|of these articles treats the Russian capital Moscow. To the Weiler Moscow of the municipality Ramsen sports club in the canton work living, Switzerland, see Moscow sports club; to the city Moscow surrounding administrative district of the same name see Oblast Moscow; to also Moscow and/or. Moscow riverto river mentioned see Moskwa.|
|Coat of arms||map|
|federation circle:||Central Russia|
|kind of municipality:||City with subject status|
|surface:||1.097, 12 km ²|
|inhabitants:||10.406.578 (1. January 2005)|
|Population density:||9,485 inhabitants for each km ²|
|height:||156 m and. NN|
|postal zip codes:||101000-129626|
|telephone preselection:||since 01.12.2005: 495; 499< /br>(before times 095; 099)|
|Geographical location:|| |
Coordinates: 55° 46 ' N, 37° 40 ' O 55° 46 ' N, 37° 40 ' O
|Kfz characteristics:||77; 97; 99; 177|
|city arrangement:||10 districts|
the city administration:
|Russia,< /br> 125032 Moscow,< /br> Ul. Тwerskaja, D.13|
|mayor:||Juri Michailowitsch< /br> Luschkow|
|list of the cities in Russia|
Moscow (Russian Москва́ [mʌs'kva] ? / License) is the capital of Russia and with 10.406.578 inhabitants inthe actual city and 14.435.176 in the dye (conditions in each case 1. January 2005) the largest city of Europe. It is the political, economical and cultural center of the country with Lomonossow university, universities and technical schools as well as numerous churches, theatres, museums, galleries andthat 540 meters high TV tower. Moscow is seat of the Russian-orthodox church: The Patriarch resided in the Danilow monastery, the largest Russian-orthodox church building is the Muscovites Christian proceeds he cathedral.
The Kremlin and Red Square in the center of Moscow stand since 1990on the UNESCO - list of the world cultural heritage. With nine head stations, four international airports and three inland ports are the city of most important traffic centers and largest industrial city of Russia.
Table of contents
geography, northern latitude is and in the European part of Russia, 55.75 degrees37.62 degrees of eastern length. The city is on the average 156 meters over the sea level in the hill country between Oka and Volga and because of the partially steep banks of the Moskwa, to a tributary of the Oka, which flow again into the Volga.
The Moskwa crosses the city in Mäandern from northwest to southeast on a length of about 80 kilometers. Within Moscow those amounts to width of the river 120 to 200 meters. Approximately 120 small rivers will inflow the Moskwa. With exception of14 was shifted it all into underground tubing systems. The 1937 128 kilometers finished placed long Moscow Volga channel, which branches in the west of the city toward the north, artificial lake provides and/or to the Volga for the navigable connection of the river to the Iwankowoer.
Those, With few exceptions, the 1962, 109 kilometers put on long motorway circuit forms city boundaries. The city has a surface of 1.097, 12 square kilometers. The green areas constitute for instance a third of the city. In addition about 100 parks belong and over 800 maintained plants, enrichedby approximately 500 ponds.
Around the city 30 to 40 kilometers long a forest park zone with numerous recovery and entertainment mechanisms pulls itself. The surface of the forest park belt amounts to 1,725 square kilometers.
Moscow is the capital of the federation circle central Russia and that Oblast Moscow, which covers the region Moscow without the city. Within the federation circle central Russia is Moscow its own federation subject.
|Urban district||Russian name||inhabitant (2005)|
|the north (2)||Северный||1.106.673|
|northeast (3)||Северо Восточный||1.237.069|
|northwest (9)||Северо Западный||788,105|
|the east (4)||Восточный||1.385.621|
|the south (6)||Южный||1.584.665|
|Southeast (5)||Юго Восточный||1.131.738|
|southwest (7)||Юго Западный||1.199.593|
|the west (8)||Западный||1.062.737|
|center (1)||Центральный||of 694,664|
each of the ten urban districts has a Präfekten, which is directly subordinated to the Muscovite mayor. The Präfekten is appointed by the mayor. Each of the urban districts hasan own parliament, which consists of eleven selected delegates.
Moscow is in the continental climate zone. The average yearly temperature amounts to 5 degrees Celsius, the annual average of the precipitation lies with 688 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in July (92mm in the monthly means), few in March (34 mm).
In addition, in the winter the temperature in Moscow amounts to -12 to -15 degrees Celsius, sometimes temperatures under -20 degrees Celsius is usually measured. Thaw quite often prevails. The hoist are moderate,air is drying. The Windchill - factor is therefore relatively low, i.e. the felt temperature is usually higher than the actual. Stronger frosts are relatively easy thus to bear.
Muscovites the temperature means amounts to in December -6,1,in January -9.3 and in February -7.7 degrees Celsius. The summer in the capital is usually warmly and sunny, every now and then in addition, very hot - temperatures of over 35 degrees Celsius are not rarity. The average temperature of many years amounts toin June 16.6, in July 18.1 and in August 16.4 degrees Celsius.
In spring the average temperature amounts to in March -2.2, in April 5.8 and in May 12.9 degrees Celsius. In the autumn the average temperature is in September about 10,9, in Octoberwith 5 and in November with -1,1 degrees Celsius.
The thaw in the city begins after computations Muscovite Phänologen around the 16. March, the ice break on the Moskwa around the 12. April. With the first thunderstorms is around the 2.To count May, on the first night frost around the 14. September, and the first snow around the 28. October. The Moskwa freezes around the 18. November again too. A firm Schneedecke forms around the 23. November.
In Moscow are the climate conditions in the city center, the suburbs and only quite in the environment differently. In the city center it is drier and warmer. In the suburbs the average temperature is lower around 2-3 degrees Celsius than in the city centre.
played for many centuries Moscow a outstanding role in the life of the whole country. „Each Russian humans feel, if he looks on Moscow that it is its nut/mother “, said the writer Lew Tolstoi. Since nine centuries spreadsitself Moscow to both sides of the Moskwa - river out. In numerous legends, songs and legends the Russian people the beauty and size of its capital besingt.
One of the legends tells of the fact that the prince Juri Dolgoruki (1090 - 1157)a wooden city to establish instructed, and that this city was designated after the river, on its banks it up-grew. The first written mention of Moscow originates from the year 1147, which applies therefore as the year of the foundation of Moscow. But alreadyfor a long time before it there were human addresses in the place, where today Moscow stands. Archaeological excavations testify that the oldest of them had developed before approximately 5,000 years.
Since its emergence Moscow is inseparably connected with the fate of the Russian people.Of approximate the foreigners of earlier times did not call the Russian state „Moskowia “and its inhabitants „Moskowiter “.
1156 developed first, still wooden weir system of the Kremlin, in whose protection the small market town developed gradually to a considerable settlement. In the year 1238 were conquered and down-burned the city by the Mongols. 1263 were raised Moscow to the principality. In the first half 14. Century - the city counted meanwhile 30,000 inhabitants - the tatarische Grosskhan recognized the Muscovite large prince as(it however tributary) head from Russia.
The victory over act arene in the battle of Kulikowo to 8. September 1380, aforementioned by the large prince Dmitri Donskoi, released not from the hegemony of the golden horde/hurdle (1382Moscow was even again down-burned and geplündert), but the city strengthened thereby its political and military reputation substantially and won therefore steadily at economic power.1480 could shake it off the act arene rule and became the capital of the Russian realm.
Since 1462 governing large prince of Moscow Iwan III., the large one (1440 - 1505), the Byzantine princess Sofia (Zoe) married 1472 Palaiologos, a niece of the last eastRoman emperor Konstantin XI. Palaiologos, and took over from there the autocratic state ideaand their symbols: the double eagle and the yard ceremony. Since that time Moscow is considered as „third Rome “and stronghold of the Orthodoxie.
Moscow becomes large city
in the two last decades 15. Century began the development of the Kremlin,in its periphery now in large number craftsmen and buyers established themselves. The number of inhabitants rose soon thereafter to more than 100,000, so that around 1600 a Ringmauer around Moscow and an earth entrenchment were added, the flowering city from now on outwardshielded.1591 had been afflicted it the latter times of act arene, 1605 to 1612 were it in the hand of the Polish and Byelorussian Schlachta (aristocracy).
While the first cloth paper and Ziegelmanufakturen, glass factories and powder mills developed, those kulminiertensocial contrasts of the large realm:1667 rose the farmers in Volga - and Dongebiet against the increasing suppression, its leader, Stepan Rasin, was executed 1671 at Red Square in Moscow. In the year 1687 the first university of Russia is, those„Slawisch Greek academy “opened, 1703 appeared the first printed Russian newspaper „Wedomosti “. In the year 1712 went to Petersburg under Zar Peter the large one (1672 - 1725) the privilege of the capital on the again-created sank over, but Moscow remained thateconomical and mentally cultural center of the country.1755 were opened in Moscow the first Russian university.
With the Moscow 18. Century is linked the work outstanding Russian writer and poet like Alexander Sumarokow, Denis Fonwisin, Nikolai Karamsin andmany different. In Moscow the large Russian scholar Mikhail Lomonossow began his way into the science. Even in later times lived and worked in Moscow many outstanding Russian writers and poet, scientist and artist, those by their work notonly to the Russian, but also to the world culture made an immense contribution.
in the patriotic war of 1812 as Napoléon Bonaparte (1769 - 1821) with its „large army “on Moscow zumarschierte, lost the cityin an area conflagration - the inhabitants ignited their houses on and fled from the city - of two thirds of their built volumes. But in Moscow the French army came to a halt, here it because of hunger and cold weather to the reversal was forced, thosewith its fall ended.
In the spring 1813 the using grossstilige again and reconstruction blew up rapidly the old urban defense ring and provided for the city of the center 19. Century on by brisk road and building of railroad lines connection to the most important citiesthe country.1890 drove the first electrical streetcars; the first census of the country found to 28. January 1897 instead of, which was population of the city on approximately one million increased, and until 1914 had it doubled.
Into the latterDecades 19. Century increased the social tensions. The concentration of the industry, primarily the light industry, was here, of sank Petersburg apart, furthest progressed, the abolition of the body characteristic in the year 1861 had ten thousands of landless farmers to the Lohnarbeit into thoseCities floated.1898 were created in Moscow the social-democratic labour party of Russia.
The assumption of power by the communists
the Russian revolution from 1905 to 1907 seized the city in December 1905, as the Muscovites workers of the political mass striketo the armed rebellion turned into. The economic and supplying chaos in the 1. World war continued to stir up the social tensions. 1917 became during the February revolution Zar Nikolaus II. (1868 - 1918) fallen. In the same year Lenin led (1870 - 1924)in sank Petersburg the October Revolution, which led to the civil war from 1917 to 1922 and for the seizure of power of the communist Bolsheviks in Russia.
To 12. March 1918 was explained Moscow as the capital of the country and the government moved into the Kremlinat Red Square. To 30. December 1922 was created there the USSR. After completion of the civil war 1925 became a fundamental transformation of Moscow after new principles concerning town construction, the one improvement of the housing conditions of the population and the removal of the misery dwellings toOutskirts of a town planned, tackled.1926 counted the city again two million inhabitant.
1935 began a complex reorganization of Moscow with „the master planner decided by Josef Stalin for urban redevelopment “- at that time the broad radial roads were opened put on and the underground,over the Moskwa one stretched new bridges and built the Moscow Volga channel. Across the old part of town new Magistralen was struck, numerous historical architectural monuments yielded oversized Soviet buildings of splendors. About 200,000 building workers - predominantly political prisoners - were at the conversion of the master plannertaken part.
The complete destruction old Moscow became paradoxically only by the 2. World war prevents, which led for adjustment the work. Also the highest building of the world, the 415 meters high „palace of the Soviets “, could not be finished placed any longer.In place of to 5. December 1931 blown up Christian proceeds he cathedral should show the enormous policy and cultural forum the superiority of the socialist society model. At the execution however only the foundation arrived, because with outbreak „of the Great Patriotic War “the project was shut down - andafter the war not again taken up.
The Second World War
after the invasion of the German armed forces to 22. June 1941 into the Soviet Union at that time began to 30. September of the yearly their offensive on Moscow. Approximately 80Divisions, among them 14 tank and eight mechanized divisions as well as hundred airplanes, thousands tanks, cannons and garnet throwers were used against the capital.Adolf Hitler explained, he will remove the parade of his troops in Moscow in own person. From the plannedFestivenesses became however nothing. Another parade found however to 7. November at Red Square instead of, the traditional military parade of the Soviet army.
To 15. November started 2. Offensive one of the Germans, they could into individual southern suburbsengage. The Soviet counter attack began to 5. December 1941 was struck back, meanwhile the German army around 100 to 300 kilometers. Luftwaffe flew 12,000 employments against Moscow, but only one part of the machines could reach the city. In that The German troops 250,000 men, 1,300 tanks, 2,500 cannons, more than 15,000 motor vehicles and much other material lost battle around Moscow. About 700,000 Soviet soldiers were killed, wounded or missed. This was the first large defeat of the German armed forcesagainst the Soviet Union and generally on the European mainland, hardly six months after the beginning of the blitzkrieg against the USSR.
The battle at the Volga of July 1942 until February 1943 led the defeat of the German troops in at that timeSoviet Union. To 24. June 1945 took place at Red Square in Moscow the victory parade of the Soviet army. On the Kremlin wall rests the body unknown quantities of the soldier, who fell with the defense of the capital. On its gravestone those becameWords in accordance with ice ELT:
- Your name is unknown,
- your hero act is unsterblich.
- Your name is unknown,
The development after the Second World War
Moscow was again developed after the heavy destruction in the war. In the year 1947 one touched the resolution, the cityto provide eight selected locations with multistoried buildings. Because Moscow had important orienting points by the outline of numerous churches and cathedrals as well as the now generally higher land development only, but also their once pictorial silhouette lost. The Soviet leadership demanded with the fact that thoseBuildings copies of foreign Wolkenkratzer may not be, but have to be coined/shaped by Russian architecture tradition.
To 5. March 1953 dies Josef Stalin on its Datscha in Kunzewo with Moscow. It was aufgebahrt first in the Mausoleum at Red Square beside Lenin. InStalins body was removed for course „of the Entstalinisierung beginning “ under head of the government Nikita Khrushchev 1961 from the Mausoleum and buried at the Kremlin wall.
A particularly intensive building happening experienced Moscow after the year 1955. However in the time interval from 1961 to 1970the new building surface constituted two and a half times as much as the total floor space whole before-revolutionary Moscow. 1970 had risen the number of inhabitants to nearly sieved millions.
1980 were Moscow venue of the XXII. Olympic plays. End of the 1980er years always turned out the Soviet economymore into a crisis. In the course of the policy of president Mikhail Gorbatschow (Perestrojka and Glasnost) the economic fall of the country became ever more obvious. In some areas large lack prevailed to the supply. The displeasure of the population always unloaded itselfopenly.
In August 1991 Gorbachev wanted to submit a contract for a new Soviet Union to the signature. In order to prevent and the old union save this, initiated in Moscow some generals, cabinet members and the KGB - boss to 19. August of the sameYearly a Putschversuch against the president. After its failure two days later stepped four months after to 25. December 1991 Gorbachev of its office as a president back. The date marks at the same time the end of the first communist state.
Moscow since thatCollapse of the Soviet Union
1992 let selected Boris Yel'tsin a federation contract, which granted extensive authority to the subjects of Russia sign the one year before to the president of Russia. In September 1993 it solved the congress of the Russian Volksdeputierten and the highest Soviet up. At the 3. and 4. October of the same yearly came it into Moscow again to a Putschversuch of conservative politicians and their trailer. When this the white house (parliament building), which city hall and the TV tower in Moscow occupied, left Yel'tsin the rebellionby force (190 dead ones) strike down, in order to decide so a condition conflict to its favour.
To 12. December 1993 discharged the people a new condition and took place at the same time for the first time free elections with several competitive parties. Of 5. to 7. September 1997 celebrated the city with altogether 450 meetings the 850. Anniversary of their establishment.
In the year 1999 Moscow was shaken by the most devastating terrorist attacks of its history. To 9. September led a bomb assassination attempt on a neunstöckiges house at the Gerjanow road to 95Dead ones and 264 hurt. To 13. Septembers died with a notice on a neunstöckiges house at the covering bunk Chaussee 121 humans, nine were hurt. The authority of the notices could not be clarified until today. While the government Chechnian, Accuses of critic makes terrorists responsible of the Russian president secret service agent the bombs in the house cellars to have deposited.
to 19. August 2000 became the 1931 blown up Christian proceeds he cathedral, to which largest Russian-orthodox building of churches of the world again-opens. At the beginning ofSeptember 2002 had to be proclaimed in some districts of Moscow the state of emergency; the smoke of several hundred forest and peat fires in the environment, penetrated into the city, brought the public life in Moscow occasionally to succumbing.
To 23. October 2002 stormeda command of 41 Chechnian Geiselnehmern, among them 19 Mrs., the musical theatre „northeast “, brought approximately 800 spectators, musicians and actors into its force. The Chechnian rebel Mowsar Barajew led the assault, as a supervisor applies the field commander Schamil Bassajew.During the conquest by Russian special police units 170 humans, under it 129 hostages, died to the employment of a war gas.
With a notice on juvenile participants of a rockfestival on the Muscovite airfield Tuschino 5 came to. July 2003 including that suicide assassin inside16 humans around the life. To 6. February 2004 with a bomb attack on a fully occupied Metro in the proximity of the station Awtosawodskaja 39 humans were killed and hurt 140.
Moscow is from age point of attractionfor foreigners. The first settlements became already of traveled buyers, craftsmen, leaning people and their descendants in 16. Century based. The German settlement on the Jausa bank was the largest of it. In addition, humans from other parts of Europe lived there. At that time those hadCity of about 100,000 inhabitants. Today there is with ten million one hundred times so much. From the ethnical variety the population in Moscow the old place names of compact settling witness to not-Russian people shanks.
Altogether live today in Moscow member of more thanhundred nationalities and Ethnien. 90 per cent of the inhabitants are ethnical Russians. Largest ethnical minorities are Ukrainer, act arene and Jew with about in each case two per cent portion of the population. However is not the inflow of illegal over settlers from the former Soviet Unionseized.
Stranger hostileness gives it limited against so-called. “Black ones”, under what both humans from the Caucasus and from central Asia are summarized. The terror of individual Chechens in Moscow is considered as a cause for stronger refusal of the black ones.
The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitantsafter the respective area conditions. Until 1956 it concerns usually around estimations, from 1959 to 2002 around census results and 2005 a computation. The numbers are however very inaccurate, since in Moscow a great many humans without registration lived and live.On the one hand it gives in Moscow many “illegal ones” from the remaining succession states of the USSR, on the other hand was allowed and may not to each citizen of the USSR and/or today the Russian federation in Moscow live, it was and is with restrictions for it onespecial authorization necessarily.
there Moscow seat of the president and its Präsidialverwaltung, the federation government as well as numerous Ministries and authorities is, is naturally coined/shaped the policy of the city administration of Moscow by coexistence in addition, conflicts with that Kremlin and the white house. This is since long time a constant of the policy in the capital of Russia.
The latent conflict is strengthened, if the city head announces ambitions on the guidance of the state - or it it to be after-said. Thosemost important participants in this conflict are once the president and the prime minister with the many officials and officials of state as well as on the other side of the mayors Moskaus and the numerous coworkers of the city administration.
The city administration practices executive power (implementing force) inMoscow out, which consists of the government of the city and the governing mayor. The mayor is selected together with the vice-mayor by the population of Moscow on four years. The legislation (legislative force) is placed of the Stadtduma of Moscow. This existsfrom altogether 35 delegates and supervises in its function the mayor.
The voters in Moscow, who constitute about ten per cent of the entire constituency of Russia, were correct with elections since beginning of the 1990er years usually more strongly for liberals or social liberalsParties of the opposition, as the remaining part of the country. An exception of this trend are the overwhelming election results for the mayor Juri Luschkow of over 70 per cent, officiating at present. Luschkow becomes despite its pragmatic economic and investment policy towardEurope as liberal and „Westler “does not regard. With the elections into the city council at the end of of 2005 achieved the “party of power”, some Russia, an absolute majority.
Partnerships between cities
Moscow maintains with the following cities partnerships:
culture and objects of interest
the Bolschoi theatre (large theatre) in Moscow is the most well-known theatre of the city. It exists since the year 1776. At that time prince Peter Urussow received the exclusive right from the Zaren, in Moscow lookingto specify and Singspiele. The first actors were body-own of the prince.
The performances took place first still in a private house, only in the year 1780 developed the building of theatres at the today's location. The building stands on Holzpfählen in a swampy part MuscoviteCenter. First the theatre was designated after the road Petrowsky theatre leading past. In 18. Century operas of Russian composers were specified predominantly, in addition, dramas and ballet.
1805 burned the theatre building down and became 20 years later by the architect Ossip Bowe (also Osip Bove) establishes newly. It received Bolschoi theatres only at that time to the names. To 18. January 1825 was again opened the new Bolschoi theatre with the pro log the triumph of the Musen to the music by Alexei Werstowski and Alexander Aljabjew. 1853 destroyed again a fire the interior arrangement of the theatre. Thereupon the architect Albert Cavos equipped the building still more preciously. Until today up to smaller changes this mechanism remained. By its unusual architecture in the style of the Russian classicismbelongs the Bolschoi theatre today to the most beautiful theatres of the world.
Today work there about 900 actors, dancer, singer and musician. Star are to be mostly found on tour in all world on the way and therefore rarely in Moscow. The Bolschoi theatre is todaythe homeland of one of the oldest and best ballet companies of the world, the world-famous Bolschoi ballet.
under the many museums of the city „the Puschkin museum for screen end of arts is particularly worth seeing “with outstanding exhibits to culture history of theAntiquity, for the Renaissance and extensive painting collection primarily Western European artist.
Very interesting is also „the Tretjakow gallery “. It is the largest museum of the Russian national art and presents more than 100,000 paintings, graphics and sculptures of the 11. Century toto the present. The gallery was built 1902. The founder was a Russian buyer Pawel Michajlowitsch Tretjakow (1832 - 1898). As a passionate collecting tank Tretjakow from the year 1856 began on to acquire the works contemporary Russian painter. 1892 amounted toits collection, which covered now also icons, approximately 2,000 works. In this year he gave his collection of the city Moscow.
After Tretjakows death was led the museum of the Stadtduma. To the members of the Duma usually Russian artists belonged howIlja Ostruchow. After the October Revolution in the year 1917 the gallery attained national status. 1920 to 1930 collections were transferred more numerously different museums into the Tretjakow gallery. Center of the 1930er years found there, because of the space lack following on the constant increase, extensiveExtensions instead of. Due to the large crowd of visitors a further around and development took place in the 1980er and 1990er years. 1995 were opened also a department for modern trend art.
East the city centre, in the earlier Andronnikow monastery, the museum of the painter Andrei Rubljow ( 1360 - 1430) is, in that the masterthe Russian icon painting and founder of the Muscovites mark school in 15. Century as monk lived, died and was also buried. The museum accommodates icon painting 14. to 17. Century.
to the numerous buildings worth seeing belong many certifications of the architecture outPast and present, monuments of famous writers, scholar and statesmen as well as Monumente and monuments in honours of large historical events. The Kremlin and Red Square stand since 1990 on the UNESCO - list of the world cultural heritage.
the most importantBuilding and historical monument is the Kremlin, the oldest part of Moscow. There is the seat of the Russian president. Up to the today's day remained walls and 19 towers receive became in 15. Century established and were at that time oneconsiderable attachment plant.
The oldest architectural monuments are the Maria passing away cathedral of 1479, the notice cathedral of 1489 and the ore gel cathedral from the year 1509, the church to the garb putting the nut/mother God of 1486, the facet palace from the year 1491 as well as that80 meters high bell tower of Iwan the large one (Kolokolnja Iwana Welikogo) of 1508.
Later the church to the twelve Aposteln and the Patriarchenpalast and the Terem palace, both came delighted into 17. Century, the arsenal of 1737 as well as thatSenate building from the year 1787 in addition. In latter building and worked from 1918 to 1922 Lenin lived. Its work room and its dwelling remained as, as during its lifetimes.
The building of the preparation chamber of 1851 contains a singularMuseum with collections of old weapons and Kriegstrophäen, the largest collection of Zarengewändern, Insignien, Thronsesseln, Kutschen and other masterpieces of Russian and foreign arts and crafts, which are connected with the history of Russia. Nearby the bell tower are the Zarenkanone and Zarenglocke, singularMonuments of the Russian caster art 16. to 18. Century.
1961 were established on the Kremlin area the congress palace, a material and at the same time festive building, whose large hall has a capacity of 6.000 persons. Here important public meetings and international congresses findinstead of, in addition, plays as well as opera and ballet performances of the Bolschoi theatre.
to the Kremlin borders Red Square, which main place of Moscow, on which the Lenin mouse oleum is. ThatName is derived from the Russian Krasnaja Ploschtschad . The designation Red Square is not politically (from the time of the Soviet Union) motivated and does not refer not to the color of the Kremlin walls and - piles up, their painting up to 19. Century knowswas. The designation originates from that 16. Century, and actually means „beautiful place “. Although krasnaja on oldRussian „beautifully “meant, „“the main meaning of this word in the today's Russian one became red. The designation of the place becomes mostly also from the Russiansin the new sense understood and accordingly in German with „red “one translates.
Beside the place are some graves. Into the Kremlin wall urns with the ash of famous personalities from politics, science and culture are let in; for example of Josef Stalin and Juri Gagarin. On Red Square stand the Basilius cathedral, establish 1561, as well as a monument for Kusma Minin, a leader of the people resistance of Nischni Nowgorod and prince Dimitri Posharski (1578 - 1642), the heroes of theWar of liberation against the Polish-Byelorussian intervention at the beginning 17. Century, finished placed 1818 of Iwan Petrowitsch Martos (1754 - 1835).
At the Kremlin wall the tomb unknown quantities of the soldier is, one 1967 established honour mark for those in the Alexander gardenPleased one 2. World war. Close by the Kremlin and Red Square, adjacent on the former hotel Rossija, remained some the oldest buildings of stones of the Kitaj Gorod, the Muscovite old part of town, received - among them for buildings of the oldZarenhofs, builds 16 between that. and 18. Century, the house of the Bojaren Romanow, the Annen church from that 15. Century as well as other interesting churches and houses.
The Twerskaja road
the Twerskaja road is the main street of Moscow. The way after Twer and further after Sank Petersburg takes here its beginning. Here once Tatjana Larina brought, the heroine in of the novel in verses „Eugen Onegin “from Alexander Puschkin (1799 - 1837), into the city. In the 1930er and 1940er years became the roadextended and with new buildings cultivated, some old were moved by their location and shifted into the depth of the residential areas. The road is today an assembly point of luxuriösen hotels, bars, restaurants and retail businesses.
1782 are here after a draftthe architect Matwej Fjodorowitsch Kasakow (1733 - 1812) the city hall of the city Moscow established. Opposite the city hall the rider fixed image of the founder of the city Juri Dolgoruki rises. The monuments of the Russian poets Alexander Puschkin and Vladimir Majakowski (1893 - 1930), manufactured by the sculptors Alexander Opekuschin 1880 and/or Alexander Kibalnikow 1958, stands at the crossing of the road with the boulevard and for the garden ring.
Boulevard and garden ring
roads and places of theTown centre frame numerous further building and historical monuments 15. to 18. Century. End 16. Century the center of Moscow surrounded 30 towers with nine kilometers are enough and a counting Stadtmauer, which did not remain. In its place that developedBoulevard ring.
Beyond the Stadtmauer the city moved additionally an about 16 kilometer long earth barrier with Palisaden and wooden military towers. Today the garden ring marks the former process of the barrier ditch, which star shaped the largest roads of Moscow go off. The Komsomolskaja place places thatMain railway gate of the capital and is one of the most animated places of Moscow. From the three here convenient stations railroad lines run apart after different directions.
The building ensemble of the place is impressing. In his creation famous architects participated. Konstantin clay/tone sketched that “ , Fjodor Schechtel „Kasaner station (Moscow) opened 1851 „Lenin grader finished placed station „to the Jaroslawer station “ of 1904, Alexei Wiktorowitsch Schtschussew the 1926 “and the club building and Leonid Poljakow the 28geschossige hotel „Leningradskaja “from 1953.
Moscow town center
of four kilometers of the Kremlin convenient, is the momentarily largest building project in Europe. Already into the 1990er years one had dreamed in Moscow about one „ Russian Manhattan “, but because of shortage of money the project was put on ice.With the economic recovery and placed by private investments in the year 2001 the first Wolkenkratzer finished, now are nearly all projects in the building. Thus the enormous demand of the office buildings in Moscow should be covered. The completion of all buildings is for the year 2012 planned and the costs amount to over twelve billion US Dollar.
To Moscow town center belongs also the highest office building of Europe, „to Federazija “, on German „federation “. To 9. February 2005 became the foundation-stone for that440 meters high buildings put. On the completion in the year 2007 one counts. Record owner is so far with 264.1 meters height of the triumph Palace (soot. Триумф Палас) in Moscow. The master planning for the two towers in Moscow took place via the German architect partnership PeterP. Schweger & Sergei Tchoban. The higher of the two towers will cover 87 floors. In the building in the form of two pointed sails office space, dwellings, a hotel, a Fitnessklub with swimming pool and an aquarium will be.
Are worth seeing the further „lock the Ostankino “, a unique architecture monument 18. Century, the TV tower of 1967, the Schuchow Radioturm from the year 1922, the department store GUM , the largest in Russia, that, built between 1888 and 1893 Arbat, an old historical borough, 1493 first time mentions, and the Christian proceeds he cathedral, in the year 2000 again-opens, as well as “, Stalinfinger “builds the sieved „ Wolkenkratzer or „the seven sisters Stalins “, like for example mentioned the hotel in the sugar baker style, also „Ukraina, the State Department and the Lomonossow university.
With a height of 537 meters the Muscovite TV tower is in Ostankino the second highest of the world. The trip goal in the north of the city was built in the time from 1960 to 1967. After thatFire in August 2000, was manufactured the prospect platform in June 2001 in 337 meters height again, remains however for the time being inaccessible for visitors. Several high-speed elevators carried the tourists before the fire within 58 seconds up. With storm can the Turmspitze more than ten meters decay.
Directly beside the TV tower and the Ostankino Fernsehzentrum is the old aristocracy seat Ostankino. In past epochs that had served the Schlös Russian prince family Scheremetjew as countryseat. After the October Revolution was here „the museumfurnished for the art work of the body-own “.
The Lomonossow university is in the outlying districts of the city. Over the Moskwa unmistakably to constitute high central buildings of the university, 1949 to 1953 establishes 240 meters, around which four 17etagige Seitenflügel group themselves. About30,000 students are here written, and in order everyone that approximately 45,000 areas to visit, one would have to put a way back of 145 kilometers. Close by the Luschniki Sportpark - most important venue of the olympic plays 1980 - with that lies 84,000 guestsseizing Luschniki stadium, builds in the years 1955 and 1956, several smaller match plants and the sport palace for 17.000 spectators.
„the fermenting AI park for culture and recovery “is most popular under that approximately 100 parks in Moscow. It is in the center of the city, on the bank of the Moskwa. Here there are numerous attractions, a boat station, bars, restaurant, cafe and in the winter ice-skating rinks.
On the free light stages here artist arises, at the holidays takes place to people entertainments and colourful fireworks is burned down.The Neskutschni garden with pictorial hills, Hainen and small bridges forms the older part of the park. Here 18 was in. Century the property goods Muscovites of the aristocracy.
In the southeast of the city the park of Kolomenskoe is, today over the Moskwaan open air museum. Famous above all the Christi Himmelfahrtskirche is, the first Russian tent roof church made of stone.
In the northeast of the city that is about 300 hectares large „Sokolniki park for culture and recovery “in wonderful forest landscape. Largest Muscovite recreation park - it covers approximately1,800 hectares -, „the park of Ismailowo is completely because of the northeast outskirts of a town been “, the former entertainment place of the last Zarendynastie; some few Feudalbauten, among other things a baroque cathedral of the end 17. Century have themselves between modern Cafés, pavilions and likestill receive.
Worth mentioning further the park established by Kuskowo in the east of the city, a lock park partly in the English and French style, as well as the parks of Zarizino and Ostankino are.
Moscow was venue of the XXII. Olympic one Plays 1980 as well as many world and European championships and other international matches. The city possesses more as 6,000 sporty mechanisms, among them about 100 stages, six sport palaces, over 180 natatoriums, more than 2,500 sport halls and gymnasia, 3,500 sports fields, a rudder channel, severalSport complexes, water stadium, one cycle track and 60 shooting places.
The largest stages of the capital:
- the Luschniki stadium with 84.000 places that for the olympic plays 1980 one built
- the direct current generator stadium with 51.000 place to have except the actual arena of sport halls, pool, playing fields, training placesetc.
- the new Lokomotiv stadium, that in the year 1923 builds oval of the Lokomotiv Moscow, which was subjected at the beginning of the new millenium of a general overhaul. Today the stadium has a capacity of 33.979 places
with the Lokomotiv stadium developed one for thatmost modern arenas of the country. It was inaugurated to 5. July 2002 with the league play Lokomotiv Moscow against fiber plastic Uralan. Beside the Heimspielen of the Lokomotiv Moscow also international matches of the Russian national team as well as isolated European Cup plays find here various in beautiful regularityMoscow club instead of.
the restaurant offer of the city is hardly visiblly, constantly are announced, others are again closed new Lokalitäten. The prices are very different. There are restaurants those the maintenance serves, bars, cafes, in addition, self-service restaurants and cafeterias.Altogether Moscow has compared with other capitals of the world still an amazingly small catering trade offer.
One of the most famous Russian courts is Borschtsch, a soup out red prays, the guest in the restaurant hot with sour cream servedbecomes and as Okroschka ( cold Kwas soup) tastes similar. World-wide is Bœuf Stroganoff ( geschnetzeltes Rinderfilet, in sour Sauce scorched), Ikra or Krasnaja Ikra ( black or red caviar ) admits, Bliny (pancake usually served with caviar or salmon and sour Sauce)and Oladji (sweet Bliny with jam filling). To the dessert is Blintschiki ( pancake ) from semolina or book wheat with sweet sauce particularly likes.
the city offer, contrary to other regions of the country, good purchase possibilities. Many business is not only opened from Monday to Saturday, but even Sundays. Department stores and supermarkets have continuous openly. For antiques, works of art, manuscripts and other valuable articles, which are not bought in the souvenir business, an export licence is necessary. Popular souvenirs are Matroschkas (multicolored-painted wood dolls), carvedToy and caskets with motives for fairy tale and painting on wood or enamel.
The largest and most well-known department store in Moscow and one the largest world is the department store GUM. It is at Red Square 3, opposite the Lenin mouse oleumand the Kremlin, in the middle in the heart of Moscow. Muscovite the trading firm was built for a neoklassizistischen kind of play with strong Russian traditionalistischen influences between 1888 and 1893 on behalf the Zaren by the architects Alexander Nikolajewitsch Pomeranzew and Vladimir Grigorjewitsch Schuchow in the neorussischen style.
Two of the most popular shopping streets in Moscow are western the Nowi Arbat, an important durchgangsstrasse of the Kremlin and the work RK road, a parallel road to the Nowi Arbat and the oldest pedestrian precinct of Moscow. Northward the Twerskaja road running of Red Square is thosemost distinguished shopping street of the city and the address of some expensive fashion shops. Classical Russian fashion one can with Walentin Judaschkin in the Kutusowskij folder buy, to one of the imposantesten shopping streets of Moscow, in which also the exclusive shopping centre is „Moskwa “.
At the large idea routes outand to Moscow developed new shopping centres, which offer each comfort and fulfill also each purchase desire.
Economics and infrastructure
Moscow play a key role in the economy of Russia. The portion of the city of the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of the country12.5 per cent amounts to. About a quarter of the industrial production of Moscow are allotted to mechanical engineering. Its main branches are machine tool and tool construction, electrical industry, camp manufacturing, car industry and tool-making. Further important branches of industry are the metallurgical engineering, light, motor vehicle, building material, chemistry and petrochemical industry. The cityis a large center of the military military complexmilitary complex.
In Moscow about 80 per cent of the Finanzpotenzials of the country is concentrated. Two thirds of the total extent of foreign investments into the economy of Russia goes into the capital. Moscow is thereby the largest operating field of foreign investors. Inthe city are about 18,500 commercial enterprises, restaurants and services enterprises, 9,000 retail trade objects and about 150 markets in those approximately one million persons busy are. In the city there are about 1,200 banks, over 60 insurance companies and several dozen stock exchanges. Abouta quarter of all incomes of the national budget contributes Moscow.
The restaurant reforms after introduction of the Perestroika to the 1980er years fell the city and the whole country into a crisis. The industrial production of Moscow sank by 30 per cent. The effects of the economicalBreak-down are however owing to the development of numerous small and medium-size industrie, building, handels and services enterprises in the last years less to feel than in other regions of Russia.
Unemployment in the city is at present with only two per cent. Are unemployedonly the poor and less formed social classes. With the qualified workers there is no measurable unemployment. The minimum wage of the persons employed of Moscow amounts to 720 roubles (21 euro). The average monthly gross wage is with 17.300 roubles (508 euro). In completely Russia is thereto the comparison of 8,812 roubles (259 euro). In the individual sectors of the economy substantial differences in the wage and salary level prevail to the city.
In Moscow the living person standard improved within the last decade substantially. The city has itself since beginning of the 1990er years ofone the most inexpensive to one of the most expensive cities of the world develops. After the value of the consumer basket, which contains over 150 main goods, it takes the first place in Europe and is inferior only to the Japanese cities Tokyo and Osaka .
Aboutfive to ten per cent of the Muscovites population rank among the wealthy or rich layer. That is called approximately one million humans possesses a high purchasing power. Approximately 40 per cent of the inhabitants, that are about four million humans, belong to the new central layer in.
the central situation predestines Moscow to the most important traffic center road, course, river and international air traffic in the European part of the country. A duct system connects the city with five seas. Moscow possesses three international airports: Scheremetjewo (1960 opened), Domodedowo (1964), Wnukowo (1941). Bykowo (1933) is exclusive for inland flights.
In Moscow all main lines of the railway gather in the European part of Russia. The city is largest railway junction of the country with several marshalling yards. Further traffic facilities run star shaped to Europe,Central Asia and to the Caucasus.
Moscow does not have a main station. However some important stations at the place of the three stations lie side by side directly: „the Lenin grader station “for traffic after sank Petersburg, „the Jaroslawer station “for the Trans-Siberian railway (after Wladiwostok at the Japanese sea) and „the Kasaner station “for traffic toward the Volga republics Tatarstan and Baschkortostan. In addition of importance are „the Kiewer station “for traffic into the Ukraine, „the Kursker station “and „the Pawlezker station “for courses to south Russia, „the Rigaer station “for courses in the Baltic and „the Byelorussian station “for courses to central/Western Europe and after Kaliningrad. All remote stations (except Rigaer station) are by means ofa circularly running underground line connected.
Approximately around Moscow exists a motorway-like developed freeway ring, which possesses an extent of 109 km. In the next years this is to be extended by second, further outside of convenient ring.
thatMotor traffic is distributed by road rings in the city center and a motorway circuit at the edge of the city. One plans further discharge and struggle races, since the road system is increasingly overloaded. Often it comes on the motorway circuit to back-up for hours and few kilometerslong travel into the center can last in the rush hours easily over two hours.1924 drove the first buses and to 15. November 1933 the first Oberleitungsbus in Moscow. The city has the longest overhead line bus network of the world.
Moscow hasan efficient system by underground lines, the Metro Moscow to be called. 1932 were begun with the building and the first distance section to 15. May 1935 opens. Today a network of 269.5 kilometers with eleven lines and 165 stations is in enterprise.Eight to nine million persons per day are carried and three billion per year. Several distance sections are at present in building and a further development of the net are planned.
In the Muscovites Metro become per day eight to tenTo millions carried, 47% of the entire passenger traffic in the city correspond to humans. If humans stand themselves in the Rushhour into the railroad cars urge, on a square meter up to 6,4 humans. The courses drive then every 90 seconds, their middleSpeed is with 41 km/h. In addition, at normal traffic times the distance between the courses amounts to no more than two to three minutes.
68 persons are brought on the average in a railroad car from A to B. This is done via 33.700 employeesthe Metro, rather exactly for the half of men, for the half of women. They care for at present 12 lines. On 276.1 kilometers rails drive altogether 4,319 railroad cars. This is however expanded by the building projects. Daily 8,737 courses start the 170 stations, of22 over the earth and 56 as transfer stations is appropriate for those is developed. Their „home ports “are 15 Metrodepots.
Some stations of the Metro are very splendidly equipped with mosaics , bronze statues and marble. Nearly all stations can in the case of defense as shelters for thatPeople to be used, as entrances and distance tunnels are hermetically sealed by closing appropriate bulkheads. During bomb attacks in the Second World War Metrostationen were used among other things as military hospitals and points of command. Main feeder of the Metro in Moscow is apart from urban and private Buslinienthe Moskowski Tramwai, the streetcar of the city. First drove to 22. June 1872 as horse course. The electrical enterprise of the streetcar became to 6. April 1899 opens. This is divided today into two from each other independent nets.
The boulevard newspapers are to triumph palace at the printed media „to Moskowskij Komsomolets “and „Komsomolskaja Prawda “on place one and two in the number of readers, followed from the earlier communist newspapers „Trud “, „Iswestija “and „Prawda “.The Iswestija generally applies thereby as the most respectable newspaper of Moscow. It broke with its communist past and serves today as recognized source of information for a broad public.
The trade journal „Kommersant “is with the incomes from advertising leading, supplies itself however with theirhardest competitor, the trade journal „Wedomosti “a hard fight. To to most read sheets also the indicator sheet belongs „Is ruk ruki “, a kind exchange stock exchange with hundreds of small advertisements.
Within the range of the week and monthly magazines the high polish magazines of different adjustments can do theirReadership continuously increase. Lately also the Internet newspapers win like for example lenta.ru, strana.ru and polit.ru increasingly in meaning. To the German-language weekly papers „the Muscovites German newspaper “and „the Muscovites messages “belong, English-language daily papers are „The Moscow Time “and„The Moscow grandstand “. „The Moscow news appears weekly “.
today still radios with only three channels, which originate still from Soviet time, possess broadcast many inhabitants of Moscow. On the two first channels the national transmitters are „radio Rossii “(„radio of Russia “)to hear and „radio Majak “(„radio `beacons ′ “), to radiate in of the government Vladimir Putin close - however variety at information. On the third channel a commercial music channel is locked.
In Moscow numerous further radio stations send. In addition belongs also„Echo Moscow “with a singular format. The station radiates nearly no music, but it is well-known as critical realigning and discussion transmitters. Despite financial difficulties succeeded to a large extent retaining this independence.
As in the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbatschow in the year 1990 for the first time non-governmental media became certified, created a group of journalist the Radiosender echo Moscow. On the transmission license number one the coworkers are today still proud. Alexej Wenediktow is the editor-in-chief. In Moscow the transmitter hasabout 500,000 listeners.
the Muscovites are strongly concentrated on the television. The two national country-wide radiated television stations „Perwyj channel “(1. Program) and „Rossija “(2. Program) are in Moscow market leaders. They irradiatebroad program at messages and maintenance out and try to satisfy the taste of the average citizen. The not-commercial television channel „Kultura “sends excluding cultural contributions, during the day is locked the transmitter „to euro EMS “.
The non-governmental television station NTW, that likewisegenerally speaking country is too received, market shares lost, since it was taken over from the world-wide largest natural gas promotion enterprise Gazprom, with which the Russian State of 51 per cent of the shares possesses. In the city there are still further smaller private television stations, besides existthe music channels MTV and mash TV as well as a number of regional transmitters.
Altogether more than ten transmitters over antenna are to be received. The program offer reaches from old Soviet features over messages up to productions from Hollywood (the latter become predominantly in worseSynchronisation radiated). Foreign Fernsehstationen are only by parabolic antenna to received, because satellite and also cable television are not yet very common.
80 universities with approximately 250,000 students, those in 380 different fields to be trained and over 1.000 research institutes andDesign engineering departments make Moscow the outstanding center of the scientific life. The moreover about 4,000 libraries in the city, whose book inventory amounts to about 400 million copies of different kinds of the printed products, are.
To the outstanding education and research establishments belong to the city besidethe famous Lomonossow university, the national technical university for building industry (MSUCE), the national technological University of (Stankin), the university for mining industry, Institut for crystallography of the academy of the sciences, the Moscow aviation of institutes (MAY), the national technical University of (Bauman), the RussianPeople's Friendship University, the national academy for foodstuffs industry and the university for Energetik (MEI).
The Lomonossow university is the largest and oldest university of Russia. Them became to 25. January 1755 by decree by Elizabeth I. on suggestion of the universal scholar and writer Mikhail Lomonossow based. Many Soviet and Russian personalities from politics, art and science were graduates of this university, among whom also Mikhail Sergejewitsch Gorbachev ranks. At present approximately 30,000 students of all fields are there written.
Moscow is place of birth of numerous prominent personalities. In addition among other things the composers Anatoli Alexandrow, Sergei Jewsejew, Paul Juon, Georgi Konjus and Vladimir bird, the pianist and composer Sergei Konjus, the writer belong andColumnist Vladimir Kaminer, the technical designer of aircraft engines Vladimir Klimow, the airplane technical designer Wadim Schawrow and the writer Sergei Solowjow.
See also: List of the sons and daughters of Moscow
- Klaus Bednarz (Hrsg.): Old persons Moscow 1880-1920, C.J. Books, Munich 1983, ISBN 3765802980
- Lew Besymenski: The battle around Moscow 1941, Pahl Rugenstein 1987, ISBN 3760905706
- Lion Feuchtwanger: Moscow 1937, structure publishing house 1993, ISBN 3746650208
- Wolfgang cracking EDT: Moscow. Studies for the history of a medieval city., F. - stone he publishing house, Stuttgart1998, ISBN 3515018816
- Monica Rüthers [Hrsg.]: Moscow, Cologne 2003. ISBN 3-412-04703-1
- Eugen Tarlé: The fire of Moscow , Rütten & Loening 1951.
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