with the term Mongol become strictly speaking the actual Mongols (Eigenbezeichung: Monggol) understood, which one can arrange linguistically roughly into east and west Mongols. Inbroader sense by it also the Mongolian peoples are understood, thus peoples, who speak a Mongolian language. These have usually different self-designations.
See also: Golden horde/hurdle
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the name “Monggol” originates from the tungusischen languages and originally meant “the Unbesiegbaren”. Once applied to a small insignificant race at the middle Onon, the name under Dschingis Khan became in 13. Century for spreading people designation.
Today's Mongolian Ethnien
in the different states, in which member of Mongolian peoples and Ethnien live, is very differently pulled the dividing lines between “trunk” and “people”. In the country with the largest Mongolian population, the People's Republic China, all Mongols becomeas a people regards. Tümed -, Chahar, Ordos -, bar property -, Burjat - and Oirat - Mongols count all on the one hand people of the Mongols (蒙古族 Menggu too). Besides there are still further peoples, who speak Mongolian languages,:
They rank however - as said - not among the nationality of the Mongols separate are recognized as independent nationalities.
In the state rank Mongolia among the east Mongols :
- Uriankhai and
- the Burjaten; among the west Mongols rank:
- Oiraten, which live particularly in the Altai.
In Russia the Burjaten
- in Burjatien belongs to the east Mongols; among the west Mongols the Oiraten
- in the Russian Altai ranks and
- the Kalmücken on the north bank of the Kaspi sea.
Mongols in China
with censuses in the year 2000 became in China 5.813.947 Mongols (in the sensethe above definition) counted. The Mongols of China distribute themselves as follows on the autonomous areas and provinces:
- 68,72%: Autonomous area internal Mongolia,
- 11.52%: Province Liaoning,
- 2.96%: Province Jilin,
- 2.92%: Province Hebei,
- 2.58%: Uiguri autonomous area Xinjiang,
- 2.43%: Province Heilongjiang,
- 1.48%: Province Qinghai,
- 1.41%: Province Henan,
- 5.98%: Remainder of China.
Apart from the autonomous area internal Mongolia on province level, gives it in China still further Mongolian autonomous administrative arrangements. These are on district level:
- Autonomous district Haixithe Mongols and Tibeter,
- Mongolian autonomous district Bayingolin,
- Mongolian autonomous district Bortala.
On area level is there:
- Autonomous circle Weichang of the Manju and Mongol,
- autonomous circle Harqin of left wings of the Mongols,
- autonomous circle Fuxin of the Mongols,
- autonomous circle Front fermenting lots of the Mongols,
- autonomous circle Dorbod of the Mongols,
- autonomous circle Subei of the Mongols,
- autonomous circle He'nan of the Mongols,
- Mongolian autonomous circle Hoboksar.
Web on the left of
- ethnical minorities the nationality Mongolian in Xinjiang - (Chinese government side on German)
- The Mongolian ethnicminority (Chinese government side on English)
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