|office language||Moldauisch (Romanian)|
|capital||Chişinău (dt. Kischinau)|
|system of government||parliamentary democracy|
|head of the government||Vasile Tarlev|
|number of inhabitants||
4.455.421 (116.) (July 2005)
|population density||131 Einwohner/km ² (56.)|
| GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT |
- total (nominal)
- total (PPP)
- BIP/Einw. (Nominally)
- BIP/Einw. (PPP)
| (2006 estimated) |
$ 3 ' 353 millions (-)
$ 8 ' 574 millions (-)
$ 929,585 (-)
$ 2 (-)
|HDI||(115.) - means (2005)|
|independence|| from the Soviet Union |
to 27. August 1991
|currency||of Moldaui Leu (MDL)|
|time belt||OEZ (UTC +2)|
|national anthem||Limba Noastră|
|diagram: Population trend (1992-2003)|
Moldavia (official Republica Moldova/Republic of Moldau) is a Binnenstaat in South-east Europe. It bordersin the west at Romania. In the north, the east and the south Moldavia is enclosed of the Ukraine.
Table of contents
Moldavia extends in north south direction over 350 km and westeast over 150 km. The country is rather small with its total area of 33.843 km ² and lies in the world-wide comparison in the rear third. The central area lies to a large extent between thattwo largest rivers Dnister (mold. /rum. Nistru) and Pruth (Prut) and thus in the historical landscape Bessarabien. The north borders on the Podoli plate of the Westukraine. A smaller part of the country (about 12%) lies east of theDnister and has itself 1992 as Transnistrien abgespalten. The southernmost point of Moldavia is Giurgiuleşti, where the area on few meters borders on the Danube.
See also: Moldavia Transnistrien conflict
of rivers and landscape
The landscape is flatwavy (30 to 429 m and. NN.) and to 80% culture country, which the fruitful black earth in quilt the south to owe is. In the north hilly levels with light forests drag on. The highest collection in Moldavia is the Dealul Bălăneşti. The warm, dry climate makes wine and fruit-growing possible in large yardstick. Native one Animals are for example deer, wild pig, hare, fox, wolf, weasel, Iltis, Luchs and rodents. The central part, colloquially as Codrii (“the forests”) admits, is predominantly covered with calibration and beech forests.
See also: Viticulturein Moldavia
see also: List of the cities in Moldavia
the country is with 131,4Inhabitants per square kilometer closely settles. 70% of the population live in cities (beside the capital Chişinău particularly in Bălţi, Tiraspol and Tighina). In Moldavia peoples of most different ethnical origin live: The largest group make the Romanian mol durationwith 64,5% out. The portions of the Ukrainer (13.8%) and Russian (13.0% ) are about equal in size, which live to a large extent in Transnistrien. In addition 3.5% Gagausen ( orthodox Christians , who speak Gagausisch, a Turksprache ) come, 2% Bulgaren, 1.5% Jew as well as some other Ethnien.
the official office language is Moldauisch. The language was explained from political considerations as the independent language. While the writing language is identical to the Romanian one, the spoken colloquial language corresponds to that to a large extentin the eastern part of Romania, the region Moldau, spoken moldauischen dialect. A special role plays the Russian language, which serves inter+ethnical communication and is commercial language. At Soviet times had all mol duration Russian to learn.
At religions are strongestrepresent the Moldauisch orthodox ones, the orthodox church Bessarabiens, the Ukrainian-orthodox and the Russian-orthodox church. To the minorities in the religious landscape of Moldavia the Roman-catholic church ( about 20,000), in addition, the witnesses Jehovas ( about 18,000) belong.
with the elections 2001 got the communist party (PCM - Partidul Comunist Moldovenesc) under Vladimir Voronin 50.1% of the voices, but due tothe check clauses against small parties (the hurdle amounts to 6%) 61 of 101 mandates. It could return thus to power, Voronin from the parliament to the president was selected. This success the communists had to owe above all to the social classes become impoverished.
With the elections to 6. March 2005 lost the PCM easily, could however with 46,1% with 56 seats their absolute majority in the parliament maintain. A second-strongest party became the again created choice block democratic Moldavia under guidance of the mayor thatCapital Chişinău, Serafim Urecheanu, with 28,4% of the voices and 34 seats. A further opposition party, the Christian democratic people's party under Iurie Rosca, came on 9,1% of the voices and 11 seats.
In Moldavia the president is selected by the parliamentand a majority of 61 voices needs. To 4. To April 2005 presidency elections lined up. The acting president Vladimir Voronin could combine thereby 75 voices on itself and begin a second term of office. Despite contrary announcements the Christian democratic opposition party has PPCD afterdifferent setting the communist Voronin help to the president along and it so to the necessary majority.
An additional challenge for the policy is the conflict with Transnistrien, which explained itself 1991/92 under the Russian clan Igor Smirnows for independentand a third of the industry possesses. Negotiations for many years over the formation of a Federal State failed in November 2003. Reason for it were mass protests of the moldauischen population, who regarded the agreement as too favourable for Transnistrien. With the reversal in the Ukraine through Wiktor Juschtschenko become new approaches possible.
See also: Moldavia Transnistrien conflict
since 1994 is Gagausien as “autonomous republic” recognition.
points of friction between the neighbour states
debts of Moldavia opposite the Romanian power stations as well as those offered the relationship to Romania in the pastcultural identity of the Romanians, who place the majority in Moldavia. The largest part of Moldavia formed the realm step Hans of the large one (see Principality of Moldau) together with the today's Romanian Moldau (Romania), the common national hero of both states and was from 1918 until 1940 again Romanian territory. Since the state visit of the Romanian president Traian Basescu in Chişinău in January 2005, as well as the attendance of the Moldaui president Vladimir Voronin in Romania, following on it, the moldauisch Romanian relations reached a Höhepukt and is to time so well never before. Romania supports the Republic of Moldau during the European approximation as well as with the solution of the Transnistrien conflict. Romania pleaded for the receipt of the territorial integrity of the neighboring country and rejects the transnistrischen separatism.
the area of Moldavia becomes in 5 Munizipien (Municipalităţi; Singularly Municipiu) and 32 circles (Raioane; Raion) divided. Besides it givesan autonomous and a abtrünniges area:
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2003 the arrangement of Moldavia divided areas in Moldavia into 3 Munizipien, 9 districts (Judeţe; Judeţ),autonomous and a abtrünniges area:
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The Eisenbahnnetz has a length of 1190 km. By Moldavia the railway line Athens / Istanbul runs - Moscow. In addition the country with the entrance to Dnestr and Pruth has important binnenwasserstrassen. In Chişinău there is an international airport(KIEV). Due to a conflict between a private German airline and Moldavia air Moldova also the landing rights in Germany were extracted. There are direct flights daily to Vienna (Austrian/air Moldova), Istanbul, Moscow, Timişoara, Bucharest, Paris, Frankfurt/Main and Rome. The conflict in the aeronautical sector, persisting since beginning of 2003, could be settled. A resumption of the direct flights between Frankfurt/Main and Chişinău took place in July 2005. These flights become of air Moldova (IATA contraction: (9U)) andthe German Cirrus airlines (IATA contraction: (C9)) (Code sharing - partners), a partner of Lufthansa, nearly daily accomplished. For the application for that about 2.5 hours lasting direct flight an airbus A320 comes. With a direct airline connection to the airport Frankfurt/MainChişinău is connected with a further international spider, which makes flights possible into the entire world.
Moldavia lives particularly on the agriculture as well as on the associated industry. The favorableClimate makes fruit and viticulture possible. Wine places the main export article beside Branntwein and fruit/vegetable canned goods, in addition comes products of textile and smaller electrical articles.
up to its independence at the beginning of the 1990er years was Moldavia one thatwealthiest Soviet republics. Since that time because of the unresolved Transnistrienkonfliktes (1992) the economic situation worsened drastically.2002 amounted to the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) 1.5 billion euro. The average monthly wages amount to (February 2003) 30 euro (approx. 465 Lei), pensionists get 12 euro inMonth. In order to cover the most important life costs, at least 100 euro would be necessary. In Moldavia a value added tax of 20% usually applies. Some food, like z. B. Bread or milk, in addition, gas or the post office dispatch, come into thatPreference/advantage of a reduced tax of 8%.
Moldavia is one of the poorest states of Europe; a quarter of the population moved away abroad. From there they transfer to money to Moldavia, which constitutes more in sum than the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.
The momentary Economic growth of Moldavia amounts to 6.5 per cent.
the country exports above all food and luxuries (v.a. Wine), as well as textiles and machines. The most important Zielländer are Russia 35.8%, Italy (13.9%), Romania (10%) and Germany (7,3%). The most important import partners are the Ukraine (24.6%), Russia (12.2%), Romania (9.3%) and Germany (8.5%).
wine war with Russia
to 27. March 2006 has the Russian government a prohibition for the import of moldauischenand Georgian wine products into force set. The prohibition is to have taken place after offences against the health regulations (to high pollution impact) on requests of the highest hygiene physician Gennadi Onischtschenko. The decision led to violent criticism of the wine producers concerned in Moldavia and Georgien.About 82% of the entire moldauischen wine export are exported to Russia. Russia is thereby the most important export partner for the moldauischen wine market. 
1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service
|31. December - 1. January||New Year's Day|
|7. - 8. January||Christmas||orthodox Christmas|
|14. January||New Year||orthodox New Year's Day|
|1. March||Marţişor||symbolic Blümchen at the clothes|
|8. March||day of Mrs||international day of the Mrs.|
|1. - 2. May||Easter||orthodox Easter|
|1. May||day of the work|
|8. - 9. May||day of the memory|
|9. May||day of theVictory|
|27. August||independence day||independence from the Soviet Union (27. August 1991)|
|31. August||Limba Noastră||day of the moldauischen language|
Moldavia has a rich religion history, the 500-jährige church architecture is also an important factor for thoseTourism industry. While the affiliation to the USSR and religious rites apart from traditional customs and customs have themselves faith receive, among them family customs and celebrations. On the country faith and traditions are many originally received as for example in the capital Chişinău, those alreadyurban is coined/shaped. The Russian-orthodox church and the Romanian-orthodox church dominate, while catholic and Jewish municipalities form rather minorities.
In the years after the Perestroika and since independence many old churches and monasteries, rock monasteries, are cathedrals and in Moldaviasmall village churches again opens or again based. But religious and the church life does not run in calm courses. Historically many non-resident religions on moldauischem territory were active and it gave arguments between the Bessarabi Eparchie and the Muscovite Patriarchat, which are not solved until today. Therefore many churches and monastery complexes with up to 1.5 are to be offered to meters thick walls also militaryful put on around protection from enemies.
The number of the Russian-orthodox churches is in the first twelve yearsthe independence from 280 risen to over thousands precipitously. The catholic diocese Chişinău covers at present (conditions 2006) ten Pfarreien with approx. 20,000 catholics, who predominantly Polish, Romanian and German descent are. Bishop 2001 of the formed Roman-catholic diocese is AntonKoca.
monasteries of Moldavia
- monastery Rudi (Rughi) with the church of the holy Dreifaltigkeit 18. Century)
- Saharna monastery (17. Century)
- Tipova (17. Century)
- Butuceni monastery (15. to 17. Century)
- monastery Căpriana with the church holy George (15.Jahrhundert)
- Curchi monastery (18.Century)
- monastery Japca (16. Century)
- monastery Vărzăreşti (15. Century)
- Monastery Hârbovăţ (18. Century)
- Monastery Hârjauca (18. Century)
- Monastery Hâncul (17. Century)
- Monastery Suruceni (18. Century)
churches worth seeing
- cathedral of Drochia
- cathedral of Chişinău
- Dumitru church in Orhei
- churchthe garb putting in Căuşeni (15. Century)
- church in Orheiul Vechi (15. to 17. Century)
- Petruşeni (wood church from 1702)
) there are Stilisti influences due to the changeful history of Moldavia and other influences from the outside various effects on thoseGebäudestilistik. In the Christian-orthodox coined/shaped Moldavia, in which Poland, Austrians and Westukrainer established themselves, there are many churches, which are established after Roman-catholic model - as the cathedral church of the holy Nikolaus in Bălţi, as also the catholic churches in Camencaand in Chişinău. The classicism 19. Century affected the styles just like the work of Armenian architects (church of the grave putting in Belgorod at the Dnjestr (15. Century), the God nut/mother church (1803) in Chişinău and the Armenian church in Bălţi (20. Century) .und Hînceşti(19. Century).
Under the government of the Turkish osmanischen Imperiums of 15. up to 18. Century churches were often only secretly built. The church of the garb putting in Căuşeni forms a gloss light this time. One gave her an inconspicuous exterior and has herhalf into the soil entrenched. The Turks by a depot one reported. It is told the fact that the church - when it was already finished was visited and was painted with bright colors in unusual beauty - nevertheless by the Turks.And as it that one had led around them at the nose and a place of worship had been built, outdid they had understood the holy one on the Fresken the eyes with their lances and blackened their beards with coal. The churchone secularized and one re-designed to a stable.
The most intensive establishment period in the history of moldauischen architecture is the last quarter 18. Century. In large number churches, were built cathedrals and monasteries to attribute what to the stabilization of the political situationis. Russia was in the course whole 19. Century endeavors to strengthen his influence in Bessarabien. Like that one was anxious to implement the Russian style in church architecture. The Russian realm did not save at money for the building of churches. In view of the enormousSums of money, which were available, developed for beads of church architecture, like the chapel of the Mädchengymnasiums in Chişinău and the ensemble at the former cathedral place with the enormous church cathedral, the bell tower
- Neukirch, Claus: The Republic of Moldau. Nation and state formation in Eastern Europe, LIT publishing house, Münster of 1996
- peoples Bendig/Rosanna cathedral: Republic of Moldau, S. 317-329, into one year after the European Union extension 2004. A right-wing political trial balance, ofIlse M. Pogatschnigg/Marcus Schladebach. Publishing house Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main 2005, ISBN 3-631-54012-4
- Bü, Klemens: The political system Moldovas, S. 515-552, in: Ismayr, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): The political systems of Eastern Europe, 2. Edition, Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2004
- Prantner, Christoph: The “frozenCountry ". The standard, 6. February 2004
- Novosti: Yearbook 1990 of the USSR, S.122-126
- Hawks, Tony: Match ball in Moldavia. William Goldmann publishing house, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-45019-5 - humorous experience report with information about country and people
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coordinates: 47° 15 ' N, 28° 31 ' O