Mozambique

of these articles is concerned with a state in the southern Africa. For the island city of the same name, see Ilha de Moçambique.
República de Moçambique
Republic of Mozambique< /font>
Nationalflagge von Mosambik Wappen von Mosambik
(Detail) (detail)
office language Portuguese
capital Maputo
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Armando Guebuza
prime minister Luisa Diogo
surface 801,590 km ²
number of inhabitants 19.406.703 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 24 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 233 US-$ (2004)
independence from Portugal to 25. June 1975
currency Metical (MZM)
time belt UTC +2h
national anthem Pátria Amada
Kfz characteristic MOC
Internet TLD .mz
preselection +258
Mosambiks Lage innerhalb Afrikas
Karte von Mosambik

Mozambique [mozamˈbiːk, mozamˈbɪk] (Portuguese Moçambique [musɐmˈbik]) a state is in southeast Africa. National holiday is the 25. June, Tag of independence (1975). Mozambique is because of the Indian ocean between that10. and that 27. Degree of latitude south. Mozambique borders on Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Simbabwe, South Africa and Swaziland. The road of Mozambique separates the island state Madagascar from the African mainland.

Table of contents

geography

the broadCoastal low country covers the largest part of the south, but becomes it northward more narrowly. Behind the coast the country rises on in the form of steps up to the Tafelland of the high field.

The numerous rivers of the country flow from the high countries eastward into thoseRoad of Mozambique. The largest river is the Sambesi, which is accumulated in its upper run by the Cabora Bassa dam. Further large rivers are the Rovuma, the border river to Tanzania, as well as save and Limpopo. The Malawi lake forms onePart the border with Malawi; its discharge is the almost one, which flows into the Sambesi.

National surface: 801,590 km ² (world rank 34), of it 18% forest and shrub country, 4% field, 55% meadows and pastures

expansion: North south2000 km, west east 50 up to 600 km

national borders: 4,571 km, to Malawi 1,569 km, to South Africa 491 km, to Swaziland 105 km, to Tanzania 756 km, to Zambia 419 km and to Simbabwe 1,231 km)

the coastal length amounts to2,470 km

the largest cities (conditions 1. January 2005) are: Maputo of 1.191.613 inhabitants, Matola of 543,907 inhabitants and Beira of 530,706 inhabitants.

See also: History before the large investigation travels

lived

list of the cities in Mozambique [work on]at the coast before Africa. They operated trade between Africa and India also gold, ivory and slaves.1498 landed Vasco there Gama as first Europeans in Mozambique. On the island of Mozambique (Ilha de Mozambique) it met with the sheikhMoussa Ben Mbiki together, from which the name Mozambique is derived. Whereupon the Portuguese of these commercial centres seized and penetrated on the search for gold the Sambesi along in the interior. Centuries long were content the Portuguese with the trade ofSlaves and worried not largely about the population. Their dictatorship became to in 20. Century accomplished and by hard labour, exploitative work contracts and inconsiderate treatments worsened the living conditions in the colonies much. Until 1898 the city was Ilha deMoçambique capital of the country. It gave also its name to the country.

1890 had to do to Portugal British pressure giving way and without the connection of Angola and Mocambiques to a closed South African colonial empire. Instead the influence took British in the Portuguese coloniesCapital considerably too. Negotiations over a British-German alliance however already led 1898 to the so-called Angola contract: If Portugal money should need, agreed upon Germany and Great Britain a common loan, for which the Portuguese colonies were intended as pledge.In case of the expected inability to pay of Portugal Angola and north Mocambique at Germany should fall, south Mocambique at Great Britain. Germany did without for it the support of the Buren in their fight against Great Britain. The agreement became to 30. August 1898 closed, but never convertedand already 1899 by the extension of the British protection warranty (Windsorvertrag) for Portugal and all its possessions occur. Although the British-German alliance came never, Great Britain strove again 1912-1914 to postpone the final break with the empire. With oneAttendance of the British king in Berlin was gotten 1913 the contract of 1898 from archives and modified even still in favor of Germany. Actually however Great Britain the signing hesitated out to July 1914, then made the assassination attempt of Sarajewo and thatOutbreak of the First World War its conversion anyway not possibly. Thus Portugal remained first in the possession of Angola and Mocambiques. During the war however South Africa explained 1915 Mocambique as the conquest goal, starting from 1917 completely pulled itself tight those the German colonial troops from German East Africa fightingMocambique back and occupied actually far parts of the north half until 1918. As remuneration Portuguese East Africa received the Kionga triangle with the peace from Versailles 1919.

1962 were created the liberty movement FRELIMO. The more strongly the Portuguese at their colonial possession held, all the more radicalbecame the resistance will of the FRELIMO.1964 changed the resistance fighters into the armed fight, which ended successfully in the north very. But only after the carnation revolution and the fall of the diktatorischen regime in Portugal attained Mozambique to 25. June 1975,after scarcely 500 years as colony, independence.Samora Machel became a first president, however not by general elections. 1986 died the FRELIMO president with an aircraft crash. Into the FRELIMO the Marxist forces became generally accepted. There it the state underControl, were also all important posts had by their men occupied. They put the industry under state control and created agricultural production cooperatives. But the drift of European specialists weakened the economy of the country sensitively. Center of the seventies developed a new resistance movement, throughSouth Africa and Rhodesien supports became the RENAMO. The country purged 1976 into a 16-jährigen civil war between FRELIMO and RENAMO, which led to a complete economic collapse. Only 1992, after humans fled over 900 ' 000 dead ones and 1,3 million, could the country by discord troops stabilizes, and which are created first opposition party. Since 1995 Mozambique beside Cameroon is the only member of the Commonwealth OF nation, which not formerly British colony was. The emigration of the white ones in large extent,the economic dependence on South Africa, a continuous Dürre and the long-drawn-out civil war between the governing Frelimo and the rebel movement Renamo supported by South Africa obstructed the economic development of the country. Since the break with the marxism Leninism and the Einpateienherrschaft of the FRELIMO hasthe Renamo as a political party is established and placed since 1992 the parliamentary opposition in the country. In the February of the yearly 2000 heavy rainfalls lead to a tide disaster, which demands numerous human lives, a setback for the rising country.

Politics

the dominant Frelimo government put down 1989 officially the marxism. In the following the year set up condition guaranteed free elections in a multiple party system and the free free-market economy.

Peace treaty negotiated of the UN set 1992 for the fights between government troops and Renamo rebelsan end. Since the break with the marxism Leninism and the a party rule of the FRELIMO the RENAMO under your leader was established and places Afonso Dhlakama as a political party since 1992 the parliamentary opposition in the country.

The intergovernmental relations between the Federal RepublicGermany and Mozambique were loaded 2004 by an occupation of the German message in Maputo (see Web left).

provinces

Mozambique is arranged into 10 provinces and the capital district:

economics

Mrs. with the corn harvest
Fischer in Mozambique
traditional Fischerboot

general

of Mozambique economics is predominantly based on agriculture. Into the 1990er yearsthe economy was weakened by the civil war, the drift of Portuguese specialists and several dry periods. At this time the most Plantagen and industrial companies were in the possession of the state. Only 1990 introduced the government the free free-market economy. The currency of Mozambiqueis the Metical. 1 Metical = 100 Centavos. 1 CHF are approximately 17,000 Metical.

Although over 80% of the employed persons in the agriculture are active, they produce only 24% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. This clarifies that the agrarian revolution stilldid not run off. The most important agricultural products are Cashewnüsse, Zuckerrohr, cotton and dte.

The majority of the annual Holzeinschlages is used as fuel. The Küstenfischerei developed in the last years to an important restaurant factor. Are fishedmainly Thunfisch and shrimps.

infrastructure

road system

railway

see: CFM

ports

see: Maputo, Quelimane, Beira, Lumbo, Nacala, Pemba

electricity

communication

of Bodenschätze

Mozambique has important reserves of raw materials. There are occurrencesat coal, salt, bauxite, iron ore, gold, marble, natural gas, titanium and aluminum. The industry is limited particularly to the processing of the agricultural products. The raw materials are used little.

foreign trade

The commercial balance sheet of Mozambique is strongly negative. Are exported mainly Cashewnüsse, crustaceans, cotton and sugars. Are imported machines, electronic devices, oil, food and consumer goods.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion was appropriate for public expenditures for thatAbout 78

35%

[work on] to population and over 30 languages (of it 20 Bantu dialects). Portuguese, the office language, becomes from only somewhat over2.5% (primarily in cities) of the total population spoken as native language. About 96% of the total population are Bantu sprachige peoples. Further 20% control it than foreign language apart from their native language. Most Mosambikaner speaks however more than one language.

Religion: 50% trailer African religions, 20% trailer Islam, 30% like a Christian.

to culture

to the internationally most well-known groups of music of the country belong Mabulu, Eyuphuro, Ghorwane and Kapa Dech. Information and music under: www.mozambique-music.com

objects of interest

GorongosaNational park lies in the province Sofala. It is 150 km far away from the city Beira. By the civil war fallow the administration together and the animal existence was very strongly dezemiert. The park is since 1995 in the reconstruction.

The tourismstill is in the this part of the country in the child shoes. Accommodations such as hotel etc. is RSR, but by the positive beginnings of the controlled tourism that will soon change.

health

HEAVE/AIDS is in the country inlarge problem. 13% of the population are concerned (conditions: 2004). AIDS represents a large danger for all, which are received infection risks: Unprotected Sexualkontakte, careless syringes or Kanülen and blood transfusions can save a substantial risk.

Since at the end of of 2003 spreads inMozambique, in particular in the Maputo province, a heavy Cholera - epidemic disease out. Most important preventive measure against this possibly life-threatening bacterial failure illness is careful hygiene (z. B. frequent hand washing). When meals and drinking must be absolutely paid attention to hygiene (only abgekochtes wateror be called beverages; no ice cubes; only freshly prepared courts; no consumption of raw vegetable and fruit, which cannot be peeled). As additional measure knows a sip inoculation, their effect however on approx. Is 6 months limited, to be considered. ThatVaccine is not certified in Germany.

The health service of the foreign office recommends as meaningful inoculation protection: Protection against Tetanus, Diphtherie, Polio and hepatitis A, with long-term stay over three months also hepatitis B. With special exposition (land stay, hunt,Jogging and. A.) can be meaningful inoculation protection against rabies and typhoid fever. In the personal consulting discussion with the tropical doctor and/or. the inoculation physician with tropics and travel-medical experience are these and other questions to be decided.

A valid yellow fever inoculation becomes with entry from oneYellow fever area requires. Occasionally it is required at the border also with entry from non-endemic areas.

By hygenic eating and drinking (only Abgekochtes, nothing lau warming up) and consistent mosquito protection (Repellentien, mosquito net, covering clothes, behavior) most can toPart also dangerous fall through and many infection illnesses to be avoided completely. In addition also the malaria counts.

For the malaria prophylaxis are different use up-requiring medicines (z. B. Malarone, Doxycyclin, Lariam) on the market available. The selection and personal adjustmentas well as side effects and incompatibilities with other medicines should absolutely before the income of a chemoprophylaxis with a Tropical and/or. Travel physician to be discussed.

The medical supply in the country is not to be compared with Europe and is often technically, machine and/or hygenically problematic.Frequently also European trained English or French speaking physicians are missing. A sufficient, there valid health insurance protection and a reliable travel back getting insurance are urgently recommended. An individual travel pharmacy should be carried forward and be protected accordingly on the way the temperatures (cooling chain?). Also for this is individually tailored adviceby a tropical doctor and/or. Travel physician meaningfully.

Mozambique suffers besides still, due to wrong flood adjustment of the dams Cohara Bassa and Kariba, from flood problems (particularly with the Sambesifluss). Hochwasserkatstrophen promote the propagation of Cholera.

Please you consider the reference to health topics!


most important media

broadcast:

Rádio Moçambique (national radio) sends in Portuguese and different local languages.

Television:

national television (TVM, 1 channel, sends starting from afternoon)) and 1 private station.

Daily papers:

Notícias (Maputo), Diário de Moçambique (Beira) as well as the fax newspapersMediafax, Imparcial and vertical.

Weekly papers:

Domingo, Zambeze, Savana, demo, Jornal there Tarde Political magazine speed

sons and daughters of the country

Literature

  • Joseph Hanlon: Mozambique - revolution in the cross fire, 1986, issa publishing house. ISBN 3-921614-25-2

Web on the left of


coordinates: 10°-27° S, 30°-41° O

 

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