Mount Everest

Mount Everest

height: 8.844, 43 meters
situation: Nepal - Tibet (China)
mountains: Himalaya
Coordinates:
Coordinates: 27° 59 ' 16 " N, 86° 56 ' 40 " O
27° 59 ' 16 " N, 86° 56 ' 40 " O
Erstbesteigung: 29. May 1953 by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
Lightest route: South route

The Mount Everest (ABC: Mt. Everest; Tibetan: Chomolungma, Nepalese: Sagarmatha) is with 8,844 meters over NN (sea level) the highest mountain of the earth. It is in the Khumbu Himal in Nepal at the border to China (autonomous area Tibet); the western and southeast of its three summit burrs form the border.

Table of contents

names of the Mount Everest

Mt. Everest (rechts) und Makalu (links)
Mt. Everest (right) and Makalu (left)

in Nepal become thatMountain Sagarmatha, सगरमाथा, (sky goddess), in Tibet Chomolungma (transliteriert: Jo mo Klungs mA, means nut/mother of the universe) and in China Qomolangma (珠穆朗瑪) mentioned. 1852 one gave the name to the mountain „summit XV “. The today's name Everest became 1865 in honours of Sir George Everest of its successor originally as temporary solution imported. Everest was active in the service of the English crown as a boss of all British geo meters and rendered with the land surveying of India large services.

The nowadays common discussionfrom Everest reads after IPA: [ˈɛvərɪst] or [ˈɛvərɨst] (Evve remainder). Sir George spoke its own surname however [ˈiv; rɪst] (Iev remainder) out.

geology

like the entire Himalaya developed the Mt. Everest by tectonic disk shifts. In this case hitthe Indian Subkontinent in the Eozän approximately 50 million years ago on the eurasische plate on (type of collision) and bores itself at present about three centimeters per year into the asiatic continent. The Mt. Everest grows due to these forcesstill, however only few millimeters in the year. Between both continental plates originally was the large Tethysmeer.

With the enormous pressure and the heat developing thereby the rock changed. In the Everest massif the lower layers exist mainly out metamorphic rock, above all coarse-grained slate rocks, Gneise and Migmatiten. One further above finds large a breakups of granite, which are brightly colored and erode to enormous blocks. On over 7,500 meters to height sedimentary rocks , those are once at the reason of the Tethys sea were and only in very small measure of the metamorphosis were subject. This clay/tone, muds and lime remnants of Korallen into sandstone, slate and limestone were converted. This layer has a bright yellowish colouringand of the mountain climbers „yellow volume “one calls. Because of the southwest side of the Everest it is lower than at the north side. Because of the latter it is about 120 meters thick and is on over 8,000 meters height. The highestSummit pyramid of the Everest consists of pure grey limestone with sandigen and debris storages.

Mythologi meaning

like practically all salient summits of the Khumbu - region is also the Mt. Everest for the Sherpas a holy mountain. The Buddhismus is this people with ursprünglicheren rites, in particular Animismus and Bön, paired. In the opinion the Sherpas inhabit spirit and Dämonen sources, trees and evenly also the summits.

Puja ceremony

for this reason becomes before a mounting of the Sherpas oneVictim ceremony accomplished, the so-called Puja - ceremony. The Sherpas is convinced of the fact that a Puja is compellingly necessary, in order to turn mischief away. This victim celebration is for their soul peace indispensably and generally participates also all western expedition participants in it, there, after thatFaith of the Sherpas, otherwise the mountain Gods are zornig not only opposite the foreigners, but in particular also opposite the Sherpas, since they have this certified.

Stupa with prayer flags in the Everest Basislager

also further religious symbols such as Manisteine and a Stupa with prayer flags, which are printed on with Mantras, are at the foot of the Mt. Everest present. On the way to the Everest basis camp, between Dingboche and Lobuche, is put on „a cemetery “for all victims of the Everest. Each dead one is with a so-called „stone man “, a pile of up-piled up stones, which proved last honour.

Contrary to the British expedition of Francis Younghusband in the year 1904, which cleared by force its way by Tibet, with later expeditions one tried, a permissionto receive by the Dalai Lama. It lasted up to the year 1921, before it expressed the Royal geo graphics Society finally this permission, which thereupon 1921, 1922 and 1924 expeditions sent.

elevator data and - measurements

Mt. Everest, Lhotse und Nuptse
Mt. Everest, Lhotseand Nuptse

the indication for the ceiling of the Mount Everest was corrected several times since the first measurement 1852. The first elevator indication originates from the year 1856, when by data of six different measurement stations 8,840 m were calculated. The stationswere however over 150 km far away from the Everestmassiv, since the surveyors of the British Indian Survey were not allowed to enter in Nepal.

The long time valid elevator indication of 8.848 m was of the Survey OF India 1954 from the measuring data of altogethertwelve measurement stations calculated as average value. This indication was confirmed by a Chinese expedition in the year 1975 - it determined 8848.13 m.

Also one in September 1992 as first with modern means employees elevator measurement of an Chinese-Italian expedition team directly toMountain resulted in the same value almost with 8848,82 m. The data used thereby originated both from measurements with conventional theodolites and from laser measurements and government inspection department - signals.

Very precise measurements with the help of several government inspection department receivers to 5. Those resulted in May 19998,850 m over NN, which was taken over since then by most national geographical societies. That indication is based on the height of the rock base. The strength of the layer from ice and snow at the point varies depending upon season and intensity thatMonsoon time strongly, approximately within the range 1-3 M.

The newest measurement originates from May 2005, accomplished again from a Chinese expedition. It resulted in a height of 8.844, 43 meters, with an inaccuracy of 21 centimeters for the mountain. It is thus approx. 3.70 m lower than since the Chinese measurement of 1975 accepted, however the current indication refers, like already from 1999 only to the pure rock base. This last investigation became from of China north side and not ofout undertaken and one year lasted the Nepalese south long. Were used radar detectors as well as laser measuring instruments and satellite detection systems.

According to a hypothesis from Japanese researchers was the Mt. Everest 20 million years ago over 15 km highly. By an earthquake it became smaller.The theory relies on the investigation of a rock distortion, which was discovered at the northern side of the mountain. Other geologists say that on earth due to the pressure from Gesteinsmasse and due to the temperatures in the depth a mountain collection oversubstantially more for than is not durably possible 9,000 m, since the earth's crust any more weight does not carry, and mountains from downside melt accordingly similar to the icebergs.

While the Mount Everest is the highest collection over the sea level, still two existfurther mountains, which the title „highest mountain of the world earns “. From the foot of the mountain out measured this is counted the volcano Mauna Kea on Hawaii, from the earth center the Chimborazo in Ecuador (see highest mountain).

The Western Cwm(„kuum “spoken; from Walisi), a Kar with approx., included by Mount Everest , Lhotse and Nuptse. 3,000 m length, is the high-altitude Kar of the earth.

mounting

basis camp (lower left contour), west flank of the Mt. Everest and Khumbu Eisbruch upNepalese side of the Kala Pattar out.

The summit historically proven for the first time to 29. May 1953 by the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary and the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay from Nepal from the south mounted.

The Erstbesteigung from Tibetan side succeededapparent 1960 of a Chinese expedition. This is pulled however on the part of the professional world strongly in doubts, since there are no documentation over success as well as contradictory map references over the summit region. Therefore the year 1975 becomes also often official as a year thatErstbesteigung over the north route indicated, when a likewise Chinese expedition reached the summit clearly. It is unclear whether the 1924 at the Mount Everest had an accident to George Mallory and Andrew Irvine before its death the summit over this route reached.

Thosefirst woman on the summit was to 16. May 1975 the Japanese Junko Tabei.

To 8. Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler the summit defeated May 1978 for the first time without additional oxygen. Later pure hard Karl from that reached three dayssame expedition as first Germans the summit.

1980 succeeded the first winter committing of the south saddle route by a Polish expedition. To 17. Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki the summit reached February, whereby them with temperatures up to minus 45 degrees and wind velocitiesfrom nearly 200 kilometers/hour to fight had.

For years proper Everest euphoria broke the 1980er off. Accordingly the number of the mountain climbers, who erklommen the summit have, rose clearly. They are enough themselves from experienced mountain climbers to beginners, on itleft from their paid leaders to the summit to be brought. A price frequently mentioned for this are 65,000 US Dollar. Unfavorably at this kind from tourism it is however that the environmental pollution increased by Vermüllung of the camps rapidly. Besides those roseNumber of dead ones at the mountain.

routes

basis camps on Nepalese side of the Khumbu ice break out regards.

At the Everest it gives to today altogether 15 routes. Six are here on the southwest side (thus from the Nepalese side),sieve are on the north side (on Tibetan side) and further two on the eastern side of the mountain. The two standard routes are the south route and the north route. The further routes were committed technically clearly more with difficulty and mostly only uniquely.

routes of Nepal from

Khumbu Eisbruch. The summit is not to be seen from this perspective.
With 5 leaders secured column in the Khumbu Eisbruch

the south route is considered as standard route and also with the Erstbesteigung was selected. Of the basis camp on that nepalischen south side on approx. it leads 5,400 m first by the Khumbu - ice break (Khumbu Icefall): a steep passage, in which the Gletschereis from the Western Cwm 600 m drops and breaks into blocks, which make the ascent more difficult much.Since they can umstürzen due to the ice movement at any time, it is advisable only at cool times of day to through-climb them. The Khumbu Eisbruch becomes in each case beginning of season of a team from Sherpas with leaders and fixed ropes secured. This secured route becomes from allExpeditions together used.

Westkar and Lhotseflanke

the further route lead by the Western Cwm (Westkar, also „valley of the silence “mentioned). After one crossed the Kar, one climbs into the vergletscherte western Lhotse flank. Them are about 60 degreessteeply and 1,000 elevator meters cover. Of the Lhotseflanke swivels the route to between Lhotse and Everest south saddle lain (South Col) on approx. 8,000 m height, where nearly all expeditions the high bay warehouse for culminate-gropes furnishes. Became howeveralready camps lain still more highly furnished. From the south saddle the way leads the burr of the Everest up up to the south summit approx. 100 elevator meters underneath the actual summit, then over the last large obstacle, one about 12 m high, nearlysenkrechte rock edge, the Hillary step.

1963 opened an American expedition a new route over the west burr. Tom horn leg and Willi Unsoeld rose from the valley of the silence out to the west shoulder, followed then the west burr, had then however because ofevade too large technical difficulties on the burr into the north wall. They rose in since that time “Hornbein Couloir” the ravine mentioned of the north wall to the summit and accomplished then the first excess of the Everest, by them their comrades risen on the south routein the descent followed.

1975 were mastered the southwest wall, which rises 2,500 m from the valley of the silence, for the first time by a British expedition under Chris Bonington. Because of this wall already six expeditions had failed before. The key placein the route the overcoming of an enormous Felsbandes is above the snow-filled gutter.

The probably most difficult burr route, the direct west burr, was mastered 1979 by a Yugoslav expedition. Andrej Stremfelj and Nejc Zaplotnik overcame the probably most difficult rock passages at the Everestat all. Also the complete length of the northeast burr was in the meantime mastered. The main difficulties of this route are eastern of the north burr the enormous length in large heights as well as three groups of rocks on the burr, the Three Pinnacles of the standard north route, technically experienced climbingin extremely exerting height demand, and then still the succession of the three steps on the high burr, which make more difficult also „the normal “north route.

To the three main summit burrs of the Everest three intermediate walls belong in each case and in them a Direttissima. Those Bonington route is far partly a Südwestwand Direttissima. Also the north wall is already climbed on direct way the close summit Fallinie. However the east wall (Kangshung flank) knows two climbed routes, however those cannot do lying northern of the two routes more near at the summit thanDirettissima count. The east wall or Kangshung Direttissima is thus so far unmastered. If one would undertake these, then it would concern the Durchsteigung from far more than 3,500 meters steep, avalanche-endangered rock in one - of the walls of the earth longest from the foot to the summit counting.

route from Tibet (north route)

the alternative to the standard south route is the north route from the Tibetan side. It begins valley in the Rongbuk - with a basis camp in approx. 5,300 m height and leads in a Zweitagestrek with Yak- Transport into the valley of the eastern Rongbuk glacier, where at the foot of the north saddle wall the advanced basis camp (ABC, advanced cousin camp) is. Then the route the steep rock slope goes up on the north saddle (North Col) with approx. 7,000 m height,of where from the suspended summit burrs (north burr, northeast burr) make possible the further ascent over smaller bent burrs (in the comparison to the steeper south route). Serious strength-living and climbing-technical obstacle is behind the last camp in approx. 8,300 m height highly on the upperBurr the middle of the three rock stages („Second step “) with a foot height on approx. 8,605 m, a height of approx. 12 m and an inclination of over 70 degrees. To this stage 1975 were fastened by Chinese mountain climbers a ladder. Ofthere the burr route with relatively small inclination, however far way leads on the summit. The Second step is a historical place: at it the last summit crew of the English expedition is to have been seen of 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine.Since that time the professional world argues whether one of them could have succeeded in to overcome and then in the evening or at the night the summit reaching the stage: to today unresolved mystery of the Mount Everest.

remarks

Terminator point of both main routes is only approx. for 2 m ² large summit plateau, on since 1975 an aluminum measurement stand of the Chinese stood - 2002 were to be seen the stand no longer.

Mt. Everest of Tibet from

the Tibetan north route has in the comparisonto the nepalischen south route the advantage, with approx. 40,000 US-$ (conditions 2005) due to logistic advantages (lower fees for the national permission of an expedition, number of the necessary Yaks and carrier, number of the oxygen cylinders and. v. A.) for the paying customer aroundTo be more inexpensive third „“, if one intends to follow one of the numerous led expeditions. The proportional success rate of the north route is however due to that much widens ways smaller than on the south route. In each case one must itself the dangers of thesmall oxygen content of air, sudden weather reversals and more violently, extremely cold hoist on the burrs consciously its. The stay in the so-called „dead man's zone “above 7.500 m is longer on the north route around one until two days, and is correspondingthe risk to above stick because of adverse weather or on the way in nebulas or snowstorm too comes, on the north side more highly.

The routes on the high slopes of the Mount Everest are more verunfallter from the corpses or exhaust erfrorener mountain climber gesäumt: Over200 humans left their life with the attempt of mounting. Too largely the temptation for many not sufficiently experienced ones is completely obvious to want absolutely on the highest firm point of the earth's surface. In addition the decision becomes the reversal with adverseBecause of the worse reaction and the reduced intellectual capacity due to effort and oxygen deficiency makes more difficult to conditions. At some that very in each case few „conferences on windows “in the year (in May, before arising the monsoon) back-ups itself in the climbing-technically more difficult places secured with fixed ropesthe ascent-willing partly several hours long: the time run, one cools out when waiting, and the danger rises not to be able to descend any longer in the daylight. Who at the Everest into the second night comes highly above (the final ascent must in that), That have extremely bad prospects begin night before it before midnight, without coming down heavy physical damage (erfrorene toes, feet, finger, nose) again from the mountain. Also the auxiliary possibilities Tourenguides are very much limited in the extreme environment on the last two elevator kilometers.Hilfeleistung unterbleibt oft auch deshalb, weil es zu riskant wäre, Hilfe zu leisten, weil keine Kräfte mehr vorhanden sind oder auch weil dem Hilfeleistenden die Chance, selbst noch auf den Gipfel zu kommen, verwehrt bleiben könnte. Several examples are well-known,that ascending mountain climbers ignored needy humans at the way, assistance refused and the exhausted ones so death left.

Expedition mountain pastes at the Everest in the classical „Himalaya Belagerungstaktik “Reinhold Messners becomes 1978 since successes (mounting with Peter Habeler without oxygen employment, 1980Single-handed attempt without oxygen) regards ever more critically: the attraction of the highest mountain of the earth lures too many, which can only place themselves to this challenge, if they buy extensively assistance: Carrier, it of dragging all loads except the minimum personal equipmentrelieve; even the tents and the sleeping bags are carried by Sherpas, so that the expensively paying customer can up-save its forces for the summit. The Mount Everest is meanwhile avoided by many large mountain climbers because of the large crush.

The problems approximatelyaround the Everest kulminierten in the disaster season 1996, when on both sides of the Everest twelve humans left their life, because they were surprised highly above with sudden weather reversals. These events are in the IMAX - film „Everest - summits without grace “and in the book of Jon Krakauer „in icy heights “saliently described.

21

humans had to leave statistics since the discovery of 1852 that the Everest is the highest mountain of the earth, their life, break 15 expeditions open and101 years offense, until the highest point of the Everest became to finally enter for the first time.

Hans's chamber countries 1996 the ascent without oxygen in only 17 hours starting from advanced basis camp (6400 m) created. To its lightning ascent it drove as the firstHumans on carried Skiern again down there.

Until have 2,557 persons the summit reached end of 2005, of it 118 to 22. May 2003, the largest attack. 179 humans did not return.

Fastest mounting succeeded to the Sherpa Pemba Dorje, which to 21. May 2004 the ascent from the basis camp to the summit in only 8:10 hours created.

other

due to the large height amounts to the air pressure on the Mount Everest with 326 mbar only scarcely a third of theNormal print on sea level level (temperature-dependent barometric elevator formula). Thereby the boiling point of the water of 100 shifts °C with standard conditions on only 70 °C. Also it is to be able to give so-called “Freak Weather”, dangerous air pressure and wind conditions, the further air pressure sinking to the consequenceto have can with still less oxygen than normal. “Freak Weather” is partly made jointly responsible for the disaster from May 1996 with high-trained mountain climbers a substantial attenuation by extreme oxygen deficiency to have released.

The Mount Everest is highest that Seven Summits, which are formed from the highest in each case mountain of a continent.

The Frenchman Didier Delsalle is as first humans with a helicopter to 14. and to 15. May 2005 on „the roof of the world “landed. Delsalle set itsSeries helicopter Eurocopter Ecureuil/AStar in 8850 meters height on the Mount Everest up.

literature

  • Reinhold Messner: Mallorys second death. The Everest mystery and the answer. Piper 2000, ISBN 3-492-23300-7
  • yokes restrain-live, Larry A. Johnson, Eric R. Simonson: ThoseSpirit of the Mount Everest. The search for Mallory and Irvine. Frederking & Thaler 2001, ISBN 3-89405-108-6
  • Judy and Tashi Tenzing: In the shade of the Everest. The history of the Sherpa. Frederking & Thaler 2003, ISBN 3-89405-601-0
  • Jon Krakauer: Into icyHeights. The drama at the Mount Everest. Piper 2000, ISBN 3-49222-970-0

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