Nürnberger of laws
the Nürnberger of laws, also Nürnberger of Rassengesetze, became to 15. September 1935 of Reichstag on that 7. Realm Party Congress of the NSDAP („realm Party Congress of the liberty “) in Nuremberg unanimously decided. With them the national socialists set their anti-Semitic ideology to a legal basis.They contained
- of the German blood and the German honour (Blutschutzgesetz) the law to the protection,
- the realm citizen law,
- and the realm flag law.
Table of contents
for „the keeping clean of the German blood “, a central component of the National Socialist ideology, forbade the law for the protection of the German blood and the German honour the marriage ceremony between Jews and Nichtjuden as well as the except-conjugalSexual intercourse between them. As punishment for so-called race dishonor prison and penintentiary threatened. The punishing threat for the except-conjugal sexual intercourse between Jews and Nichtjuden was directed only against the man, not against the woman.
It is often maintained, latter regulation would go on a personal intuition Adolf Hitlerback and witnesses from his woman wife, which understands the woman as sexually minor. A more comprehensible reason supplies the comment of William kind of stucco and Hans Globke: For transfer usually the statement of the woman involved is no longer necessary and these would stand during exempt from punishment position a refusal to testify righttoo.
Jews it was forbidden furthermore to employ „German-bloody “housemaids under 45 years; Background was the ideological assumption, „the Jew “otherwise against these would offense itself.
Shortly thereafter became to 14. November 1935 in one „first regulation to the Blutschutzgesetz “fixed that „half Jews “, those the JewishKultusgemeinde belonged, neither „German-bloody “nor „to quarterly Jew “conjugal were allowed. „Quarterly Jews “and „German-bloody “were allowed to marry. The consideration stood to retain „the rassisch precious arische blood “while the small Jewish blood portion in the course of the generations would fade. The classification of the category remained unsettled by „half Jews “with ChristianGlaubensbekenntnis, which were called „Jewish half-breeds of first degree “. Their requests for a marriage permission with „quarterly Jews “or „German-bloody “did not remain usually unsuccessful and after 1942 any more were not accepted.
realm flag law
in addition was forbidden Jews, whom by the realm flag law of Reichstag explained as the realm flag Swastika flag too were called. Offence was threatened with money or term of imprisonment up to one year. - By the prohibition it should be prevented that Jewish companies “camouflage themselves” by flag decoration could.
realm citizen law
in the realm citizen law was specified that only „citizens of German or cognate blood “Realm citizens to be could. The law had the consequence that no more Jew was allowed to hold a public office. The Jewish officials had to 31. December 1935 the service acknowledge. In addition Jews lost the political right to vote.
The right quality the Jewish half-breeds been entitled “provisional realm citizenry” remained for a long timeYears indefinitely. Became important finally by Hitler initiated 11. Regulation to the realm citizen law of 25. November 1941. German Jew was denied thereby when leaving the realm area the nationality. With Deportation their seized fortune with the border crossing fell formally to the state.
In a first regulation to the realm citizen law of 14. The national socialists defined November 1935, which persons of „partial Jewish descent should be subject “to the human right-adverse Nürnberger laws. There it was regulated who after National Socialist view „full Jew “ or “Jewish half-breed” („half “- or „quarterly Jew “) was.
- Persons with at leastthree Jewish grandparents were considered as „a full Jew “.
- Persons with Jewish parents or two Jewish grandparents were considered to persons with a Jewish grandparents part as „a half-breed of first degree “
- („half Jew “) as „a half-breed of second degree “classified („quarterly Jew “)
in § 5 (2) of the first regulation to the realm citizen law became „the half-breedsfirst degree “into two categories divides:
- The “full Jews” those “half-breeds of first degree” became on an equal footing, who the Jewish religious community belonged or who were married with a Jew. After that 31. July of 1936 born children, those from a illegitimen relationship between a Jewish and a arischen partnercame out, should be considered likewise legally as Jews. - For this circle of acquaintances later the designation “validity Jew “arose.
- The “legal term of the Jewish half-breed” was limited “to the part of the half Jews not tending to the Judentum and to the quarterly Jews”. like a Christian „mixed marriage “buildup, with which the Jewish parents had loose-said themselves of the Jewish denomination, and as a child, was therefore legally better posed than out same conditions more coming “half Jew of” Jewish faith: It was not allowed to become civil servants or officer,however the “provisional realm citizen right” received with the political right to vote. - The vorgeblich biologically justified racistic ideology of the national socialists disproves itself by this interpretation, in which also the late Hans Globke acting in the Federal Republic than undersecretary of state had considerably participated. Who as a “half Jew” inone was educated
after§ Hitler had reserved itself 7 of the first regulation to the realm citizen law personally the agreement for exceptions. The utterance „who Jew is, determines I! “ Hermann Göring is attributed, does not meet however not circumstances.
Of more than 10,000 requests, which were examined and filtered by several first instances,achieved only 339 the desired goal of a good position. Only in two cases full Jews were favoured. A “half-breed of first degree” rarely reached its equalization with a “Arier”, more frequently a so-called „validity Jew “was more favorably classified.
According to the decree of the supreme command of the armed forces of 8. April 1940 becamethe “half-breeds of first degree” from the armed forces dismisses; Exceptions were possible only with personal permission of Hitler. Höherrangige of members of the NSDAP were subjected to far stricter criteria. Also half-breeds „fifth degree “were not waited. Special permissions the “leader “had reserved itself also here.
The sieved realm Party Congress, of 10. up to 16. September 1935 in Nuremberg took place, under the slogan Party Congress of the liberty had been originally planned and should the introduction of the military service and the release from the restrictive regulations out of the Versailler of contract propagandistically put.
Realm physician leader Gerhard Wagner held by 12. September 1935 a speech, in which he announced surprisingly, which National Socialist state will soon prevent by a law for the protection of the German blood the further mixture of Jews and “Ariern”. Adolf Hitler extended the order and left immediately thatMinisterialdirigenten William kind of stucco and other administrative specialists, like the Jew adviser in the realm ministry of the Interior, Bernhard Lösener, in the evening 13. Septembers from Berlin were called here, appropriate bills to prepare. The responsible Ministers were switched off by the time pressure. Wagner, that itself in Nuremberg constantly with Hitler, an obligation divorce of mixed marriages and marriage prohibition stopped also wanted to introduce for quarterly Jews, while the Ministerialbürokraten referred to difficulties during the practical conversion. Hitler decided finally for the milder bill; it could present itself thereby as a moderate statesman, who had its party in the grasp.Substantial contents of these Nürnberger of laws remained indefinite and could be out-arranged arbitrarily further. With the Blutschutzgesetz was unclear by November 1935, who applied in the sense of the law as a Jew. No statement gave it to the punishing duration. Was completely unausgeformt the right quality of “citizens” and “provisional realm citizenry”.
In the evening 15. Septembers 1935 were unanimously decided the Nürnberger of laws by the by telegraph called for members of the realm daily.
In the literature it is represented predominantly that the race laws came completely surprisingly and spontaneously developed. It opposes this impression that alreadyto 26. July 1935 registrars of births, marriages and deaths were instructed not to work on quantities for mixed marriages because of a lining up reorganization.the cure prince dam riot the resolution. Disputed today also the representation of the pulled advisers is, those their co-operation as moderating influenceor resistance stylized.Furthermore controversially it is discussed whether incidents affected like
after the secret SD-reports, which showed the tendency of the population, were taken up the Nürnberger of laws “with satisfaction, not least, because unpleasant single actions “would stop. In catholic circles thereafter the new laws were not inspired “taken up “, but expectation expressed that it would not come now no more to anti-Semitic excesses. - It must remain open whether these expressions are representative and whether this partial criticism only the caution was owed.
It was welcomed partly even by Jewish citizens that now a durableand legally regulated solution for living together is found. It was surveyed that the Nürnberger of laws represented only an empty framework. To the calming that in the proclamation intentionally the impression was aroused, these regulations would concern “only full Jew” contributed; Hitler had this note before personallypainted, the text however in the version of the draft for publication approved.
In circles, which stood for the economy close, there were doubts because of possible effects abroad. The feared sanctions were however hardly noticeable.
later one consequences
in the future up to the endthe third realm the legal status of the Jews was continued to limit by a multiplicity of further laws and regulations, which concerned nearly all ranges of the public like the private life. The ideological background of the N. Very well the Himmler shows laws - writing of the Untermensch of 1935.
After1939 the Jew star in occupied Poland, starting from 1941 also Jew in the realm area was inserted had to carry him. Also the male Jewish part of a childless „mixed marriage was obligated “to carrying the star. Only if the married couple one „Jewish half-breed “(in o.a. Definition) as a child, was the Jewish partner had in this then „granted privilege mixed marriage “from it released.
The Jewish partners in mixed marriages were obligated in the course of the war to hard labour and kaserniert frequently in camps. Also „the German-bloody married men “in mixed marriages were obligated as „Jewish Versippte “starting from 1944 to the hard labourand often instructed in labour camps. Into Berlin briefly before end of the war also „the arischen “wives were accordingly used.
For the execution the 1942 during the when sea-conference discussed plans did not arrive. Afterwards the obligation divorce of mixed marriages and the obligation sterilization of Jewish half-breeds were called as a goal.Many „Jewish half-breeds of first degree “were deportiert still briefly before end of war into the east, were not no more killed there however.
the number of faith Jews further becomes estimated for the year 1933 on 505.000 to 525,000, to those according to definition of the national socialists180.000 assimilated Jews to add would be.
After the census of 1939 the total number of the Jewish population with 213.390 persons was determined. In addition 72,738 “half-breeds of first degree” and 42,811 “half-breeds of second degree” lived in the realm area.
At the 1. Officially only 31.910 lived April 1943 in the large realmJew. Approximately half of them had to carry the Jew star: The Jewish partners in “not-granted privilege mixed marriages” as well as “validity Jews”.
After the Reichskriminalstatistik of the yearly 1937 512 men were condemned because of “race dishonor “, among them were 355 Jews. Between 1936 to 1940 1911 men became because of “race dishonor”condemned. - The evaluation of the judgements gefällten from 1936 to 1943 in Hamburg results in that Jewish men were punished clearly more sharply than “German-bloody”. Approximately a third of the Jewish law victims received penal servitudes between two and four years; scarcely a quarter was still more strictly punished. The maximum penalty15 years amounted to. In few exceptional cases as with the notorious judgement against Leo Katzenberger even designed judge a death sentence.
- Stuckart Globke: Comments on the German race legislation. Volume 1, Munich and Berlin 1936 page 18/19 ↑
- pure hard Rürup: The end of the emancipation. The anti-Jewish policyin Germany… in: Arnold Paucker among other things (Hrsg.): The Jews in National Socialist Germany. Tübingen 1986. To ISBN 3-16-745103-3 side 111f ↑
- Jeremy Noakes: Where do the “Jew half-breeds” belong? The emergence of the first implementation regulation toothe Nürnberger laws. In: Ursula Büttner among other things (Hrsg.): The injustice regime…. Volume 2: Pursuit, exile, loaded new beginning. Hamburg 1986 ISBN 3-7672-0963-2
- Hans Robinsohn: Law as political pursuit. The iurisdiction in „cases of race dishonor “at the regional court Hamburg 1936-1943. Stuttgart 1977. ISBN 3-421-01817-0
- John M. Steiner/Jobst F. ofCornberg:Arbitrariness in arbitrariness. Release from the anti-Semitic Nürnberger laws. In: Quarter booklets for contemporary history 46 (1998) page 143-187
- Uwe Dietrich Adam: Jew politics in the third realm. Unv. Reproduction, king stone 1979. ISBN 3-7610-7223-6 (developing history of the Nürnberger law)
- January Kershaw: Hitler 1889-1936. Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-421-05131-3 (in13. Chapter, bes. S. 711, vouchers for well-planned preparations)
- Otto DOV Kulka: The Nürnberger of Rassengesetze and the German population in the light of secret LV situation and tendency reports. In: Quarter booklets for contemporary history 32 (1984) S. 582-636
- Cornelia Essner: The “Nürnberger of laws” or the administration of the race illusion 1933-1945. Paderborn 2002. ISBN 3-506-72260-3 (Diss. /Criticism at self-manifestation Löseners and co-operation of the state State of)
- review to Essner into points of seeing 4 (2004) No. 7/8 (15.07.2004) 
- Arnold Paucker German Jews in the fight for right and liberty. Studies to defense, self statement and resistance dt. Jew since the end of the19. Jh. Treatment. Barbara Suchy. Teetz: Hentrich u.H., 2003, ISBN 393347146x
Web on the left of
- original text of the realm flag law of 15. September 1935 (documentarchiv.de)
- original text of the law for the protection of the German blood and the German honour („Blutschutzgesetz “) of 15. September 1935 (documentarchiv.de)
- The Nürnberger of laws (LeMO)
- the Nürnberger of Rassengesetze (Shoa.de) left defect. Linked to the starting side www.shoa.de