a reference book is, usually a data collection exhaustive in their area, which is set up according to certain systematic or alphabetical criteria , ranking among the technical literature, and/or. for such to be scanned can.
Ever more reference books appear not only in book form, but alsoas CD-ROM or DVD. Often they - like the Wikipedia - are also on-line in the Web available, some of it however, contrary to the Wikipedia, only against a user fee. For the publishing houses is the digitization even if pays more unlukrativer.Helps them, if for example lawyers refer representative pressure versions and collections of sheets (auxiliary works) despite all usually additionally.
The digital reference books know not only texts and pictures (illustrations), but also clay/tone and music (audio) or video - documents contain,such works are called Multimedia. They can serve also the training at the same time, then they generally also computer Based training become - short: “CBT” mentioned.
Table of contents
organization after contents of
contents of the reference books are to divide in:
- Texts: References, fields of activity, authors etc.
- Illustrations: Photo, illustrations, info. diagrams, maps and plans
- tables and lists - for example - alphabetical,chronological or geographical summary presentations, often also with diagram combines.
- Clay/tone and audio documents - only with the digital reference books (Multimedia)
- video sequences and animations - likewise with the Multimedia
kinds of reference books
one differentiate roughly, whereby overlapsare possible:
has the furthest knowledge extent, in 19. Century also as encyclopedia designates, since it should serve the general education of the middle class, which reflected itself then again in the “ formed Konversation “. “ Brockhaus “is at presentthe only still maintained large general encyclopedia in German language appears. Also the Wikipedia is an encyclopedia.
the designation encyclopedia becomes both for enzyklopädische reference books (special dictionary) and for language dictionaries used. Usually becomeEncyclopedias with a limited specialized extent (specialized encyclopedia) rather as encyclopedia designates (e.g. Computer encyclopedia, animal encyclopedia such as Brehms animal life or artist encyclopedia like the Thieme Becker).
languagecenters, einsprachig or mostly in two languages, also in several languages (as translation) -in the sense of a diction acre (Switzerland.), often however falsely also as encyclopedia designates. One calls special dictionaries, which are concerned with the origin of the words, etymologische dictionaries. A dialect dictionary is called also Idiotion. A speciality is a foreign word book, or special dictionary. A particularly extensive special dictionary becomes the specialized encyclopedia. In the German language the Duden probably is at most used dictionary.
In addition, a dictionary is simultaneous the actual basis of each good reference book. The all first GermanDictionary was Abrogans, a hand written Latin-old-high-German dictionary (or also glossary ↓) from that 8. Century, it is considered so far also as the first German book at all. The probably most extensive German dictionary of the brothers Grimm became already 1838 with the volume1 begun and only in the year 1961 with that 32. Volume finally.
specialorients, however mostly not alphabetically, but thematically arranged, in the sense of a guidance, contentwise an addition of the encyclopedia. Instructions (for example to a computeror to a software become therefore as manuals (English. “manual”, also “handbook”) marks. A manual text book is called often also as manual.
collection of difficult words and terms with the pertinent explanations, theme-focused, often also onlyas appendix to another work, for example with a manual.
specifies (specialized) the terms, often is a thesaurus the basis of a project or an institution, thereby all involved ones also always in each case the same term Technicus use correctly.
In EDP - For programs and the documentation science also systematics of terms, those in relationship to each other stand (controlled vocabulary, synonyms etc.) as important aid to the indexing and for searches.
the vocabulary of humans, onePerson's group or an area is called vocabulary (glossary).
of exhibition catalogs, museum catalogs, Fair catalogs, lists of goods etc. Also libraries, archives and documentations open their existence with a catalog, frequently only as card index or today in digital form. To most art exhibitions catalogs in book form appear, often with supplementing information to the topic or Artist. Commercial catalogs of suppliers, distributing houses or publishing houses, also the indispensable VLB - (listing of available books) - a Bibliografie in book form, as CD-ROM or on-line - is such a catalog.
listingfrom reference works, Bibliografien (also bibliographies) are special listings, and/or. Catalogs for the literature search (books, magazines, other publications), mostly thematically (after areas), Branchenbibliografie or spatially (deductions, libraries) orients. The German Nationalbibliografie (exact title: “German Nationalbibliografie and Bibliografie that abroadpublished German-language publications ") by the German library and is the largest data collection German-language literature is provided. It seizes all sent in obligation copies of the publications in Germany. In Switzerland and Austria as in most other states it givessimilar institutions.
an alphabetical listing (register) mostly at the end of a book or a text; with specialized books frequently divided into tables of contents and on behalf of. In the Internet as index the starting side is often designated of Websites.
“Index”also a usual abbreviation for the listing of forbidden or accessible publications is reduced (e.g. the index Librorum Prohibitorum or the index of the federal inspection station for youth-endangering writings).
(of Bible) originally a lehr and a reader, today mostly a reference book with differently long, accompanying, often alsomaintenance seed texts, mostly alphabetically arranged: PC booklet, garden booklet etc.
combination of a calendar with a reference book, in this case chronologically arranged in the yearly expiration. Agendas gives it to many topics and it connect the daily value in use for the schedulingwith all kinds of useful information.
is an encyclopedia, which is arranged according to the time axis not according to the alphabet, but. In digital reference books this function is by purposeful data base inquiry well as auxiliary use possible, the Wikipedia is also oneChronicle. Also a personal record or a Biografie, and/or. Werkbiografie is a special chronicle, artist lists of works is likewise gladly chronologically arranged.
is a work, which concerns itself only with a topic, either as Biografie or Werkmonografie to onePerson or as reference book or manual to a thing, a topic: for example over one epoch or an animal, a work of art or plant type, an article (“everything over Volkswagen beetles”).
graphically orients, often geographically (e.g. as school atlas or as map collection), historically or politically (historical Atlas), in addition, technically orients (for example anatomy Atlas, mushroom Atlas) as collection of illustrations with explanations.
leader (term clarifying) in book form, today also gladly (English) Guidementioned, are reference books or special catalogs for a certain topic. A scientific, biological or culture-historical leader could be designated with many illustrations naturally in addition, than Atlas (about „Botani leader Western Europe “or „Atlas of the village types in Central Europe “).
the abbreviation FAQ means F requently A sked Q uestions. It acts thereby around a composition from questions often posed and the pertinent answers to a topic.
the publishing houses and authors is in the title choice for their works freely; like that the designation is glossary, dictionary, manual, encyclopedia, booklet, yearbook, Atlas etc. in the Buchtitel not necessarily with the organization in the agreement, specified above. There are itself also very special specialized encyclopedias, however gladlyeven call encyclopedia (for example:One, also in marketing, wants chicken encyclopedia), thus which range of the work and its meaning still particularly emphasize.
sometimes not on-line
many reference books of the constant actualization, become extensive specialized books are subject to actualization thereas lot sheet works given change and in the future by auxiliary supplies on the newest conditions brought. Sides are exchanged or inserted and given change if necessary also additional files. A such collection can grow up in such a way to a more-restrained work (standards, laws, regulationsto etc.)
- reference books in the Internet, Lexikologie and Lexikografie, Wikipedia: Public Domain sources, list of the reference books
Web on the left of
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