Multimedia

the term Multimedia designates contents and works, which consist of several of the following digital media: Text, photography, diagram, animation, audio, video, interaction and plays.

Table of contents

definition

the presentation by different formats is nothing new, Multimedia is characterised however in particular by means of the digital contents. In addition the presence of different interaction possibilities plays an importantRole, e.g. active navigation, manipulation of contents or control of rendition parameters. Due to the technological progress of the digitization and the increased efficiency of computers Multimedia experienced a rapid development.

The combination of several media is called sometimes Multimedia only ifat least one medium is time-dependent (for example video, audio or animation, compare stone-cutter, 1999). According to this definition a text with pictures would not fall under Multimedia.

There is no clear definition for the term Multimedia. With P. Kneisel (quotedafter stone-cutter 1999) one finds the following definition: “A Multimediasystem is characterized by the computer-aided, integrated production, manipulation, representation, storage and communication by independent information, which is coded in at least a continuous and a discrete medium. ”

A further definition becomes ofKlimsa given (Issing, L.J./Klisma, P. : Information and learning with Multimedia and Internet, S.3f): “… meant “Multimedia” numerous hardware and software technologies for integration of digital media, as for example text, pixel pictures, diagram, video or clay/tone. Apart from this aspect of medium - Multimedialität -in addition, play interactivity, multitasking (simultaneous execution of several processes) and parallelism (related to the parallel medium presentation) an important role. In this connection we can speak of the integration and aspect of presentation of the Multimediabegriffs. These aspects of the technical dimensions of the Multimediaverständnissen must around furtherAspects to be supplemented: those the dimension of application. Only the application of the multimedia technology concretizes the term. So each beliebgie combination of media cannot be called “Multimedia”. A personal computer with expenditure for clay/tone and inserted CD-ROM a drive assembly is exactly the samelittle a garbage time dia. system like a CBT program (...), which represents pictures and diagrams beside text also. Surely however also the use context and the functionality of Multimedia are to be always included into the debate with beside the Multimediatechnik. “

“Multimedia” became 1995 Word of the yearly gekürt.

educational aspects

Naive Summentheorie
naive sum theory

the different media are to facilitate the knowledge admission of contents for the viewer, since the user takes up the information with different sensory organs. That is the basis the vordergründig understanding acceptance that informationbecome better “stored”, if they are obtained over as much as possible “channels”. In this connection diagrams emerge, similarly introduced the here, which are to illustrate the causal connection between learning effect (green curve) and medium quantity. The psychologist Bernd pasture man designates this argumentationas naive sum theory, to which each empirical proof is missing. Probably the acceptance in a misinterpretation of a statement of the founder of the medium didactics, Comenius bases. This demanded E Scholasticis Labyrinthis Exitus in subgrade level” in its writing “among other things: “Thus are also thoseSchools of everything the own senses of the learning darbieten: so that they see everything, hears, smells, tastes, affects, what seen etc. will can and must ".

It is empirically occupied that there are advantages when learning, if information on different channels is presented,e.g. a picture + audio contribution. This is justified with the fact that a channel possesses only a limited capacity. Picture + written text would make excessive demands of thus the visual channel, while picture can be noticed + audio at the same time.

The interactive aspect of Multimediamakes possible for the viewer an individually cut knowledge transfer as well as the experience-oriented admission of contents. These advantages are opened in particular by teaching programs (E-Learning , computer Based training).

technological aspects

of contents of Multimedia need substantial computing and storage capacities.This led until approximately 1990 too much reduced contents. These restrictions were today eliminated by the increased efficiency from home computers to a large extent, whereby faster processors, the general availability of at least High Color - capable diagram maps, of sound maps, graphic user surfaces and thoseThe break-through in the mass employment and made Multimedia brought introduction of the CD-ROM, thus above all to developments of the first half of the nineties, to the oft-quoted key word of this time. The following time brought then rather gradual improvements.

In the Internet restrictions are due to smallerRanges and missing QoS - functionality in common network minutes still substantially, whereby the increasing use of broadband connections becomes such as DSL these problems in foreseeable time lindern. In the range of the file formats are in the last years by new compression procedures of picture(GIF/jpg), clay/tone (mp3) and video (MPEG/avi) or specialized software packages reached such as Macromedia Director (author software) substantial quality improvements. For interactive treatment of video and audio data even own programming languages became as toExample pure one DATA develops. With newer Tools, as for example Macromedia Flash, became also Web contents possible.

Parallel to the developments in the computer market also in the entertainment electronics innovative devices were brought to ready for the market ones, which correspond to the requirements of Multimedia (DVD Player and play consoles). A leidiger aspect are the standardisation efforts of the playing software, the carrier media (for example DVD) and compression procedures. The companies involved try to win with penetration of their own standards market advantages, which mostly goes at expense of the user (for examplenot all CD - and DVD - are formats in any playing equipment readably.)

Multimedia find we today in nearly all areas of life: Begun with maintenance, training, science and research up to the user support at modern money automats. AsExample can be called the E-Detailing, a Multimediaanwendung for physicians, who and represents at the same time a marketing instrument for the Pharmaindustrie serves knowledge transfer. Multimedia developed also to its own, particularly aufwändigen art form within the digital art. The artistic worksdid not have an influence on the commercial development of Multimedia contents, which can be underestimated. The project Xplora1 of the singer Peter Gabriel was a Multimedia Referenzwerk from the year 1993. Further pioneer roles took the American artist Laurie Anderson one or Swiss Pipilotti Rist .

literature

  • Joachim Hasebrook: Multimedia - psychology. A new perspective of human communication. Spectrum academic publishing house, Heidelberg 1995.
  • Ralf stone-cutter: Multimedia technology - bases, components and systems, Springer publishing house, 2005, ISBN 3540620605
  • Bernd pasture man: Knowledge acquisition with pictures.Huber, Berne1994.
  • Andreas Holzinger: Basic knowledge Multimedia volume 1 technology: Technological bases of multimedia information systems, bird publishing house, 2.Auflage 2002, ISBN 3802319141
  • Andreas Holzinger: Basic knowledge Multimedia volume 2 learning: Cognitive bases of multimedia information systems, bird publishing house, 2000, ISBN 3802318579
  • Andreas Holzinger: Basic knowledge Multimedia volume 3Technology: Development-technical bases of multimedia information systems, bird publishing house, 2001, ISBN 3802318587

training

  • SOW institutes: International educational facility within the ranges audio, Multimedia, digitally film and 3D

see also

Web on the left of

 

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