Muhammad Ali

of these articles acts of the Boxer Muhammad Ali, data to the osmanischen ruler of the same name sees Muhammad Ali pasha, data to the Indian actor sees Mohammad Ali
Muhammed Ali

data
birth name Cassius Marcellus Clay
weight class heavyweight
nationality US American
birthday 17. January 1942
place of birth Lousiville
day of death
death place
style link rushing situation
of size 1.92 m
combat statistics
of fights of 61
victories 56
KO of victories 37
defeats 5
undecided 1
no valuation


Muhammad Ali, pointed name “The Greatest”, (* 17. January 1942 as Cassius Marcellus Clay in Louisville (Kentucky), ) is considered to the USA as one of the best Boxer of all times and is an outstanding athlete 20. Century. Besides it is one of the most well-known sportsmen and also outside of the Boxringes large impression left, particularlyby its allegedly politically motivated refusal of the Viet Nam war and its support of the Emanzipationsbewegung of the Afroamerikaner in the 60's.


Table of contents

beginning his career

its parents designated their son after the politician and opponent thatSlavery Cassius Marcellus Clay. With box training the twelve-year-old boy Cassius began 1954 from rage over the theft of his bicycle. At the age of 16 years it left the school with bad notes and concentrated completely on its box training.Already 1960, at the age of 18 years became Clay professional. In the same year it won the olympic gold medal in the light heavyweight in Rome. One of the many Ali myths is history that he this gold medal from protest against a suffered discriminationinto the river Ohio threw. Later he said Davis Miller to his bio graph: „I never threw my medal from any bridge. I lost it simply, am that everything. (...) Men, that was only one history, which Iinvented. I know, what one must employ, in order to sell a history. “

Clay stated that a grossmäuliger Wrestler obtained larger attention named Gorgeous George with press and spectators than a modestly arising Nachwuchsboxer like it. Thereupon copiedClay the Catcher Gorgeous in its style and supplied to always new material in the form of Spottreimen over its opponent, forecasts over the round its K.O to the press with from now. - Victory („archie of moorlands wants on the floor in round four “,„Archie of moorlands will be to other more or less angeberischen expressions in the fourth round because of the soil “) and. With this provoking to look carried self-confident its, which came in its life slogan „I to the Greatest “to the expression, it became fast famous andnotoriously. Because of its often applicable forecasts over the exit of the fights it was suspected publicly the fraud, which could be however never proven to it.

1964-1967 in

the February of the yearly 1964 he got world champions, straight 22 years oldbecome, the chance on a world championship fight against Sonny reading clay/tone. Not least in order to make itself courage against the physically superior „bear “, it quit in the poem Song about ME on, the acting heavyweight world champion as a satellite into spaceto shoot.

The outsider Clay actually won sensationally against his opponent, who gave up after the sieved round injury. It was however not only the injury of Sonny reading clay/tone. Reading clay/tone had hardly met Clay, had it however many impacts in to putand ever more diminished. Reading clay/tone was in a perspektivlosen situation and wanted not unnecessarily further to be flogged to be able. In tumult-like scenes Clay roared again and again „I shook UP the world! “ and „I to the greatest! “into the microphones. ThosePictures of it with mouth and eyes broken far went around the world.

After the fight well-known it itself openly led to the nation OF Islam, a radical, black-American, Islamic giving sparkling wines, those of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm Xbecame, „slave name put “(like it it called) Cassius Clay to its off and followed for the time being its friend Malcolm X and called themselves first Cassius X. After the honourable Elijah Muhammad always called, like Ali it, him the honour title Ali lent, was called it from now on Muhammad Ali.

In a back fight 1965 it this time already struck reading clay/tone a further mark, in the first round. The fast impact, which lowest-strained reading clay/tone, was ignored not only by this, but also by many spectators,which led again to rumors across unit deformation. On television shots from the rear is the impact effect on reading clay/tone head and its eased neck portion to see however clear. The fight, which took place in the box province in Maine, applies according to Guinness book of the recordsas to of few visited heavyweight title fight all times.

Center of the 1960er years was Ali on the high point of its career. It met other prominent one like the Beatles and Elvis Presley and defended its title among other things against ex world champion Floyd Patterson and thenin Frankfurt forest stadiums against the German European champion the Karl Mildenberger, furthermore against George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London, Cleveland Williams, Ernest Terrell and Zora Folley.

Ali was extremely speedy and often provoked the opponents, byit the hands beside the hips to hang left, instead of covering itself, which applies in boxes as risky death sin. Impacts yielded it simply to the rear out, in order to then counter fast. He actually hardly got hits to the head, kokettiertewith his good appearance and it boasted that he was still as pretty after „many fights as a girl “. With a rapid tänzerischen leg combination named Ali Shuffle it astonished opponents and public, danced in a circle around its contractors, without itselfto leave when avoiding into a corner urge. Occasionally it proved also taker qualities and could into the well through-trained side of the body be struck demonstratively several times one behind the other, without this it showed recognizable effects - apart from the fact that the opponent demoralizesbecame.

In the ring Ali did not need to be afraid of the numerous opponents at this time. In accordance with its slogan „it is not Angeberei, if one can prove it “showed it that it was „the largest one “. This self-confident its had also social and politicalEffects, it strengthened nevertheless black the self-confident its. It was however expressly no trailer of the civil rights movement, it wanted not equal rights, but gave themselves consistently racistic also in the television launched sayings as “the white man has the black man alcohol,Drugs and Homosexualität brought ".

professional disqualification 1967-1970

in Southeast Asia escalated meanwhile the Viet Nam war. Because for it more soldier were needed, the requirements for the military service sank. Thus came it that also Ali, that so far as „military service-unfit “classifiedwas, now suddenly as „suited “was considered. Ali with reference to its activity as Muslim Prediger the summoning into the army, among other things with the statement, however refused, „I does not have a controversy with Vietcong “. According to NY of Time criticismof 21.05.2001 “sport Illustrated” journalist Mark stuff, which around-traveled during Alis career with him and knew from next proximity, in its book “Ghosts OF Manila” writes from 2001 that this statement him of a member of the “nation OF Islam” inthe mouth one put. (“Stuff of describes Ali as A dupe OF the nation OF Islam, which, he said, scripted his refusal tons inducted into the Army. “He didn't say boo ton them,” stuff said. Others May disputes Kram's claimthat A Muslim named Leon X fed Ali his famous was LINE, “I ain't got NO quarrel against them Viet Cong. ”)

In the public it was the first prominent one thereby which openly against the Viet Nam war position referred. Afterwards it becameagain and again target of the criticism, among other things also because of its disputed Muslim activities and its new name, which many journalists rejected, by calling him further Cassius Clay. Representatively of it and also directly before their eyes „“Ali flogged round-long itsblack opponent Ernie Terrell, which had called it before the fight only Cassius Clay, with the repeated call „as my name reads? “, instead of it fast K.O. to strike.

1967 it became because of its military service wehrdienstverweigerung a detention upProbation condemns, on which it the passport removed, which was denied world championship titles and the professional box license was extracted. After an appointment negotiation of several years the judgement was however waived. From 1967 to 1970 Ali with effective professional disqualification was „in the exile “, was allowed however the USAdo not leave, whereby incomes escaped it also as Prediger and speakers abroad. Thus it appeared as a speaker before black ones or at universities, was in Fernsehshows or as if bend White the star in a Broadway musical. As a Boxer could it only in „the computer fight “of 1969 become active, a looking fight against the former world champion, produced for cameras, from the 1950er years, Rocky Marciano. Thereby the variant was published, in that the white outsider „Rocky “(the model for thosefilms of the same name of Sylvester Stallone) the practice-substantial black Muhammad Ali („Apollo Creed “in the film series) after self-sacrificing fight surprisingly in the 13. Round K.O. - differently than in the film „Rocky strikes “, where „the Underdog “, easily of SylvesterStallone, against which world champion comes surprisingly over the rounds, however finally lost to points.

comeback 1970-1974

only 1970 it was allowed to rise again into the ring, after the times and circumstances had drastically changed. Notthe Boxpromoter looked last for an public-effective course horse.

In „the fight so mentioned of the century of “two ungeschlagener world champion Joe Frazier 1971 taught its first defeat to him, since Ali was not yet optimal after two structure fights in form. Besides was itafter the long break no longer as fast as in former times, and those young opponent had studied in the meantime its style exactly. Thus Ali applied in accordance with the slogan they more never come bakes than abgehalfterter ex champion. It had to now begin from the front andonly again the right to a new WM-fight earn themselves, by striking all other potential opponents of the world champion. This arranged itself with difficulty. In the fight against Ken Norton in March 1973 it had to accept its second defeat and suffereda Kieferbruch, as turned out afterwards. But Ali fought further, in particular in and with the media, by developing its from in former times well-known Sprücheklopferei nearly for psychological war guidance. Thus called it and his responsible person Drew „Bundini “Brown before fightstogether the Wahlspruch „float like A butterfly, sting like A bee “(„Schwebe like a butterfly, stings like a bee “), which clarified Alis earlier combat style.

Although it was superior to no more like in former times in things mobility, it struck in the run that, And thus the chance earned itself years all opponents, also Norton and the Smokin' Joe Frazier dethroned in the meantime on a renewed title fight.

world champion of 1974-1978

world champions was in the meantime George Foreman, a fighter with unusual impact force, olympia winner of1968, but despite kurzrundiger K.O. - Victories and. A. against Frazier and Norton he still applied as somewhat inexperienced and wild. Foreman was in 40 professional fights ungeschlagen (37 times K.O.) and struck most its opponent within fewer rounds K.O. Similarly howAgainst reading clay/tone 10 years before was Ali of the outsiders, this time besides with 32 years the older one. It was expected that Alis career by a fast and clear K.O. one would terminate.

The fight was for the autumn 1974 as Rumbleinto the Jungle in Kinshasa (democratic Republic of the Congo, at that time Zaire) set, organized of because of homicide the box activator Don King and of dictator Mobutu as advertising measure for its country and Africa, black, finances vorbestraften completely to a large extent. Became difficultit in particular by the fact that by an injury Foremans the fight had to be shifted around altogether one month, whereby all involved ones remained in the country. The conditions were unusually difficult because of the high air humidity and large heat (although the fight took place at night)and came to meet the more experienced Boxer.

Foreman was also black, had however no interest in Africa, logierte in the luxury hotel, could meals from the USA be flown and held themselves press and native one with its shepherd dog of the body. Also madeto create it the hot climate much, what to accumulations and constant bad mood led with Foreman. Ali against it brought the population by contact joyfulness and Charisma on its side, so that he with the call „Ali, boma ye! “ („Ali,kill it! “) one angefeuert. Besides it had sufficient time for psychological mirror-image moose and gereimte sayings, with which it the later RAP - speech singing anticipated. Thus it reports of its new training methods: „Für diesen Kampf habe ich mit Alligatoren gerungen, mitWhales gerauft, which lightning handcuffs eingekerkert put on and the thunder. Know you, I are rather bad drauf. I murdered rock, a stone hurt and a brick hospital-ripely flogged, I am in such a manner malicious that I make medicine illcan. I am so fast that I can run by a hurricane to become without wet, and if George Foreman meets me, he will pay his debts. I can absaufen and drink up the water and a dead treekill, waits to their Muhammad Ali see. “ (Original quotation (here it reimt itself): „For this fight I've wrestled with at alligator, I've tussled with A whale, I did handcuff lightning, and PUT more thunder in jail. You know I'm bath. I've murderedA skirt, I in such a way injured A stone and I hospitalized A brick, I'm WAD I make medicine crimp. I'm so nearly one I CAN run through A hurricane and don't GET wet, when George Foreman meets ME he'll pay hisdebt. I CAN drown and drink the water and kill A DEAD tree, WAIT 'til you lake Muhammand Ali. “).

In the fight, finally to 30. October took place, surprised Ali not only opponents and public, but also its coach Angelo Dundee by its risky tactics. Instead of trying by speed and dancing like in former times to evade to the hard impacts Foremans it could be flogged by this first nearly without Gegenwehr, whereby it leaned in the ropes far to the rear.Thus the head was outside of Foremans range, which well through-trained bodies could it by the arms protect, besides those cushioned rope the impacts. Since Ali were granted before hardly chances to get over at all the second round this becameBehavior as suicidally outstanding.

Into the combat tracing one tried to stretch relatively flabby rope but Ali further its „rope A dopes “mentioned mirror-image moose played, although it the coach was zurief, he absolutely away of the ropes and above all away ofForeman and its fists. Ali however looked for almost Foremans proximity, around it zuzuflüstern: „That is everything which you has, George? “.

Since Foreman was accustomed to it, its opponents usually in few rounds K.O. to strike, he diminished soon conditional, andAli could set itself with countering from covering better and better in scene. Then in the 8. Round struck down Ali Foreman, remained taken away and exhausts at the soil, and that fight was decided.

Ali had with a tacticaland kämpferischen master achievement the title, which one had denied to it seven years before for political reasons, sensationally recovered and broke thereby as a second heavyweight professional after Floyd Patterson the unwritten law of boxing: „They more never come bake “. George Foreman created thisFeat twenty years later likewise, which clarifies the talent of Foreman and which achievements of its opponents from years revalues the 1970er clearly. Afterwards it is disputed, whether the fight in Kinshasa can be considered as pure sporty master achievement, there Alitechnically regarded carelessly and more fought on cheats and demoralization built than on technical being able and sportyness opposite its substantially younger opponent. On the other hand its tactics came up to be able to be spent it in impact force superior the opponent around itthen for his part K.O. strike to be able. Because Ali had sufficient reserves despite the many impacts, which he had to put in, in order to be able to attack even too so advanced round number again.

Afterwards Ali defended its title several times, among other things at the 1.October 1975 again against Joe Frazier in „the Thrilla in Manila “(the Philippines) in a brutal fight, of which he said that he had felt the proximity of death in this.

A title defense against the 35jährigen Chuck Wepner, which held out 15 rounds courageously and blood-flooded against Ali, served Sylvester Stallone as the further inspiration for its film „Rocky “.

An alleged looking fight for a high prize money in Japan against the legendary Japanese Wrestler Antonio Inoki provedas embarrassing and dangerous farce, since the Asiate could not offer the entire fight over lying on the back to Ali an attack region and attack its legs at the same time. The fight was promotet by Bob Arum, and rated as “undecided”, but Ali carrieda serious injury of the Schienbeins with following inflammation of it.

1976 defended Ali the WM-title first against J.P. Coopman, Jimmy Young, which supplied a hard fight to it with, and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations thin, before it to 20. September third time approximatelyKen Norton began. This prepared it again large problems and had won the fight at the end according to opinion of the majority of the box journalists; the Punktrichter decided however unanimously for Ali.

After two title defenses in the year 1977, against the hard Puncher Earnie Shavers and Alfredo Evangelista, lost Ali due to bad training preparation and with predominance to 15. February 1978 its WM-titles at Leon Spinks, which was olympia winner of 1976 in the light heavyweight, but as a professional only 7 fights denied andhad obtained 6 victories and an undecided.

Although one of the competitive box federations demanded first a fight against Ken Norton, Spinks Ali granted a back fight for the title of the other federation. Later, in September 1978, that won six monthsnow better trained Ali was a third and last mark a world championship title back, above all Spinks however this time completely untrainiert, so that its coach George Benton resounded during the fight left.

After the fight Ali withdrew from the box haven.The time Alis had become earlier speedy tongue already clearly more slowly, the language became nuschelnd. This was regarded of many as consequence of its long box career, although Ali had to put in due to its speed clearly less head hit than most differentBoxer.

In the autumn 1980 tried Ali, attracted by high prize moneys to become the fourth time world champion this time against its earlier savings ring partner Larry of cross-beam, promotet from Don King. It had taken those before the fight drainage means, from most expertsto be made responsible for its health problems. It was not to be stood completely obviously for no more in a the position in a ring. After ten rounds Alis coach threw the towel and terminated the unequal fight.

Afterwards one left it into thatThe USA no more boxes, so that Alis last fight against Trevor Berbick took place 1981 than „drama on the Bahamas “, in which Ali clearly to points lost.

combat balance

its combat balance as a professional consists of 56 victories and5 defeats, about which it had to accept only 3 during its regular career (1971 against Frazier, 1973 against Norton, 1978 against Spinks). After the resignation 1978 as world champions still two further (1980 approximately cross-beam, 1981 against Berbick) were added.

after the career end of 1981

park in on illness

in the meantime indeterminable trembling of voice and members are symptoms park in on syndrome, not the Parkinson illness, how often falsely written, which was diagnosed 1982 with Ali. ThoseIllness, which is called with technical term Dementia Pugilistica, was caused not by a neuralen defect, but by impacts on the head in the late fights of Ali. Since its mental abilities, as with this illness, were hardly impaired generally, it leftdo not take themselves to be further world-wide in the public life active and use themselves for charitable purposes.

Among other things it engaged itself for the communication between the western and the Islamic world, approximately with negotiations for the release of hostagesin Lebanon, or in November 1990 on the occasion of an attendance with Saddam Hussein, on which these 15 „human shields “released. In particular since the terrorist attacks of the 11. It appears to September 2001 as an Ambassador of its faith and stresses the peaceful basic attitudethis religion.

1996 Ali before

a world public ignited steps of the acknowledgment as a surprise guest with trembling hand the olympic fire in Atlanta. On this occasion one presented to him also a replacement for lost gone medal of 1960.

1999 he was selected from the international olympic committee to the sportsman of the century.

2005 presented US president George W. Bush of the 63 years old box legend and at the same time the conscientious objector Muhammad Ali the liberty medal (10. November 2005). „The liberty medal “(„ThePresidential Medal OF Freedom “) is the highest civilian honor in the USA. The president called thereby once the son „of the black hated in far parts of the society of Americas “„man of the peace “, what its importantness as Weltklasseboxer off allto political background in the USA explanation.

the legend Ali

at the latest since center of the 1970er years is Ali world-wide admits and likes, which itself at that time also on z. B. the toys in German children's rooms affected. There were variantsthat bend to Jim - dolls of Mattel (and Mego), with which the fights against Foreman and Frazier could be placed behind. Into the appropriate Comicserie came it 1978 to the duel „Superman vs. Muhammad Ali “.

Ali made jokes again and againover its allegedly which is approaching comeback. When its former opponent George Foreman sensationally won 1994 after 20 years again a WM-title, announced over 52jährige the Ali to want to strike the eight years younger Foreman again like already 1974. Irritatedby unexpected successes Foremans actually brought this message to daily papers in the Sportteil instead of in the panorama.

In the year 2001 its life history under the title Ali of Michael man was filmed. The leading actor wants Smith for the OSCAR was nominated, the Titelsong The World's Greatest of R Kelly became world-wide a hit.

In the spring 2004 Muhammad Ali was the star of a Werbekampagne of the sports article manufacturer adidas, with under the slogan the impossible is nothing (Impossible is emergency-hung) a various current sportsmanarose, the difficulties overcame, among them to football star David Beckham. The Spot „The Long run “is based on photographs from that 1996 OSCAR premium ores documentary film „When incoming goods were Kings “from Leon guest, which was made before the WM-fight 1974 in Africa. Alijoggt with it in the morning-grey as leaders of a group of sport star the modern times, who were in-copied electronically.

In a second Spot Alis daughter Laila Ali start against its father, again in-copied into old photographs. Here Alis qualities come as more charismatischerEntertainer likewise for validity like its „Ali Shuffle “or its combat style, with which it let the opponents strike by speedy avoiding in emptiness.

outside of the ring

Muhammad Ali in Wachs bei Madame Tussaud's in London
Muhammad Ali in wax with madame Tussaud's in London

its careerpermitted it to undertake in May 1964 an expanded journey by Africa and to meet apart from routistic activities there also different politicians.

1964 it was unfit classified after a IQ - test of the US army as for the military service.

In the same yearhe married the Fotomodel Sonji Roi. She became acquainted with the Boxer Cassius Clay in the year 1964 . The pair married only 41 days later to 14. August 1964 after it as demanded is converted to the Islam. The marriage held however onlytwo years. Under the pressure of the “sparkling wine leader” of its radical Islamic organization „nation OF Islam “the marriage became already 1966 again divorced. Trip was, because it, as Ali full disgust determined, made up and carried skirts.

1967 married Alihis second Mrs. Belinda, with whom it has four of its nine children (Maryum, Muhammad junior, Rasheeda and Jamillah).

1975 it separated from Belinda, after it had already several months a relationship with Veronica Porsche, which it married 1977. Theircommon daughter Laila Ali decided for a career as Profiboxerin and celebrated some successes.

Its fourth marriage, 1986, took place with Lonnie Williams, which it already could do since its childhood. At this time was its illnessalready far advanced.

The first wife of Muhammad Ali, Sonji Clay Glover, is to 10. October 2005 with 59 years in Chicago at a cardiac infarct died.

quotations

Wikiquote: Muhammad Ali - quotations
  • „I to the greatest! “
  • „Reading clay/tone becomesKing remain, until he meets Cassius Clay, moorlands fell in four, reading clay/tone in eight “
  • „he is too ugly, in order to be world champions! “ - Are not at all as
  • stupid over Sonny reading clay/tone „you, as you look “ - Ali 1963 to that The Beatles
  • „I are so fast that I, when I surrounded night in the hotel room the light switch yesterday lay in bed, before the light out was. “(„I'm so nearly that read night I turned off the light SWITCHes in my hotel roomand which into bed before the room which dark. “)
  • „I do not know always, about which I talk. But I know that I have quite. “
  • „The fight is won not before the spectators or lost, but for a long time before I under the lightsdance. “ (Ali over its „large flap “)
  • „who dreams only to strike me should wake up and for it apologize. “ (Muhammad Ali)
  • „me 'ne cell vacates nevertheless, and puts me into the hole, because dear prison bread, as in Viet Nam and dead. “ (Muhammad Ali)
  • „float like A butterfly, sting like A bee, His hands can't hit what his eyes can't lake, Now you lake ME, now you don't, George thinks he wants, but I know he won't. “
  • „George Foreman does not only becomefall, mountains will collapse. “ - Ali before „the Rumble into the Jungle “
  • „that becomes a Thrilla, Chilla, Killa, if I make him me, this gorilla in Manila. “(„It wants A killer, and A more chiller, and A thrilla, When IGET the gorilla, in Manila. “) - Ali before „the Thrilla in Manila “
  • „only really begins my life now. Against unfairness fight, against racingism, crimes, illiteratism and poverty, with this face, which knows the world so well. “ (Muhammad Ali)
  • „which,I get only one? “ - Ali on the announcement, on the occasion of its 60. Birthday one Muhammad Ali day to hold
  • „I are only a Fighter. Nothing else. If it concerns size, Ali regards to you. “ - Sugar Ray Leonard over Ali
  • „for thatSelf-confident its black ones in America did not only do Ali perhaps more than Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Patrice Lumumba and Bill Cosby together. “ - January Philipp Reemtsma over Ali

literature

  • Muhammad Ali, (smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Durham): The largest one. My history. Droemer Knaur, Munich 1976 ISBN 3-426-05600-3
  • David rem-nod: King OF the World. The ascent of the Cassius Clay or: The birth of the Muhammad Ali. Berlin publishing house, Berlin 2000 ISBN 3827003393
  • Harald shopkeepers and Fritz K. Heering: Muhammad Ali. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2001 ISBN 3-499-50643-2
  • January Philipp Reemtsma: More than a champion. Over the style of the Boxers Muhammad Ali. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002 2. 140 S.

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Muhammad Ali - quotations
| | * Literature of and over Muhammad Ali in the catalog of the DDB

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