the music (Greek μουσική (τέχνη) - musiké (téchne) - art of the Musen, in that latin (acre) musica already in the restricted meaning clay/tone art, clay/tone work, musical presentation, already in the old high German as leaning word; similar borrowingin innumerable further languages)

  • the clay/tone art designates: the artistic production of acoustic events;
  • Works of the clay/tone art;
  • colloquially the rendition of musical works (“wools we music hear?").

Table of contents

More exact definition and the material of the music

music is arranged time (in contrast for instance to the forming art, which arranges area). Music can be experienced only as expiration in the time. For this reason music almost term-necessarily sets one rhythmic order of their raw material (noises, tones, sounds) ahead. Except by rhythm musical material knows harmony ( the simultaneousness of certain pitches) by melody ( the succession of different pitches), and dynamics (the succession of the volume) to be organized. These categories become musical parameters mentioned. In individual cases becomes also a spatial effect, which from it results that each instrument in a place rings out and is locatable thus (limited), purposefully used, approximately in mehrchöriger music with appropriate spatial list of the individual groups.

DetailsRegulation, which music is and which, is not with difficulty. Most music theoreticians assume music is only music, if it is made intentional of humans as such. Apart from exceptions like thought-lost preitself whistles, music becomes mostly alsofor humans (public) made. Thus nearly each music stands in a certain social context and has a concrete purpose. It is made a certain time (within history) and/or. written and orients itself at certain models (tradition lines within thatMusic)

one can be also the opinion that music must be made not necessarily than such, but be noticed only of humans, in order to be music: Bird singing, the driving noises of a locomotive and being correct an instrument are border lines, some sharpDemarcation of music and non--music make difficult. Finally have avant-garde composers in the second half 20. Century completely consciously the borders its that music is, blown up, by doing without it, rhythm, harmony, to arrange let alone melody:z. B. with the tape recorder noted all world noises were gotten into the concert hall, the restriction on tonal (Dur and Moll) systems was given up (Atonalität; Arnold beautiful mountain, Theodor W. Adorno), musical works on coincidence conditions manufactured (Aleatorik) or silenceas music piece defines (John Cage).


the development of the music can be divided in epochs, into conventional music history to the forms of the forming art and architecture leans (e.g. Music of the antique ones, Renaissance music, baroque music, classical music etc.); newer research strives however to develop a historiography which proceeds less from the outside basic conditions than rather the musical structures.

In the chronology of the musical development the following eurozentristische sections can distinctivebecome:


during music as pure and undirected art is often regarded, is far common their purposeful use: For example to waking certain emotions (z. B. Advertisement, film music), for the elucidation of contents of, those over another medium (z. B. Text, voice, video/animation) to be conveyed, for therapeutic purposes (music therapy), and. v. m. Also the combination alsoother art forms is in the music particularly frequently, e.g. with lyric poetry (song, opera, Popsong etc.) or dance (ballet).

Due to this kommunikativen function one calls music also a universal language.

Music can either spontaneouslydevelop (improvisation), or after in writing fixed recordings to be exercised (composition, notation).

music and humans

culture-historically and with the emergence of the kind of mammal humans (evolution) play music and its perception by ear, Brain and the individual Rezeption in the sense of an immediate, unavoidable evaluation an enormous role. All hearing humans have music taste, music preferences, musical education - they are itself not united in the evaluation. This is always subjective and simultaneous is it culturally coined/shaped (musical Sozialisation).

Whether music for communication before the language development or both took place in a mutual influence could not be clarified, any longer. But music as means of communication is world-wide common. The psychology says that music transports emotionsin addition, emotions changes.

It is further interesting that the music taste of a person permits amazingly good conclusions over their personality: Researchers of the renowned University of Cambridge stated 2005 in an accomplished study that humans only on the basis the musical preferences of its Gegenübers,intuitively and with astonishing accuracy many details of its character to estimate are able. Frequently this estimate succeeds better than with the help of photographies or video photographs.

Read on to: Music taste reflects the personality surprisingly well against ( over one in the technical periodical Psychological Science published article)


of the music the most different emotional and psychological effects are attributed; the spectrum is enough from the one welfare-ends effect (z. B. Music by brook and Mozart, new Age music) up to„destructive “effects (z. B. with Death Metal, Gothic), which can be quite intended.

Until today the music science and its auxiliary disciplines could not clarify finally, in which degree the most different emotional and psychological effects of the music with the culturalBasic conditions are connected; thus by the spreading of the skirt music still few decades ago „the fall of the evening country was feared “; on the other hand prove the medium impact research at least in particularly this-positioned cases effects such as self selbsttötungen . However also these research results are disputed.

Also plants and Animals are to react to music; a positive effect on growth is after-said to certain music by house plants; even in animal husbandry occasionally music is used. In the sales promotion and advertisement music is used as means to load the product world auratisch andto strengthen so the consumer readiness.

Perfectly within the range the assumption of the universal comprehensibility of music is appropriate for the speculation; thus ground connection inhabitant in Steven of play mountain feature uncanny meeting of the third kind with extraterrestial visitors communicates over clay/tone sequences and sounds. Even the today'sSpace probes of NASA and ESA contain recordings of music, which should be helpful the communication with extraterrestial ways of life (see sounds OF Earth).


music science the disciplines of the music science with scientific methodology the development and emergence ofMusic (music history), their composers, their works and interpreters as well as the music instruments (instrument customer).

Further research directions of the music science are the music theory, as tool of the analysis and than composition customer (e.g. Harmony teachings), as well as the music sociology and music psychology.

The music sciences are divided roughly in three groups:

  1. systematic music sciences:
    Music sociology, music aesthetics, musical acoustics, Musikpädagogik, music psychology, musical Volkskunde (Musikethnologie), physiology of the instrument valley play
  2. applied music sciences:
    Music criticism, music teachings, instrument making
  3. historical music sciences:
    Instrument customer, notation customer, sentence customer, iconography, source customer, style customer,Biography, musical performance practice

kinds, forms, category and styles

with the systematization of music according to inter+subjective criteria are occupied the disciplines generic customer and form teachings as well as the style customer (see style directions of the music).

The music sciences developed several order dimensions,with different success to music to be applied.

According to kind of the participation:

after related to value classification:

whereby straight this partitioning,as also it to reason which are appropriate the values, were occasionally analyzed and also rejected and become. Clear U-music is however mostly less complex in its structure than clear E-music.

After origin:

  • Music from the European line of descent (old, classical, romantic,contemporary music)
  • non-European music, today also world music is called, those of the Musikethnologie are examined

after intended purpose, and/or. Cause of the emergence:

after clay/tone systems:

after the occupation strength:

After tonality conception:

according to kind of the sound production:

music sociology

music is not only self purpose and cultural property, but also a turnover-strong industry of the culture industry. The today's music industry coins/shapes musical developments (Casting - volume, work of opera star), absorbed and commercializes forms developed independently (jazz, Punk) and practices in the form of substantial lobbying influence on political decisions out (copyright).
Further ranges of topics of the music sociology are identity formation by divided music preferences (see also youth music culture) and the mergingness of the music practice and the music consumption into social structures such as sex, social class and life-style.

relationship with other art forms


in the Greek and Roman antique one were music and architecture linked many more closely with one another than this today the case is. Architects, musicians and philosophers did not only look for connections between the two arts again and again in the centuries andalso production, but itself also mutually new impulses given. The philosopher Friedrich William Joseph of Schelling said in the year 1859:Architecture is rigid music. In similar way is to be read with Arthur Schopenhauer: Architecture is frozen music. Morefor the relationship of music and architecture see Architektur#Musik.


the connection of music and text/ literature is in many music styles an elementary component and/or. constituted determined musical kinds (opera/ art song/ Popsong) at allonly. From interest thereby is the total expression, which develops in the interaction of music and text.

In addition, it can concern a contentwise report with priority, how it is apparently intended with the song text. Dear and protest song are such forms thatdirect statement. However by the musical “packing” contents are provided with a valuation, which transmitters and receivers in communication can understand or misunderstand either.

A more indirect connection of music and literature represent Schauspielmusiken, those in its effectalready exhibit a certain proximity to the film music.

the forming

arts and the music exhibit screen end art a strong internal connection. In the music of the Impressionismus composition and mark way are clearly from each other affected. Many sections of the modern ones Art - especially. Action art - in addition use Klangkollagen, music and other acoustic material. Openings of exhibitions or special festivals like the “long night of the museums” are combined frequently with musical presentations.

music technology

beside the enterprises of the medium industryalso the music technology exerts increasing influence on hearing habits and the music offer. For the Rezeption of noted music playing devices (tape recorder, Schallplattenspieler , CD player , MP3-Spieler etc. ) are necessary, which orient themselves increasingly in the possibilities of the computer technology. Withthe introduction that the digitization of the music began audio CD; by the recording format MP3 the psychoakustische compression was introduced by music, with which such portions can be removed from music data, which are judged the sound quality as less important. There with itthe danger was caused by unauthorized copies (pirat copies), today audio files by DRM digitally Rights management is appreciably provided, which was to permit only a firm number of authorized copies.

With the introduction of new technologies such as z. B. the DVD audio or the SACD (super audio CD) is the rendition technology prevailing to date in in channel (mono) and/or. Two-channel procedure (Stereo) extended by more-canal (generally five-channel,Surround “) rendition possibilities mentioned.

The influence of the technology on thoseMusic goes however the far beyond procedures for the storage and rendition of music pieces. As since jeher instrument farmer the technical possibilities of their time on the search for the completed sound sought to exhaust, then has also 20. Century electronicsto the creation of new music instruments with independent Klangcharakter used. Examples for this are among other things the electrical guitar, the Hammondorgel or the Synthesizer. The moreover in modern Produktionsstudios ever more is set on computers for the production by music. Important are here systemsas MIDI or software Synthesizer, with which whole orchestras can be imitated.

Beside the storage and production of music also looking up is simplified by modern technology. In and the seventies fifties 20. Century appeared books such as Barlowand morning star “A Dictionary OF musical Themes” and Parsons' “A directory OF Tunes and musical Themes”, which makes it for the reader possible, melodies z. B. to identify on the basis the Parsons code. In the meantime there are however many better methods for it, z. B. Musipedia, an on-line search machine for melodies.


  • B. and G. Berndorff, K. Eigler: Music right - the answers. The most frequent questions of the music business. PPVMEDIEN, mountain churches, ISBN 3-932275-92-6
  • MGG - music in history and present: general encyclopedia of the musichrsg. of Friedrich flower. Bear rider Metzler. MGG person part in 17 volumes (1999 FF.), MGG special part in 10 volumes.[1]
  • Leonard amber: Music - the open question. Lectures at Harvard University. Munich: Goldmann, 1976. ISBN 3-442-33052-1
  • Robert Lyng: Practicein the Musikbusiness. PPVMEDIEN, mountain churches, ISBN 3-932275-85-3
  • of Hans's racers: Bases of the music - music teachings. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1953. ISBN 3-15-007774-5
  • dtv Atlas music. Bd. 1 and. 2. ISBN 3423030224
  • shedding mountain composer encyclopedia. Dortmund 2001. ISBN 3-611-00978-4
  • Honegger, Mark, and mass wedge, Günther(Hrsg.):The large encyclopedia of the music, Freiburg in mash gau the 1978 and 1987
  • R. Lyng, M. v. Rothkirch, S. Small: Encyclopedia of the Entertainment industry. PPVMEDIEN, mountain churches, ISBN 3-932275-43-8

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Music - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Music - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Music - quotations



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