Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (* 1881 in Saloniki as Mustafa Kemal pasha; † 10. November 1938 in Istanbul), is the founder of modern Turkey with the state principle of the Kemalismus and first President of the Turkish republic. The honour title „Atatürk “(‚father of the Turks `) was lent to it during its presidency by the Turkish parliament as surname. Later he became Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish armed forces and first president of the Republic of Turkey.
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Mustafa was born as a son of Ali Rıza Bey and ZübeydeHanım in Saloniki, which was at that time on the territory of the Osmani realm. Its grandfather on the paternal side, Hafız, ranked among the Yörük Türkmenen. Its nut/mother Zübeyde Hanım was originally daughter of an old-established Turkish family of the small town Langaza with Saloniki, thoseas Konya Yörüken from Konya - Karaman came. Its father was an officer of the militia, secretary of pious donations and building timber dealers. Atatürks parents married 1871. From its five brothers and sisters four died in the childhood, only Makbule (Atadan) already lived up to the year 1956.
Atatürksdetails date of birth are unknown. He is to have expressed once that it is nevertheless beautiful „, if I to 19. May (the day of the beginning of the release of Turkey from allied Besatzern after the First World War) would be born “.
On own desireit visited a lay school, after it had visited some months long, when desired the nut/mother, a religious school. On the military middle school in Saloniki its talent was fast recognized. It made its conclusion in Monastir (today Bitola).
1899 it visited the military academy in Istanbul. There by its mathematics teacher the additional name was lent to it „Kemal “(the perfect one). Already at study times Mustafa Kemal was affected by the policy, it to that Young Turks led, a grouping of officers and cadets, who were not content with the current situation in the Osmani realm. This politicalization was released by the fact that the osmanischen officers had at that time to learn the French language and thus views ofthe history of France and their revolution received. In this time it, the Rakı , began a high-per cent liquor to award which added to its health substantially.
Despite its political activities, which led also to a brief Arrestierung, Mustafa Kemal made 1905its conclusion as one the best ones, however to the army to Damascus was transferred for disciplinary reasons, where he stood practically at the front. 1908/09 was he during the revolution of the young Turks of one the leader and commander of the insurgent troops, the Sultan Abdülhamid II. to the resignation and Mehmed V. forced its brother. as powerless replacement began. it fought to 1911 under the supreme command Enver pashas in Tripoli against the Italian invasion.
With the outbreak of the Balkans war 1912 it returned to Istanbul and playeda crucial role during the back conquest of east Thrakien. Subsequently, it was Militärattaché in Sofia up to the outbreak of the First World War.
war of independence and world
major items: Turkish war of liberation
1915 he struck back the troops of the Entente breaking in into the Dardanellen with the help of the Central Powers in the battle of Gallipoli ; for this the title pasha was lent to it. 1917 it accompanied the Crown Prince Mehmed VI. Vahdettin, thatlater last Sultan Mehmed VI., into the German Reich. Among other things the delegation met in Bad Kreuznach with emperor Wilhelm II. (German Reich), general field marshal Paul von Hindenburg and Generalstabschef Ludendorff together. After end of the war it became 1919 military inspector in Samsun. After the pro forma surrender of the Osmani realm (contract of Sèvres) and the following occupation of large regions by the allied ones (the British, Frenchmen, Greeks, Italians and Russians) it called to 19. May to the rebellion against the Besatzer up.
in a telegram it weighted with the Grosswesir about giving up the country. Subsequently, it recruited in proclamations to the people the agreement tooa new Turkey. After the renouncement of its military rank (Mustafa Kemal pasha was at this time Brigadier General) he was selected later in Sivas to the chairman of the representative meeting and the executive council.
he explained the war of independence to 1920, around thoseTo prevent division of the country by the Besatzer, which had been decided in the contract by Sevres. As a commander of the Turkish armed forces it reached after two years war the retreat of the hostile armies to 30. August 1922. It struck thoseGreek on the mountain Çal and the banks of the Sakarya, marshal became and kept the honour title Gazi after this victory. At the 1. November was abolished the sultanate.
After the signing of the contract of Lausanne (24. July 1923)became to 29. October the republic of Turkey (official name) proclaimed and Atatürk was selected by the parliament unanimously to the first president. Thereupon it appointed its gone away İsmet of many years İnönü the first Prime Minister of the new republic.
Republic of thatTurkey
unity of the most important goals of the policy of Mustafa Kemal pasha was the turn of the country to the west and the separation from state and religion to western model. It shifted those Capital of the country after Ankara.
1922 succeeded it to it to abolish the sultanate and 1924 the Kalifat. Sultan and Kalif, the highest dignitaries Islam, left the country. Religion schools for clergyman and judge were dissolved, the general compulsory schoolingone introduced and one subordinated all schools a ministry of education.
1926 was closed the the wiping monasteries and carrying religious clothing symbols such as Fes, trousers, the wiping caps and Tschador worked far was forbidden as well as the surname was introduced. Furthermore the Islamic time calculation became by that The metric system replaces as well as Gregorian calendar imported. Instead of on Fridays Sunday became weekly holiday. In the same year also the iurisdiction oriented at the Koran was replaced by Swiss the civil law and thus the equal rights between man and woman,the marriage ceremony by the register office and a modern inheritance right imported. Besides the German commercial law and the Italian criminal law were taken over.
As office language the osmanische high-level language of the past elite , which was strongly affected by the Persian one and Arab one, became by those Turkish people language replaces. 1928 took place the conversion of the Arab writing to latin alphabet. Since 1930 could participate women in local elections, since 1934 also in the parliamentary elections. Further reforms concerned the tax law, whereby the industrialization promoted andthe agriculture was treated more unfavorably.
1934 lent the large national assembly Mustafa Kemal pasha to the surname „Atatürk “ (father of the Turks). Atatürk let the Koran translate into the Turkish and read it as a first person in the Dolmabahce palace. The idea however thatin the mosques instead of on Arab on Turkish to be only gebetet should, proved as impracticable and one took back.
at present the national socialism loaded Atatürk for the setting up the Turkish university nature German scientists, also such JewishFaith, into Turkey and thereby a refuge possibility gave them. The universities from Ankara and Istanbul became for many from them to new effect places.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died to 10. November 1938 in Dolmabahçe in Istanbul to thatFollow living ore erring trousers, after he was fallen into a coma two days before, from which it not awaked any longer. A treatment abroad it leaned vehement off with the words “trusts me Turkish physicians on”. Its body became afterAnkara brought and 1953 in that particularly for it created Mausoleum „Anıtkabir “to the last peace bedded. After its death by law was forbidden to other citizens assuming “Atatürk ” than surname.
The international airport Istanbuls (IS) became after it “Atatürk Havalimani” designated.
To the day of death Mustafa Kemals is inserted in Turkey one mourning minute, to which country-wide sirens ring out.
memorial places and monuments
the memory of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is sometimes in Turkey very strongly pronouncedly and accepts courses of a person cult. In many Turkish cities several Atatürk statues at different public places and parks are located. Besides Büsten of Atatürk, and some mechanisms are in nearly all public buildingscarry its names (z. B. the Atatürk dam).
Important memorial places and monuments:
- The birth house in Thessaloniki lies beside the Turkish Consulate General. A part of the building is accessible to the public and shows an extensive exhibition over Kemal Atatürk.
- In the Güvenparkone sees „the monument of the confidence “. It was built 1935 and carries as inscription a quotation of Atatürk: „Turk, is proud, works and trusts you.(Türk, övün, calış, güven.) “.
- „The victory monument “Atatürks at the victory place shows it inUniformly.
- „The republic monument “at the Ulus place in Ankara shows Atatürk on a horse and is the Turkish liberty fight to symbolize.
- Dursun Atilgan: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Life, guidance conceptions, achievement, Önel, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-929490-66-8
- briefly Bittel (Hrsg.): Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 1881-1981. Lectures and essays to its 100. Birthday, Groos, Heidelberg 1982, ISBN 3-87276-272-9
- Johannes glass-hit a corner: The role of the personality Kemal Atatürks in the national liberation struggle of the peoples of the Near East, academy publishing house, Berlin 1983
- Dietrich Gronau: MustafaKemal Atatürk or the birth of the Republic of, Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1994, ISBN 3-596-11062-9
- Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. From the Statsgründer to the myth, Parthas publishing house, Berlin, 2004, ISBN 3-932539-49-9
- ↑ Peter Scholl Latour: Allahs shade over Atatürk. ThoseTurkey in the burst test. Goldmann, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-15137-6
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Kemal Atatürk - quotations|
- turkinfo.at Turkish message Vienna with information to the birth house and to the exhibition there
- http://www.ataturk.com/ (English and Turkish)
- http://www.tcberlinbe.de/de/trde/ataturk/index5.htm information about Atatürks Germany journey
- Turkish message in Berlin over Atatürk
- Turkish culture Ministry over Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
- Telepolis article “Mustapha Kemal Atatürk and the birth of a Republic of “(a documentation of Séverine Labat on ARTE)
- quotations of Atatürk
| | * Literature ofand over Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the catalog of the DDB
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Turkish politicians|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1881|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Saloniki|
|DYING DATE||10. November 1938|
|DYING PLACE||Istanbul, Turkey|
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|