - flowed to 53. They forced the Schahin the first exile, after this tried, Dr. To dismiss Mossadegh as Prime Ministers. After numerous protests and demonstrations generally speaking country had to flee the Schah. Mossadegh endangered the interests of international consortia due to its support in the communist Tudeh party and the nationalization of the national oil industry and becametherefore by the operation Ajax fallen, an action of the US Government under Eisenhower with the help of the CIA. The Royalisten under the military was supported purposefully and one week after the exile of the Schahs in Italy was sealed the end of the government Mossadegh. Mossadegh was arrestedand to three years prison condemns. Reza Schah could return again.
In the following time Schah Reza Pahlewi of one was the most brutal Autokraten of the post-war period - and at the same time Americas of most faithful Vasall in the Near East. The Schah prevailed with special laws and suppressed parties and movements - 1953 - 57 in this time was arrested trailers of the new national movements and parties like the Tudeh party and partly executed. The secret police Savak, 1957 assistance of the USA developed, became the notorious instrument of a diktatorischen regime, which suppressed each resistance brutally.
The Schah wanted Iran to a great power to form and could thereby on economics and military aid of the USA to build - particularly after the revolution in the Iraq to 14. July 1958 as Colonels Abdel Karim Kassem king Feisal II fell and Moscow opposite openly showed up.The autocratic and corrupt regime nevertheless hardly produced successes: It prevailed smoldering misery, Hungerlöhne and social safe-keeping draw. The auxiliary funds made of Washington served only enriching the brutal, corrupt elite. The majority of the population lived under erbärmlichen conditions on the country and in the increasing Slumsthe suburbs. The western public showed up depending upon political thinking direction fascinated push off from the splendor of a fairy taleful king house or from the regime one blood-August-ends Tyrannen. In Teherans press however for the first time again pictures of the fallen Prime Minister Mossadegh emerged. The regime reacted with hardness and struck everyoneResistance merciless down.1963 interspersed the Schah due to the increasing pressure a program, the white revolution, for the rearrangement of the country of the great land owners by means of a referendum. This program must be regarded differentiated. A broader central layer resulted from the program, however it could do thoseExtreme ones of realm and arm do not adjust. The nationalization of the oil industry taken place under Mossadegh was waived after the return from the first exile. As “return” for the operation Ajax took over Great Britain (British petroleum) the complete oil promotion of Iran. Thus Iran took part 1973 alsonot at the embargo of the OPEC and could thereby its consequences for the west also quite reduce!
of the Schah had the conception of developing Iran to prevailing military power in Anterior Asia and used the funds from the oil trade strengthened for this goal.Thus the connections to the United States became closer. Thus for example the structure of the armed forces was accomplished to a large extent by American military advisers, whose number became estimated in the 70's on 25.000. Kennedys successor Lyndon B. Johnson supported armament before the background of the cold warIran with all means.Richard Nixon and its security advisor Henry Kissinger traveled in May 1972 on the way back from the Muscovites summit after Teheran and the total loyalty of the emperor moved Kissinger, Reza Pahlewi as “column of stability in this jerky and important region” toopraise. Exorbitant military expenditure ruined however the finances of the state of this “column of stability” and the inflation rate snapped upward.
inside of resistances
on the inside became the policy of the father secularization of the right (for example same rights for women and men) and the separation from stateand religion in the most substantial fundamentals resumed. The demonstrative proximity to the USA with their support of the Schah from its first exile at all only again to return could and the associated militant anticommunism of its regime led to a at least vordergründig westoriented attitude in social questions. ThatSchah tried an extensive separation from state and religion by the introduction of the new calendar (1976), which had revealing Muhammads, but the coronation/culmination of the Persian king Kyros as point of origin of the time calculation not. Among the durable achievements of the Schah rank the stabilizationthe centre government, the settlement of industry, the creation of a modern infrastructure as well as one relative liberal social policy and a large-scale modernization of the country. For the broad population this western attitude offered however hardly advantages, it served rather the support of the plans of the Schah, a military great powerto become and to extend the wealth of the Persian elite. An important and undisputed role played thereby also the secret service (SAVAK), which developed to a cruel suppression instrument. The American diplomat George ball reported at the 11. December 1978 over the Schah to thatUS president at that time Carter: “We made the Schah, what it is now. We fed its preference for grandiose world-political drafts, accelerated we its Fantasien. We made it so much the column of our interests in the Near East that we ofit are dependent. Now its regime under the pressure of the forced upon modernization disintegrates, and we do not have any alternative. “
of Carter began to move away gradually from obviously incapable Iranian poet acts. Concessions to the opposition in last hour used nothing more: The Schah tried inlast year of its regency 1978 by replacement of the prime ministers and in the end by the installation of the Social Democrat Shapour Bakhtiar to still save its regency. The Pahlewi dynasty was at the end. With the words “I am tired and need a break” left Reza Pahlewi at noon16. January 1979 over the Teheraner airport the country always. After an odyssey over Egypt, Morocco, the Bahamas and Mexico the cancer-ill Schah arrived in October 1979 at New York, around itself in the Cornell Medical center New York hospitaltreat to leave. When this admits in Iran became, propaganda became loud, the USA granted to the” criminal Schah “refuge. At the 4.November 1979 it came thereupon to the conquest of the US-American message in Teheran by Iranian students and for the taking of hostages of the message members (taking of hostages of Teheran). For the end of its treatment in the United States the Schah had to leave the country on pressure of the US Government, that wanted to avoid further provocations. It lived thereafter for a short time with its family in Panama and returned finally again to Egypt, where itdeceased.
his first marriage became due to political considerations with the Egyptian princess Fawzia (* 5. November 1921) 1939 closed. The daughter Shahnaz rose from this marriage (* 27. October 1940), however no male successor to the throne. Therefore the marriage became 1948 againdissolved. Shahnaz' daughter, its granddaughter Mahnas, was born 1959.
- Cyrus Reza Pahlavi (* 31. October 1960)
- Masumeh Farahnaz Pahlavi (* 11. March 1963)
- Ali Reza Pahlavi (* 28. April 1966)
- Leila Pahlavi (* 27. March 1970; † 10. June 2001 in London - self selbsttötung by tablets)
at its 48. Birthday to 26. October 1967 it crowns itself to the emperor. This fairy taleful emperor coronation/culmination excites world-wide attention. With the attendance of the Schahs in West Berlin and the killing of the student Benno Ohnesorg with thatDemonstration against the attendance of the Schahs uses an intensification of the student movement (APO).
- citizen of Berlin Institut for comparative social research (Hrsg.): Religion and politics in Iran.(Mardom nãmeh. Yearbook to history and societythe middle Orients.) Frankfurt A.M. 1981, ISBN 3-8108-0175-5
- Franz Burda (Hrsg.): Coronation/culmination in Teheran. A book of pictures over of Persia pair of emperors. Burda, open castle 1967 (special edition of the MULTICOLORED pictorial)
- Bahmãn Nirumand: Persia, model of a developing country or the dictatorship of the free world. Rowohlt, Reinbek b. Hamburg 1967(rororo, 945)
- Mohammed Reza Pahlavi: In the service of my country. Dt. Verl. - Anst., Stuttgart 1961
- Mahmoud Rashad: Iran. 1. Aufl. DuMont book publishing house, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-7701-3385-4
- Claudia Stodte: Iran. Edition Temmen, 1999, ISBN 3-86108-860-6
- Farah Diba Pahlavi: Memories. February 2004, ISBN 3785721579
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| | * Literature of and over Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the catalog of the DDB
|NAME||Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Schah of Persia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||26. October 1919|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Teheran|
|DYING DATE||27. July 1980|