Mongolia

МонголУлс
Mongol Uls

Mongolian Republic of
Flagge der Mongolei Wappen der Mongolei
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch:

Office language Mongolian
capital Ulaanbaatar
system of government Republic of
head of state Nambaryn Enchbajar
head of the government Mijeegombyn Enchbold
surface 1.565.500 km ²
number of inhabitants 2.791.272 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 1.78 inhabitants per km ²
Currency Tögrög
time belt UTC + 7, UTC + 8
national anthem Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol
national day 11. July, (“Naadam”, mongol. Festivals)
Kfz characteristic MGL
civilian one, international aircraft identification VR MT
ISO 3166-1 codes MN/MNG
Internet TLD .mn
preselection +976
Weltkarte, Mongolei hervorgehoben
Topographische Karte der Mongolei

the Mongolian republic (Mongolian МонголУлс/Mongol Uls), between central - and Eastern Asia convenient, is a thinly settled Binnenstaat and borders in the north at Russia at 3.485 km border length and in the south to the People's Republic of China at 4.677 km border length.

In olderStill the name exterior Mongolia is Atlases (in contrast to internal Mongolia, which belongs as autonomous area to the People's Republic of China). As far as the constitutional amendment in July 1992 those carried Mongolia the name Mongolian People's Republic.

Table of contents

Geografie

soils and land use

Mongolia is very thinly settled quilting -, high mountain - and desert country. It possesses at the southernmost convenient permafrost soil and with the Gobi thosenorthernmost convenient desert. Only 10% of the national surface are wooded (predominantly in the mountains of the north and the west) - and less than 1% are useful for the agriculture.

At 1.565.501 km ² it is after the surface thoseNo. 18 under the 193 states of the earth and only slightly smaller than Iran.

cities

the largest cities that Mongolia (conditions 1. January 2005) are the capital Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар) with 844.786 inhabitants (inThird of the population), Erdenet with 79.649 inhabitants, Darchan with 72.386 inhabitants and Tschoibalsan with 44.367 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in that Mongolia

climate

climatic diagram

the situation in the centralasiatic high country gives Mongolia one to that thatextreme under the continental and also the arid Klimaten of the world. Due to the dry, pronounced continental climate the temperatures in the course of the yearly vary very strongly: In the winter the average daytime temperatures are with -25 °C, in the summer about +20 °C- with which the differences are 2-3 times larger than in Western Europe. The middle yearly precipitation lies only scarcely over 200 mm. Only beyond the Mongol Shan, the climatic sheath to (today Chinese) the inside or south Mongolia, he reaches 400 mm.

Alsothe day night temperature differences are unusually high, those between summers and winters even reach 100 °C.

environment and nature protection

many forest stands were reduced clearly for the 1960er years due to the population growth by wood impact and humans of caused Waldbrände.In socialism a non-lasting form of the agriculture was operated, which caused considerable damage to the soils concerned. Since the turn also the danger of the over feasting arose by the Nomaden. If one the effect of over feasting, agriculture and deforestation togetherregarded, potentially nearly 90% of the territory that are threatened Mongolia von Wüstenbildung.

In the cities are still coal-fired power stations without any flue gas purification in enterprise, which represent a serious health problem for the adjacents resident. Predominant with wood becomes additional in the Jurtenquartierenand coal heated and cooked, which contributes likewise substantially to the degradation of the air quality. In that Mongolia are also a great many outdated and badly waited motor vehicles in enterprise, which burn lead-coated fuel, and according to large quantities of pollutants to airdeliver.

Small and large combined heat and power stations of Soviet design get a disproportionately large quantity dirty of water. In addition the waste water of enterprises of the textile and leather industries as well as the mining industry comes. Less than half of the resulting waste water at all one cleans, and then alsobecame outdated and insufficient plants. Running waters in close proximity to larger settlements are loaded therefore strongly, the Tuul with Ulaanbaatar contain more than tenfold of the permissible pollutants.

The waste management of the country has only an insufficient infrastructure. In thatPopulation is likewise still very much underdeveloped consciousness for the necessity for the refuse disposal. Both the official and the wild dumps represent an environmental risk due to their safety device lacking. Further the waste thrown at many places simply into nature endangersin addition also the attractiveness of an increasing number of destinations for the tourism.

The copper and coal occurrences are predominantly diminished so far in the open mining. This leads to spacious changes of the landscape with appropriate consequences for Flora and fauna. Stockpiles and waste water thatDressing plants exhibit besides a increased content of heavy metals. The latter will become in particular in the future with the planned dismantling of copper and gold in the Gobi a critical point.

population

Mongolia is thinnestpopulated state of the world, which will not probably change so soon. Nevertheless however the population doubled itself exactly in the last 30 years.

subpopulations and development

Bevökerungsentwicklung that Mongolia of 1961 - 2005(Data of the FAO)

the large majority of the population that Mongolia (approx. 85%) belong to the people of the Mongols. The sub-groups of this people are essentially differentiated by their respective dialect. Particularly in the west of the country (Bajan Ölgii Aimag and Chowd Aimag) live minorities from different Turkvölkern, like Kasachen (4%), Tuwiner, and Uiguren. Zugewanderte Russians and Chinesen predominantly live in the cities or as specialists in the mining industry. The portion of the Russians is after the democratization howeverstrongly decreased/gone back.

In socialism the population growth was promoted nationally strongly, and reached into the 1980er years of values of over 3% per year. After the turn in particular most social and economic incentives disappeared for education for the urban inhabitantsof extended families. The census of 2000 determined still another population growth of 1,54%. About two thirds of the population are younger than 30 years, 36% under 14. The average life expectancy amounted to 2000 67.25 years (men 64.98, Mrs. 69.64).

thatWord “mongol” in Mongolian writing

languages and writings

the Chalcha Mongolian language as most important representatives of the Mongolian language family is the native language of approximately 90% of the ethnical Mongols. The remainder sits down to a large extent from Burjaten and Durbet inThe north as well as Dariganga in the west together. The remaining minorities in the west speak different Turkish (predominant Kasachisch) or tungusische languages. The older Mongols learned all Russian during socialism still. Since 2005 becomes instead English at the schools asofficial first foreign language in a scholarly manner.

The Alphabetisierungsrate among adults exceeds 98 per cent according to data of the UN. The Mongolian language is written in that Mongolia today in a slightly extended cyrillic alphabet. Those originally Uiguri coming of traditional Mongolian writing becomes perpendiculargeschrieben. After end of the communist supremacy officially its re-establishment was decided, these has in practice however already for economic reasons hardly chances to be carried out. In internal Mongolia is however still active the traditional writing used.

religion

monastery Tsetserleg

the original faith form of the centralasiatic steppe inhabitants was the Tengrismus, a form of the shame anise mash. Particularly on the country many elements of this faith in the everyday life play also today still another large role.

In 16.Century was established the Tibetan form of the Buddhismus (Vajrayana) in that Mongolia. The ruler Altan Khan lent for the first time the title Dalai Lama to 1578 at Sonam Gyatso (its two predecessors posthum appointed). Since that time is the Lamaismthe prevailing religion in that Mongolia. There was a strong break-down in the time of socialism, when many monasteries and temple were destroyed and thousands of Lamas were murdered. After the democratization the practice revived however again strongly.

Mostthe Turkvölker living as minorities in that Mongolia, like e.g. the Kasachen predominantly living in the Bajan Ölgii Aimag, is trailers Islam.

history

major item: History that Mongolia

early history

Das Mongolenreich unter Dschingis Khan (1227)
the Mongol realm under Dschingis Khan(1227)

In antiquity and antique one those was almost exclusively nomadischen cattle breeders settled Mongolia due to the inhospitable climate; in the far country only sporadically smaller cities of the Samojeden , Uiguren existed as well as some under Chinese influence. During this time it camealready several times to attacks of individual trunks on China or along the silk road by central Asia, lain west.

the Middle Ages, the Mongolian realm

in the Middle Ages succeeded it then to Dschingis Khan (1155-1227), to unite the Mongolian trunks in a state andto establish for centuries a world realm, which handed 1240 even to Central Europe. Its grandchild Kublai Khan (also Chubilai or Khubilai; ? 1294 in Peking) established the Yuan dynasty in China and transferred to buddhistischen monks the administration of Tibet. AfterA new large realm around 1400 under Timur steers, to whose remainder between 1690 and 1757 at of China Qing dynasty went , developed for weakness periods.

socialism

flag of the Mongolian People's Republic (1949 - 1992)

after their collapse in the year 1911 explainedMongolia for independent, however lasted itself it (despite Russian assistance) until 1921 that the Chinese troops (northern militaryists) were sold finally from the country.

1924 were proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republic, in the consequence became the countrya satellite state of the USSR. In the ambition of the Soviet leadership to make from Mongolia a modern communist state became and. A. the traditional nomadische Viehwirtschaft nearly completely smash, which caused however large economic problems. During the Stalinisti cleanings 1937/38about 38,000 Mongols were murdered, among them nearly the entire intelligence of the country and approx. 18.000 buddhistische monks. The buddhistischen monasteries that Mongolia with their valuable cultural properties and libraries were irreparably destroyed nearly all.

democratization

under the impressionthe changes in Eastern Europe 1990 also in that Mongolia a democracy movement, the first free elections originated in to 1992 was held. Today the there democracy is more stable than in all other states of central Asia. For the Präsidentenwahl in May 2005 stood with evertwo ehem. Head of the government and Industriellen even four outstanding personalities to the choice. Main topics of the election campaign was the free-market economy and the fight against unemployment and corruption; the latter was after-said however to both politicians.

From 1990 to 1996 the reform communists (MRVP) governed thatCountry, then the more liberal forerunners of the democratic party until 2000. Since the parliamentary election 2004 there is a large coalition of the MRVP with an alliance of democratic parties.

politics and State of

juridical system and condition

Mongoliais a parliamentary democracy with a multiple party system with force separation between legislation, executive and Judikative. The 1992 into force stepped condition follow contentwise the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany and the constitution of France. As basic principles of the stateapply democracy, justice, liberty, equality, national unit and attention for the law.

The executive consists of the president and the actual government. The president is selected directly for in each case four years, with a restriction on two terms of office. It is simultaneousHead of state, Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, and chairman of the national security council. Its veto against law collecting mains can be outvoted only with a two-thirds majority of the parliament. He suggests the Prime Minister to the parliament, its actual influence became in a condition revision 2001 however again somethingreduced. The Prime Minister and the remaining cabinet members must be confirmed and officiated by the parliament likewise for four years.

The legislation consists of government and parliament. The einkammrige parliament is called large state Chural. Everyone of the 76 delegates represents oneown constituency and by this for in each case 4 years one selects.

The Judikative is independent of executive and legislation. The highest court advice appoints all judges and protects their rights. The highest Court of Justice decides all appointment procedures in last instance, and compilesa locking interpretation of the laws. On all levels courts for civilian, crime film aluminum, and, also specialized, exist appeal in administrative matters procedures. The constitutional court yard, whose 9 members are appointed for 6 years, is in contrast to this responsible for constitutional complaints.

Until 1990 those had Mongolia a state systemafter Soviet sample with the MRVP as a unit party.

See also:

administrative arrangement

major item: Mongolian Aimags

Mongolia is in 21 Aimags (provinces) arranged, only thoseCapital Ulaanbaatar is an independent federal district. The latter applied until 1994 also to the city Erdenet. From this however 1994 were created together with some Sum of the Bulgan Aimags of the Orchon Aimag. Likewise the city Darchan, for which the Darchan Uul Aimag asEnclave was separated from the Selenge Aimag.

Each Aimag is into a number of Somon (singular: Sum) divides (comparably with the German districts), these again into Baga (singular: Bag, comparably with our municipalities). 329 Somon exist themselves, in 1.620Baga arranged. A Bag does not exist frequently as firm settlement, since his members around-pull all as Nomaden.

economics

general

Mongolia ranks among the transformation countries of the former Eastern Bloc. The economy that Mongoliais predominantly agrarian.

Mongolia has after long stagnation (1990-2002 +3 to 3%) now an economic growth from 5,3 to 10 per cent; the rise decreases/goes back majority to the service sector, which rose to nearly 40% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, andon higher world prices for copper and gold. The growth of the last years passed however the poor part of the population: about 36% live below the poverty border, similarly as in the year 1990. The difficult reform years have the portion that Private sector on 80% increased, but the social differences and the city land downward gradient increases.

agriculture

traditional products are meat (6 millions “Large animal” - slaughtering 2002), milk, sheep and Kashmir wants; in addition grain (on few parts per thousand of the national surface),Potatoes and vegetables. At the official GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (2003 385 euro per inhabitant) the agriculture - just like the industry - has a portion of scarcely 30 per cent.

Bodenschätze

of Bodenschätze are among other things coal (5-6 millions t annually), Fluor-spar (514,000 t) and copper (376,000 t), oil, gold and silver.

economic development

the unemployment ratio is numbered by the government on 4%, might however with approx. 25% lie. The high inflation became partly successful since 1996fought since that time and lies between 2 and 10%. The foreign debt amounts to 737 million euro, in relation to the BNE 84%, which applies with the World Bank as moderate.

foreign trade

the trade with Germany reached in the year 2003a volume of 35,3 millions Euro, is however very one-sided: goods in the value of 3,8 millions became Euro exports, however the value of imported goods from Germany amounted to 31.5 millions Euro. From here mainly food, plastics, becomes industrial machines andPrinted products imports; to Germany to be exported mainly textiles and animal products. Some bilateral economic agreements were signed of 1991-98, which deepened the traditionally good relations: over 20.000 Mongols once in the GDR were trained.

international trade relations

also someAgreements with the European Union over commercial policy, tariff and textile goods exist. Mongolia is member of important international organizations - beside the UN and its subsidiary organizations z. B. with World Trade Organization, World Bank, APEC and asiatic development bank.

public expenditures

between the portion of the public expenditures for the health service was to 1992

culture

sport

Ringer with the Naadam celebration
a ring fight in the country

the Mongolslove the three „male “kinds of sport rings, elbow shooting and horse running. These have their origin in the military requirements of Mongolian history, and find their annual high point in each case in the Naadam celebration (see below).

With the horse running children step on in tothree-year horses against each other on. Depending upon age group different distances are ridden, when large running at the Naadam celebration in Ulaanbaatar over full 30 km.

When Mongolian elbow shooting traditional reflex elbow are used, around arrows with blunt point on special goals twisted from leatherto shoot. Although the origin lies in the mounted elbow contactors of the Middle Ages, the competitions are only accomplished today to foot.

In addition, Mongolian athletes are represented in the modern shooting. The Pistolenschützin Munkhbayar Dorjsuren, which a whole, is most well-knownSeries of Weltcupsiegen and world champion titles achieved and in several olympic plays participated. 1992 won it in Barcelona the bronze medal with the sport pistol.

The ring fight is the only one of the three kinds of sport, which is reserved until today to a large extent the men.Everywhere in the country the young men measure offering opportunity their forces with each against each other. And the strong figure of most Mongols rather penetrated comes to meet them thereby much. The loser of a fight bends traditionally under the stretched armthe winner through. The winner may implement the eagle dance, with which he circles tournament banners with stretched arms hopping.

Since approximately 1992 several Mongolian ring fighters changed to the Japanese Sumōsport and there considerable successes achieved. The athletes take for it JapaneseName on, and to the participation in the higher leagues also the Japanese nationality. Asashōryū Akinori (Dolgorsüren Dagwadordsch) obtained largest successes, which achieved 2003 the title of a large master (Yokozuna), and 2005 as first Ringer all six tournaments of the yearlywon one behind the other.

National the Olympic Committee OF Mongolia was created 1956 and taken up 1962 by the international olympic committee. Since that time Mongolian athletes won altogether more than one dozen of medals.

national holidays

traveling visitors for Naadam celebration

the Mongolian national celebrationlasts from the 11. up to 13. July and is called Naadam (Наадам, completely “Eriin Gurwan Naadam” = “the three male plays”). The celebration with originally religious origin might be old several centuries and becomes also in internal Mongolia in Chinacelebrated. In that Mongolia applies the 11. July today as a revolution day, in honours of the events of 1921. The three named-giving plays take the most important part of the celebration (see also under sport), Mongolian ring fights, competitions in the elbow shootingand horse running on in to three-year Fohlen. Tournaments are accomplished nearly everywhere in that Mongolia, to largest extent however in the capital Ulaanbaatar.

The second large holiday is the buddhistische New Year, which is called in Mongolia Tsagaan Sar (ЦагаанСар= white moon). The date is normally at the beginning of of February, can however around some weeks vary and mostly does not coincide not with the Chinese New Year celebration. On this day the Mongols visit all their friends and used and bring gifts. On thatSpecialities are fixed board like scorched sheep back and a tower from “sole cakes” and other sweets.

Public holidays are further:

kitchen

major item: Mongolian kitchen

the traditional Mongolian kitchen consists primarily of milk products and meat. In far parts of the country no agriculture is possible, why uses the products of the pasture animalswill must. Stutenmilch becomes the national beverage Airag fermented. The remaining milk is processed variously, quark (Aruul ), dried by cream, Kefir, cheese, up to milk liquor. Dte is prepared with milk and salt, and depending upon need with firmAdded changed into a soup. Meat (primarily sheep meat) is normally cooked, or with noodle paste to different courts like e.g. Paste bags combines. As supply and travel provisions meat is also dried and husbands (Borts). This “powder meat” leaves itself then howa modern bag soup with hot water boil up.

literature

major item: Mongolian literature

further topics

  • Zokor, native Blindmulle

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generally

reports on a journey and pictures


coordinates: 47° 36 ' N, 103° 14 ' O

 

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