the monarchy (over French monarchy from the Greek μοναρχία, monarchía = “autocracy”) is a system of government and state, with the one individual ( the monarch and/or. the monarchies) one often of God (and/or. a divinity) derived authority awarded, those is legitimized their rule beyond the personal power possession. The monarchy is thereby Gegenbegriff to the republic. A democratic monarchy is however possible, if the monarch does not have a material powerful position. A trailer or a proponent of the monarchy becomes monarchist called.
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the kind of monarchy, which legitimizes itself by the reference to God/a divinity, can be led back in old Egypt, where the Pharaoas God one admired. Something similar applies to the imperial system in the Empire of China, that the ruler among other things as a son of the sky (天子, Pīnyīn: Tiānzi) designated, in its rule a mandate of the sky saw and it therebyabsolute power lent.
choice and hereditary monarchy
the choice monarchy (with often reduced candidate and voter circle) than the hereditary monarchy, those seems to be historically older thoseCivil war danger with the succession successfully reduced. Up to its end a choice monarchy the Kingdom of Poland and the holy Roman realm of German nation were present, (2006) are it still Malaysia, the united Arab emirates, the Vatikanstadt.
Up to the Christianisierung Europe a form of the choice monarchy is to be here usually found. Germanic ones like celtic trunks have their “chieftains “, who come of to usually powerful and influential family clan, but no automatic succession to know. With deatha chieftain simply by different rituals (Thing, describing elevation ) one selected more again or one proclaimed. Even if the king welfare had left a leader, it was replaced simply by a new. In the Saxonian order became even only forthe time of a war, a field or booty course a duke selected, who became after end of this war again the simple free one. Another rule was rejected by the free Bauernkriegern.
This vorfeudalistische order, which had partly quite democratic courses,found their end with the Christianisierung. When in the Roman realm emperor Konstantin the large one with the tolerance edict of Milan in the year 313 the Christianity other religions the placed and later then to the Christianity converted , an alliance began between the church and the national authority. The church legitimized the absolute rule and the succession with the ideology of the rule “from God grace”. In response the church secured itself thereby a privileged position and participation at thatPower, which kept it in most countries into the time of the French revolution.
Europe is controlled in the Middle Ages increasingly by hereditary monarchies: The monarch stands there at the point of a structure of regionally more or less homogeneous rule areas, as Lehen assigned at Gefolgsleute are. This Feudalsystem forms the basis of the administration and military affairs in the controlled areas, suffers however from the increasing requirement of the leaning people to have even in succession their areas and from these again onTo assign Gefolgsleute Lehen. Up to drawing up in former times the European monarch continues to lose forms of the modern state therefore actually ever at power to in such a way educated feudalen aristocracy.
forms of the monarchy
with the developing of the modernState develop in Europe of the modern times three forms of the monarchy:
in this form possesses the monarch the requirement after the exclusive government authority; the aristocracy loses its position in the Feudalsystem in the exchange approximatelyPrivileges in the state and military affairs. The monarch is legibus absolutus (lat. detached by the laws), that means that it is not subordinate to the laws, which it dismisses. The most well-known example of the requirement on absolute rule of the monarch is that Sun king Ludwig XIV., its self understanding L'état, c'est moi (German: The state am I.) as almost prototypical for this development to be regarded can. The absolute claim to power is however not to be implemented in the long term against the aristocracy and the rising middle class;, where the monarchy survives, it accepts elements of the republic or democracy . Despite difficulties in the demarcation of the term today (2006) Brunei , Nepal , the Vatikanstadt , know Saudi Arabia and possibly still different Arab monarchies to Apply Persian Gulf as absolute monarchies existing at present.
in a constitutional monarchy is the power of the monarch no longer absolutely (without reservation), but regulated by the condition. The government does not become however further from the monarch andfrom a representative government determines. An example of it is the German empire 1871 to 1918 and/or. the Principality of Liechtenstein today. See also to major item constitutional monarchy
the parliamentary monarchy is a Unterform of the constitutional monarchy, with thatthe monarch with few exceptions no portion of affairs of state more has. These are led by the parliament and the government. Mostly only representative tasks come to the monarch. In Europe this system of government in Belgium , Denmark , is Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, to find Sweden and Spain.
2006 there are
with monarchistic head of state with the conditions
of 34 kingdoms:
- Malaysia (official title Yang those-Pertuan Agong reads, dt.: Highest ruler)
- the Netherlands
- Saudi Arabia
- united kingdom
and the Commonwealth - members
- Antigua and Barbuda *
- Australia *
- of the Bahamas *
- Barbados *
- Belize *
- Grenada *
- Jamaica *
- Canada *
- New Zealand *
- Papua New Guinea *
- Salomonen *
- pc. Cement and Nevis *
- pc. Lucia *
- pc. Vincent and the Grenadinen *
- Tuvalu *
with queen Elizabeth II. as a head of state
1 Grand Duchy:
- Normandy after loss of the continental possession consisting only of the channel islands as crowning possession in personnel union with the united kingdom; the channel islands in ruins into the two Vogteien Guernsey and jersey, also the leaning state Sark along-cover
1 rule state:
- Isle OF one (official title - z.Zt. female - head of state: Lord OF man in personnel union with the united kingdom)
of 2 sultanates:
9 sheikdoms (emirates):
- To Qatar
- the seven member states, those to the united Arab emirates (union head is a monarch of a member state with the title president ) 1
chieftain state belongs:
- Samoa (traditional title: O le Ao o leMalo)
* Commonwealth kingdoms (monarchies, in which the British queen is a head of state).
arguments against the monarchy
the following aspects
- thoseQuality of the office holders is coincidentally
- a contentwise-moral authority cannot it not be, because contentwise statements would not question the neutrality of many years
- an extraordinary personality, to who one leaves readily a strong position in the state, so easily leave themselves left
argumentation in favor of the monarchy
the argumentation per monarchy often appoints itself to the following aspects (here a selection):
- A monarch is as a head of state better suitably than a selected representative of the people, there a monarch from youth into his officegrows.
- A monarchy offers the possibility to the heads of state of gaining over many years valuable experiences in the office which could be further given always the next heir to the throne.
- Presidency elections harmed the reputation of the later regent due to the competition.
- ThoseRule of an entire family and not as for instance in the republic “alone of a standing” person makes a revaluation for the family possible (and thus not least the woman) in the society.
- The crown becomes as the best Hüterin of the national identity (thosein tradition, religion and culture expresses itself) outstandingly. This is straight in united and growing together Europe of great importance.
- A selected head of state usually belongs to a political party, therefore the role is one in the republicun parteiisch EN, neutral and all citizen of equally facing head already no longer realizable.
- A parliamentary monarchy symbolizes continuity and continued that liberally - democratic order better than a state system with heads of state always changing.
- Trailers of the Gottesgnadentums representthe opinion that the monarch and/or.Pretender to the throne from God to the head of the country is destined.
- to federation of the upright
- emperor loyalty youth
- constitutional monarchy
- list of the ruler lists
- monarchists in Germany
- Republic of
- tradition and life
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of emperor and king houses
monarchies any longer not existing are here marked by one *.
- Afghanistan *
- Ethiopia *
- Brazil *
- Germany *
- Greece *
- Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- India *
- Serbia and Yugoslavia *
- Korea *
- Mexico *
- the Netherlands
- Portugal *
- article of Karl Otto upholsterers on www.das-Parlament.de
- emperor loyalty youth
- of monarchy friends
- tradition andLife registered association. (see to article tradition and life)
- Australian monarchist League (Australia)
- Pró Monarquia (Brazil)
- Alliance Royale (France)
- The British monarchy (Great Britain)
- Hawaiian kingdom (Hawaii)
- Iraqi Constitutional Monarchy (Iraq)
- The imperially Iranian Guards (Iran)
- Irish High Kingship (Ireland)
- לישכתהגזית - Lishkat haGazit (Israel)
- Alleanza Monarchica (Italy)
- blackyellow alliance - monarchy table party project (Central Europe)
- Blackyellow forum (Central Europe)
- monarchist League OF new Zealand (New Zealand)
- academic federation catholic of Austrian homeland associations (Austria)
- Monarquia (Portugal)
- Aleanta pentru Monarhie (Romania)
- Всероссийскиймонархическийцентр - allRussian Monarchistenforum (Russia)
- Thai monarchy (Thailand)
- Koruna Česká (Tschechien)
- monarchist Society OF America (the USA)
- imperially Viet Nam (Viet Nam)