Moll (music)

Moll (v. lat. mol-read „softly “) designation in the music the clay/tone sex of all kinds of clay/tone and chords in the Dur Moll system, which contain a small third ( also Mollterz called) in relation to the basic clay/tone. The Gegenbegriff to the Moll is Dur, its basic characteristicthe large third is.

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the expressions Dur and Moll come of the appearance to the differentNotenköpfe, which were used once for the distinction of the neighbouring tones B and H. In the earlier scales (see Hexachorde) one needed the H from the clay/tone G outgoing as the third stage, during one outgoing from the clay/tone F the H thanfourth stage to avoid had (see tri tonus) and instead B began. For this purpose one noted an H with angular Notenkopf (b durum), a B however with round Notenkopf (b molle). The today's form thatSign (a b for the deeper clay/tone, a # for the higher) decreases/goes back likewise to it. Also the Italian designations correspond to that „bemolle “for the b - signs and „bequadro “for the natural sign.

The association of the clay/tone sexes with characteristics as „hard “(= Dur) and „softly “(= Moll) arose only very many later with the disappearing of the kinds of church clay/tone and the Manifestation of the Dur Moll system, however in the music teachings solidified themselves and even in etymologischen dictionaries still one represented.

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the modes:
Schematische Darstellung der reinen Moll-Tonleiter (Erläuterung)
schematic representation of the pure Moll scale (explanation)

(pure) the Molltonleiter has the progression 1 ½ - 1-1 ½ - 1-1 and corresponds in its interval sequence to the äolischen mode. Since that 16. Centurythe Mollskala - after the Durskala - is the most secondaryfrequently used scale of the abendländischen music. The twelve Molltonleitern are designated in each case after their initial clay/tone. Thus z result in. B. the naturals A, H, C, D, E, F, G, A thoseA minor scale.

The basic form of the Molltonleiter (also pure Moll or Naturmoll called) consists of seven tones, whose characteristic the half-tone steps between second and third are as well as the fifth and sixth stage. The remaining intervals are complete clay/tone steps. Beside this basic formthere are several Untervarianten of the Molltonleiter.

Hearing example: Bild:Loudspeaker.png (here: A-Moll)

harmonious Moll

schematic representation of the harmonious Moll scale (explanation)

this scale is a variation of the pure Molls, those with that the seventh stage of the scale overis increased a half-tone, in order to be able to use this as guidance clay/tone. This happens from harmonious considerations (therefore it also the name of this variant). The increase of the sieved clay/tone is necessary if in a Molltonart the dominant factor is to be reminiscent. Therethe dominant factor a guidance clay/tone needs, which leads into the Tonika Grundton (z. B.cis in D-Moll), this however in the natural Moll is not contained, the sieved stage around a half-tone is not raised (C becomes cis).

Thus developsHiatus so mentioned - step (three half-tones) the stage respected sieved from sixth to the seventh stage and a third half-tone step between and. The Hiatus, which lends an eastern resemblance to the scale, is avoided however due to its us adaptingness to a large extent and findsitself if necessary in the instrument valley music.

Hearing example: Bild:Loudspeaker.png

Melodi Moll

Schematische Darstellung der melodischen  Moll-Tonleiter (Erläuterung)
schematic representation of the melodischen Moll scale (explanation)

this Moll variant uses different tones, according to whether the melody process is falling rising or. The melodische Moll is thereby more easily toosing as the harmonious Moll, because it does not contain a Hiatus step, possesses however nevertheless the guidance clay/tone, which is missing in the natural Moll. A well-known melody in the melodischen Moll is z. B. „Yesterday “of the Beatles.

With rising melody process the melodische Moll correspondswithin the upper range of the Durtonleiter. With falling melody process however it falls back a fair copy Moll.

Hearing example: Bild:Loudspeaker.png

For the inclusion of the leaders into the chord scale theory however the different form is useless depending upon upward or downward movement of the leaders. One uses thereforehere only the upward form and calls the whole “Melodisch Moll upward “(shortened “MMA”). The MMA leaders is basis for many in the jazz often used scales.

there are Durparallele

and Durvariante to each Molltonart a kind of parallel clay/tone in Dur, also Durparallele mentioned, which contains the same tones (and concomitantly with the same signs one notes), however a small third more highly begins (z. B. A-Moll - C major) and thus the progression typical for Dur receives.

The kind of variance clay/tone of a Molltonart begins however on the same basic clay/tone (z. B. A-Moll - A major), possesses however due to the progression different in the Dur other signs. The Durvariante lies therefore always three steps more highly than the underlying Molltonart: Thus becomesz. B.E-Moll with a cross, E major however with four crosses marked.

see also: Quintenzirkel

further Molltonleitern

to the Molltonleitern in the broader sense (there it likewise a small third contained to the basic clay/tone) know also the kinds of church clay/tone Dorisch, Phrygisch and Lokrisch, as well as the scale Mi Sheberach to be counted.


the tones of the Molldreiklanges (see also chord) are the basic clay/tone, third and the fifth stage of the Molltonleiter (thus Prime, small third and Quinte). Contrary to the Dur the Moll does not have correspondence in the overtone row (the beginnings to find these in a designed Untertonreihe are acoustically not begründbar).

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Wiktionary: Moll - word origin, synonyms and translations

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