|of these articles is occupied with the French emperor Napoléon Bonaparte; to further persons with names Napoleon see Napoleon (term clarifying).|
Napoléon Bonaparte (* 15. August 1769 in Ajaccio on Korsika; † 5. May 1821 in Longwood House on pc. Helena in the south Atlantic) was a most important statesman and field gentleman of the time after the French revolution. It made first career in the revolution army, was from 1799 to 1804 by self appointment first consul of the French republic, of1804 - 1815 (likewise by self appointment) with short interruption emperor of the Frenchmen, 1805 king of Italy and 1806 tread of the Rhine federation.
NapoléonBonaparte is considered as one of the most capable military leaders of all times. It succeeded to it within a short time to bring Europe nearly completely under its direct or indirect control. It closed itself to the emperor of the Frenchmen and used and trusted friendsKings and princes of the conquered countries.
It probably studied and obeyed the teachings Sunzis , whose book the art of the war had only been translated in the year 1782 into the French language as a first European field gentleman. Is not less importantNapoléons statesmanlike structure achievement in the time after the French revolution. Its law book code civil applies in France until today and had since its publication in the year 1804 a lasting influence on the development of the civil right.
Of Napoléonforced resignation of the German emperor Franz II. and promoted the completion of the holy Roman realm of German nation, the re-organization of German principalities to larger territories like also the later liberation struggle against Napoléon the German national feeling and the ascent of Prussia toto the German Reich.
„a Korse of birth “- childhood
Napoléon became as Napoleone Buonaparte and/or. korsisch Nabulione sold in Ajaccio on the Mediterranean island Korsika born, those after a long war of independence against Genova in the year 1768 at Francewas. He was the second son of Carlo di Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, which had together 13 children, of which however only eight the early childhood years survived. The family belonged to the korsischen small aristocracy and was since the early16. Century on the island present. Their roots lie in the Italian Toskana. Napoléons father had been a secretary of Pascal Paoli, a large korsischen leader, and with this for independence Korsikas had fought. As a studied lawyerif it had cooperated in a korsischen condition, bent itself however 1769 of the French sovereignty. He worked from now on as an lawyer and/or. Judge and as winegrowers and a farmer on its goods. Beyond that he was a selected aristocracy representative in the korsischen condition parliament and in Paris. Due to his extensive library and the influence of the father its older sons, under it Napoléon, were interested early in history, literature and law. In addition Napoléon was left-handed person, which at the time at that time was quite unusual. Paoli was NapoléonsYouth model.
Youth and military training
thanks of a royal scholarship, which Ludwig XVI. for however earned French noble ones in the life, become impoverished, pulled the ten-year Napoleone - Napoléon was now called, as it - had called to 1779 together with its brother Josephto France into a boarding school in Autun where he - only now - French learned. Afterwards it went to the cadet school from Brienne, in order to receive first military training, where it as a scholarship holder and only Korse as outsiders,in addition, applied as good pupils. It developed a special talent in mathematics, in addition it was interested in the large heroes of history such as Alexander the large one and Julius Caesar. Its favourite reading were similar - asFriedrich the large one - which parallel biographies of Plutarch, in which ever an important Greek and Romans are confronted and weighed out in its value as models to moral heroischer Lebensführung. With twelve years he preserved the desire to go to sea. As 1783England and France their naval warfare terminated, tried it even to the English navy to be taken up.1784 it was accepted into the École royale militaire in Paris and reached the city to 21. October. There it further to the navywanted, he came into the artillery class, where he and othersHydrostatics, differential and integral calculus studied.
To 24. February 1785 died his father Carlo at stomach cancer and Napoléon took over the role of the family head, which was entitled actually to its older brother Joseph Bonaparte.In the same year Napoléon was old with the examinations so well that he could lock its study already after one year, instead of after two, and received, hardly 16 years, its officer patent. There the French navy in this year noneHe looked for, decided officers for the regiment La Fère in Valence, the Korsika next convenient garrison town. There it took up its service as Unterleutnant in January 1786, until it was shifted in June 1788 after Auxonne. Overits nut/mother to relieve, he took its eleven-year old brother Louis to itself and worried about its education.
Literature and reform conceptions
in the spare time of its military service he dedicated himself to the literature and the Schriftstellerei. It read in this timevery much and very extensively: from novels to text books, of antique works like the Platos up to modern works, like e.g. of Voltaire, Corneille and Lavater, or scientific works as roll in history of the antiquity, Buffons Histoire Naturelle or Marignys history of the Arabs. As an autodidact he taught himself here an extensive knowledge. When it was interested also increasingly in politics and unfairness in the state, Jean Jacques Rousseau became its large model and a constitutional monarchyas those of England, which governed in the interest of the people, seemed to it exemplary;Patriotismus, and/or. in the service of the people to act, its ideal became.
At this time it began to write also. Among other things it wrote a Gruselromanwith political background, the attempt of a history Korsikas - because of the rejecting attitude Paolis, which he asked for support, it gave this disappointed to up, and a philosophical essay over human luck, which it for a price advertisement of the academy ofLyon wrote - no essay was found for worthy to receive the price. It represents here the view that humans are born, to be around lucky and “morality it will give, if the governments are free. ”
A soldier thatRevolution
as in the spring of the yearly 1789 the French revolution broke out, emigrierte Napoléon not, like many other officers, but did not become despite its own aristocracy descent of glowing proponents of the republic and therefore soonto captain promotes, differently than the many noble officers, who had fled. Bonaparte provided first only some insignificant tasks of order in the French province and was mostly in its homeland Korsika, where the national movement experienced a new upswing andthe independence from France aimed at.
In the year 1792/93 Napoléon kept its first military command and with the command authority over a battalionbattalion battalion of the korsischen national guard for the invasion after Sardinien was entrusted, with that the French republic since 1792 inWar found. The landing attempt failed however, for which Bonaparte made above all the French troop units responsible. The family in the summer 1793 Korsika forced obscure entangling of its brothers into a coup d'etat against the leader of the korsischen movement of independence Pasquale Paoli escape-like tooleft and completely becomes impoverished to France to go.
Napoléon supported the revolution and made career fast. 1793 it released Toulon from the royalist Royalisten cooperating with the Englishmen. Fortunately for the winner was in the camp of Toulonbeside Saliceti a still much more influential man: The Jakobiner Augustin Robespierre, the brother of Maximilién. It was present at the income of Toulon and announced the event in a report to Paris. The result adjusted itself immediately:With order of 14. January 1794 received Napoléon Bonaparte the rank of a Brigadier General.
The Italy campaign and the expedition to Egypt
after the deprivation of power and execution Robespierres fell Napoléon in disgrace and as Robespierreianer in detention were at short notice taken. A little laterbecame he commander of the west army against the Royalisten in normandy, again back in Paris struck down he on behalf the board of directors a rebellion of the Royalisten in Paris. It used for the first time cannons in the city. ThisVictory brought in the confidence of the board of directors and the supreme command for it over the Italy army, which it to 27. March 1796 received.
Before he became acquainted with with Paris Joséphine de Beauharnais and to love, who he to 9. March 1796 married.
as Kommandierender general of the badly equipped French troops succeeded it to it several times to defeat the Austrian troops. Austria, under the guidance of ore duke Karl, had to accept an unfavorable contract. At the same time organized Napoléon a coup,several Royalisten in Paris entmachtete.
1798 marched Napoléon into Egypt (see the Egyptian expedition Napoleon), in order to disturb of Great Britain entrance to India. Napoléon, as understood promoters of the clearing-up, carried scholars forward on its expedition . The stoneis from Rosetta a well-known find of that expedition.
Citizen Napoléon Bonaparte - first consul of the French republic (1799-1804)
Napoléons expedition fleet became in August 1798 in the sea-battle of Abukir of the British fleetunder Horatio Nelson nearly completely destroys. Therefore Napoléon of the supply by the sea route was cut off. It continued its Egyptian campaign. When the rumor reached it by means of a forthcoming revolution in France, it, under leaving its troops, left Egyptto 23. August 1799 on board the frigate Muiron. With much luck it segelte by the blockade of the Royal Navy and reached to 30. September Ajaccio on Korsika. It entered the French mainland with pc. Raphael again to 9.October. In Europe a coalition was formed against France, the Royalisten became again more powerful. In the weeks following on it Abbé Sieyès and Roger Ducos, directors of the French government planned, a coup d'etat. However they needed military assistance and Napoléontheir man was to be led around the troops. To 9. November 1799 marched Napoléon with its army into Paris and became by this coup d'etat 18. Brumaire VIII to the first consul and autocrat.
It carried out several durable reforms in Training system, in the administration as well as in on the right of and financing. Its Gesetzessammlung, the code civil or code Napoleon, how it was also called after Napoléon, has meaning up to the today's day in many countries.
Into the year 1800 Napoléon reachedAustria on and defeated it again, particularly in the battle with Marengo to 14. June 1800. In the battle his close fellow combatant general Desaix fell. Afterwards also the British signed a peace treaty.
1802 left the slavery to Napoléon inthe French colonies again introduces, what on Haiti 1804 to a rebellion led again, which finally brought independence to the country. In the same year Thomas Jefferson was ready to buy new Orleans from Napoléon to that briefly before the undisputed rulerfrom France and Louis IANA of Spain had become had acquired. Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris, in order to support the negotiations with the sales from Louis IANA to.
The reflashing of the war between Great Britain and France was inevitable. Napoléon had a straight heavymilitary setback suffered, when its army, which should conquer Saint Domingue and establish a basis, became to smash l'Ouverture by yellow fever and embittered resistance , aforementioned from Toussaint.
The American negotiators were ready to spend 2 million dollar on new Orleans. They were astonished, as them the entire area of the gulf from Mexico to Canada and of Mississippi up to the Rocky Mountains - a surface as largely as the United States at that time - for less than 20 million dollar was offered. The sales came off and as Louis IANA Purchase or Louis IANA land purchase is designated.
After an uncoveredConspiracy in August 1803 around Georges Cadoudal, Pichegru and general Moreau, which planned an assassination attempt in the Malmaison on the Korsen, looked for Bonaparte with the help of its police Minister Joseph Fouché for a Bourbonen, which one as signal into itsForce to bring can. The politically rather insignificant duke of Enghien was the “goal” which can be achieved most easily, in order to set the example.
By a command enterprise of three Gendarmeriebrigaden and 300 Dragoons to 14. /15. March left it to Bonaparte of Ettenheim in Bathe to France kidnap, in order to be able to make for it a political looking process there due to high treason. With the arrest the duke did not offer a resistance. Already while driving after Vincennes he explained that he had sworn Napoléon irreconcilable hate and everyoneOpportunity would use, in order to fight it. The konfiszierten papers proved that the Bourbonen enlisted conspirators against Napoléon. Thereupon the first consul reacted violently:
“Why don't they lead weapons against me? (...) Instead they send to bandit, blow up Paris in, innocent ones kill air. But they are to cry me bloody tears. “
After the condemnation which can be expected as “an emigrant, who is paid by the foreign country, around an invasion of France to facilitate " by a tribunal of seven Obristen, before those itself Enghien proudlywhen enemy Bonapartes designated and revolutionary France, one shot the duke of Enghien in the garden of the lock of Vincennes. This harmed Napoléon in particular with regard to foreign policy in Germany and Prussia, since one saw the own sovereignty rights threatened. Of Joséphinebrought request for grace had before already rejected Napoléon, since it wanted to see a Bourbonen executed as signal.
Relating to domestic affairs Bonaparte had suffocated all further royalistischen Komplotte however with this “execution of terror” ( Louis Bergeron) and the agreement of the broad population behind itself. CharacteristicallyNapoléon meant only scarce as reaction to the indignation of the foreign country:“I am the French revolution”. But its minister of foreign affairs Talleyrand, which had supported the action before, judged later that this not only a crime, but an errorwas.
Napoléon I. - Emperor of the Frenchmen (1804-1815)
after Napoléon had increased its influence on Switzerland and Germany, gave a diversity of opinion over Malta to the British a pretext, around France 1803 the warto explain and to support the French royalistische opposition (beginning of the Napoleoni wars). After it in a popular vote one offered, Napoléon crowned itself to 2. December 1804 in the ceremony to the emperor. An unusual was Scene, as it the crown Pius VII. from the hands took and on the head sat down. This scene was however agreed upon and by no means as later represented, the action of a dictator. The painting to this ceremony comes from the painter Of Jacques Louis David, that later the nut/mother Napoléons I. sitting on a loft represented. Later, because it had refused itself being present with the coronation/culmination. The emperor insisted however on their presence, at least in the picture explained. There the ceremonyover hours, the emperor dragged on occasionally could not not suppress yawning. It held the Zepter in the hand like a Kinderspielzeug and whispered to its brother Joseph too: „If us our father to now see could do! “The empressJoséphine was in such a way impressed of the coronation/culmination that one had to persuade her late in the evening to put their crown down for sleeping going.
The French plan to strike together with the Spaniards the British to sea failed with Trafalgar and the British attained the durable rule over the Weltmeere. Economically ignored Napoléon for war-tactical reasons at Adam Smith oriented conceptions of economistshow Jean Baptiste Say, which was affected by the censorship by its deviating politico-economic suggestions even and lost its employment.
in Europe had been formed a further coalition against Napoléon. Napoléon attacked, exceeded to 25. September with its troops the Rhine and secured itself to 2. Dec. 1805 a large victory against Austria and Russia in the battle with Austerlitz, also three-emperor battle mentioned. As result Napoléon became practical rulers over most areasEurope. In October 1806 it came to the battle with Jena and Auerstedt, in which the Prussian troops were destroyed. The French troops marched into Berlin; Prussia remained occupied for years and had to pay high Kontributionen. Napoléon marchedby Poland and an agreement with the Russian Zar Alexander I. signed., Europe between two powers divided.
Napoléon set European-wide trade a boycott (the so-called. Continental barrier) against Great Britain through and set a new king in Spain. The Spaniards did not rise and it succeeded to Napoléon to strike down the rebellion.
during itself France with Spain busy, attacked Austria 1809 under ore duke Karl in the battle with Aspern Napoléons armies and was victorious. The nimbusthe Unbesiegbarkeit Napoléons had been broken the first time. However this success could not be repeated with the battle with daring RAM in July 1809.
In this year (1809) Napoléon could be separated also from Josephine de Beauharnais, thereit it no children to bear could. She had already longer suspected this, but from fear of a divorce the statement set up, it could not witness to it children, finally would have it already two children from their first marriage. The generalsand politicians Napoléons pressed it Marie Louise from having castle to to marry. Due to political advantages by this marriage, i.e. the stabilization of the Austrian-French alliance and the authentication of the empire, the marriage was closed in the year 1810. The wrong-basic thereby was finally iteven, because since their childhood was their Napoléon contrary, but it had nevertheless the Staatsräson is finally sacrificed. Marie Louise was the oldest daughter of the Austrian emperor Franz I. In addition Napoléon needed a successor, it Marie Louise 1811gave. It bore Napoléon II. Napoléon tried twice to use it as inheriting but governed it never.
Zar Alexander I. Napoléon had become opposite distrustfully and rejected it to cooperate with it against the British. Napoléon marched therefore to24. June 1812 in Russia and began with it the patriotic war. Its plan was, as used with the past typically napoleonischen „lightning campaigns “to cause a fast spectacular decisive battle which should terminate the war soon and introduce peace negotiations. To oneOccupation of Russia was not meant. If a decisive battle had not been possible the winter ago 1812/13, a winter camp in the Baltic should be referred, in order to continue the campaign in the spring 1813.
neverthelesson the following tactics of the Russians Napoléon had not counted: The Russian troops withdrew themselves always far into the width of the country and refused wohlweislich an early delivering of an open field battle. This retreat into the depth of the area unfolded upthe French emperor and its troops a certain suction effect, which computes, on Napoléons impatience, which made original plan of an intermediate winter camp destroyed and „Grande Armée let which place behind “the constantly back-yielding Russian corps. Only with Borodino the Russians placed themselvesunder the “Cunctator” Kutusow of a defensive battle, which ran for both sides extremely bloodily and involving heavy losses and ended in the long run undecided.
by this Pyrrhussieg succeeded it to Napoléon neverthelessfirst, without taking further fight Moscow. From 250.000 inhabitants 15,000 had remained, beggars, convicts and foreigners. Arrested convicts had been hired, who set the city with the promise of amnestying in different places in fire. It did not succeed, thoseTo delete fire, since even the delete devices were mostly destroyed. The ethnic German governor Rostoptschin had left likewise pumps and hoses wegschaffen. The houses built from wood burned in shortest time down, in addition the wind came, all attemptsdestroyed made. In four days 8500 houses were destroyed, four fifth of the city.
And still Napoléon waited two weeks long for answer of Zar Alexander, however no message received. Alexander, of its advisors (among other things the baron of the stoneand Prussian exile officers as well as the Swedish Crown Prince Jean Baptiste Bernadotte) lastingly to the unyieldingness pushed, did not want peace (against differently reading earlier insurance for his part). The march to Moscow had taken twelve weeks, needed just as much one for the rear march. But instead ofto loose-march, he waited still for a word of Alexander. It studied Russian yearbooks and stated that the severe winter usually began on the width of Moscow at the end of November. But now 15 fell to. October unusual seven centimeters snow,and still Napoléon waited for a message of Alexander. Then however, as to 18. October marshal Joachim Murat of Kutusow before Moscow was attacked and 2500 men lost, awaked Napoléon from its optimistic tendency and gave the instruction toAbmarsch.
to 19. Octobers 1812 at 14 o'clock left the first units Moscow. Napoléons error (admitted by it) was again and again the postponed retreat as well as the choice of the Hinmarschroute alsotheir “burned earth”, instead of describing far elbow running south. For the high losses the very badly prepared logistics of the supply of the troops was substantial. There were nights, at which several thousand horses died. The army became again and againof marodierenden Kosaken attacked. Napoléon lost most of its soldiers with this campaign. Despite heavy losses the transition was over the river Beresina an achievement without-same.
It marched with approximately 612,000 soldiers, 50,000 horses and unites women from the service industriesloosely and men returned with less than 40,000, whereby most of the remaining soldiers in Vilnius at diseases and supersaturation died by the long hunger period; the population of the city became extinct thereby nearly completely. Additionally most losses hadthe allied and/or. to carry pressed troops of the vassal states. By this heavy defeat of France encouraged, several nations seized in Europe against France to the weapons. The final defeat of the Frenchmen came 1813 in the people battle with Leipzig. 1814 formeditself an alliance from Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria against Napoléon.
The campaign of 1814 on French soil is considered also today still military-historically regarded strategically as tactically as Napoléons „to masterpiece “and illustration napoleonischer tactics at all: With forces which were subject clearly throughskillful and speed-rich maneuvering that in terms of figures oppressive superior to strike but separated marching enemy individually in each case.
It thanked Elba, rule of the hundred days
1814) after Napoléon was struck, for the first timeat the 11. April 1814 in Fontainebleau off; it had now in the exile after Elba, a small Mediterranean island. It turned however at the 1. March 1815 on the mainland back, where it the armies, which should stop it, as their leaderreceived. It reached Paris and governed further 136 days, but its government was not no more accepted due to acts by force. Thus it set up for example an army, which consisted of 40.000 14-jährigen boys. Parts of the opposing alliance placed itas the anti-Christian , opposite itself the trusted friend of the Zaren Juliane of Krüdener as the releasing sun woman stylized. This time is called also the rule of the hundred days.
To 18. June 1815 seized Napoléon the Englishmen under that Duke of Wellington near the Belgian place Waterloo on. Wellington is to have said at that time: “I wanted, it would be night or Prussia would come”. As the Prussian troops under marshal Blücher the Englishmen actually still to assistance and thus those cameBattle was lost, fled Napoleon with its imperial guard to Paris. The end of this battle marks at the same time the end of the Napoleoni wars.
Most of the changes on the political map, caused by the conquest wars Napoléons, became with the Viennese congressagain retrogressive made.
Banishing, the end on pc. Helena and Aufbahrung
Napoléon had to 22. June 1815 resign and became on the English island Pc. Helena in the south Atlantic banishes. There it wrote its memoirs and died to 5. May 1821. Its body was performed an autopsy still on the same day and to 9. May buried in a quadruple coffin.
The assumption, Napoléon could gradually through Arsenic poisoned its, for example of general Montholon, which wanted to perhaps prevent its possible return to France, is today disproved. In the medical technical literature it is convincingly stated that Napoléon deceased like its father and grandfather at stomach cancer. OneAcceleration of its death by wrong medical therapy is not to be excluded thereby; frequent intakes and exhausting means had caused obviously heavy lack of potassium and heartbeat disturbances, as an American forensic pathologist stated 2004.
Into the 1960er years became in a hair sample Napoléons arsenic inabout fivefold higher concentration than normally usually discovers; this dose would have been hardly deadly however. There are different theories, like it to this, although lethal not yet, arsenic enrichment in Napoleons' hair came: Thus wine barrels became at that time with onecleaned arsenic solution, and the trace element could in this way have taken Napoleon, who drank gladly wine, to itself. Perhaps he got also arsenic in form of a medicine against lack of appetite given (Fowler solution).
There is also the theory,that Napoléon was poisoned by its wallpaper. This contained the coloring material consisting of Kupferarsenit „cross-eyed green “. In dry climate these Farbpigmente were harmless, but in the damp climate on pc. Helena decomposed it and gave themselves gaseous tri methyl arsenicfreely, which could have inhaled Napoléon. The acceptance that the arsenic was only laid on after Napoléons death for preservation on the hair, seems to prove against it disproved by kürzliche investigations, the arsenic also inside the hair could. In each casethe arsenic was however like stated not the letztliche cause of death Napoléons.
Nearly twenty years after its death Napoléon Bonapartes body was exhumiert (15. October 1840) and into that Paris invalid cathedral transfers. It is there since that 15. December 1840 ina Sarkophag aufgebahrt.
Napoléon und die Frauen
Trotz seiner eher geringen Körperlänge von rund 164 cm gab es in Napoléons Leben zahlreiche „Frauengeschichten“, größtenteils heimliche Affären, die man einerseits auf sein Charismaund andererseits auf eineit after-said pronounced Libido to lead back would know. The first important woman was Désirée Clary (1777 - 1860), the sister-in-law of Joseph Bonaparte and late queen from Sweden and Norway became. Both were engaged since 1794 a pair, between 1795 and 1796,when Napoléon was still another politically insignificant general, but the family Désirées placed itself against a second Bonaparte, and Napoléon became acquainted with 1796 its future wife. Désirée married general Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, the later Swedish-Norwegian king, from that it to4. July 1799 a son OSCAR got. At its request Napoléon became godfather of this child. Calculated Bernadotte is at this time as war Ministers of superiors Napoléons. Later it than one of the marshals of France steps fighters for, than Crown Prince ofSweden - commanders in chief of the north army and others in the people battle with Leipzig - an opponent of Napoléon up.
Napoléon was twice married: its first wife was Joséphine de Beauharnais, born as Marie Josèphe rose task ago de la Pagerie (1763 -1814) and widow of the Vicomte de Beauharnais, whom it crowned to the empress Joséphine of France and whose children Eugène and Hortense it adopted. Since the marriage remained childless, left itself Napoléon of Joséphine to 5. December 1809 from politicalConsiderations and in mutual agreement separate. Joséphine was allowed to keep their empress title and the common domicile lock Malmaison.
Its second wife was the ore duchess Marie Louise of having castle (1791 - 1847), also her to the empress was crowned. From the marriage alsoMarie Louise came out a child, Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (1811 - 1832), Franz duke of realm city, which on the day of its birth to the king of Rome one proclaimed, however never governed.
Napoléon had already during its marriage with Joséphine the following two illegitimenChildren of Mätressen:
From the connection with Eleonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787 - 1868):
- Count Charles Léon Denuelle (1806 - 1881)
from a seven years a lasting dear relationship with countess Maria Walewska (1789 - 1817), its “Polish wife”:
- Count Alexandre Colonna Walewski (1810 - 1868)
both sons had for their part descendants.
- Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra of Françoise Marie LeRoy
- Karl Eugin by Mühlfeld of Victoria Kraus
- Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte of countess Montholon (1816 - 1910)
- Barthélemy spHilaire (19. August 1805 - 24. November 1895)
To Napoléons further loving belonged among other things the actresses Marguerite Josephine George, called Georgina, and Cathérine Josephine Duchesnois; Madame Duchâtel, woman of an older Council of State; Carlotta Gazzani, a genuesische dancer, thosefrom Napoléon to the Vorleserin of Joséphine one appoints, and partial women of his officers.
Napoléons literary deduction
its probably first literary work “history Korsikas”, wrote Napoléon at the age of only 16 Years. Later it wrote particularly over its campaigns, or he wrote papers with special military meaning (as for instance over the supply of besieged cities with flour). With the work “overview of the wars Caesars” it submitted a military-historical work, which contained also a biography Caesars. Admits less is,that Napoléon is the probably only emperor, who wrote a dear novel: Already during the revolution time he wrote “Clisson et Eugénie “, a work, which his passion for Désirée Clary, which reflects future queen of Sweden.
Napoléon - its life and its time
- Vincent Cronin: Napoleon - strategist and statesman, Heyne biographies, English. Expenditure for original 1971, German 1973, Heyne publishing house 1983, ISBN 3-453-55101
- August Fournier: Napoleon I. - A biography, 3Volumes, Vienna 1886
- Franz Herre: Napoleon Bonaparte - a biography, Regensburg 2003
- Friedrich Kircheisen: Napoleon I. - Its lives and its time, 9 volumes, Leipzig/Munich 1911-34
- walter Markov: Napoléon and its time history and culture of the GrandEmpire, Leipzig 1996
- Adolphe Thiers: Histoire de la revolution française, 10 volumes + Atlas, Paris 1823-27 (standard work also in German translation)
- Ders.: Histoire you Consulat et de l'Émpire, 20 volumes + Atlas, Paris 1845-62, (dt.: History of theConsulate and the Empire of, Reprint Hamburg, VRZ publishing house, ISBN 3-931482-22-7)
- Jean Tulard: Napoléon, ou Le mythe de sauveur, Paris 1977 (the most modern biography, German translation: Napoleon, or the myth of the rescuer, 2. durchges. Aufl., Tübingen 1979, ISBN 3-8052-0306-3)
- Jean Tulard (Hrsg.): Dictionnaire Napoléon, Nouv. éd., rev. et augm., Paris 1989, ISBN 2-213-02286-0
- Friedrich Wencker Wildberg, Friedrich Kircheisen (Hrsg.): Napoleon - the memoirs of its life, 14 volumes, Vienna/Hamburg/Zurich o. J. (approx. 1930), Reprint Hamburg, VRZ publishing house, ISBN 3-931482-14-6
- Johannes Willms: Napoleon - a biography, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52956-9
the Napoleoni wars
- Michael Broers: The Napoleonic empire in Italy, 1796 - 1814, 1. Aufl., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2005, ISBN 1-4039-0565-7
- Carl von Clausewitz: Left one Works of the general Carl von Clausewitz over war and warfare, 10 volumes, Berlin 1832-37 (contain the military-philosophical Hauptwerk of the war and different campaign studies to the Napoleoni wars)
- kind of hitting a corner Klessmann: Napoleon's Russia campaign in eye-witness reports, German paperbacks publishing house, Munich1964
- kind of hitting a corner Klessmann: Germany under Napoleon in eye-witness reports, German paperbacks publishing house, Munich 1965
- kind of hitting a corner Klessmann: The wars of liberation in eye-witness reports, German paperbacks publishing house, Munich 1966
- Rory Muir: Tactics and the experience OF battle in the age OF Napoleon,New Haven [among other things] 1998, ISBN 0-300-07385-2
- Napoleon I., Bernhard Boie (come.): Military writings, 3 volumes, Berlin 1881
- Stephen Pope: The Cassell dictionary OF the Napoleonic Wars, London 1999, ISBN 0-304-35229-2
- Gunther Rothenberg: The Napoleoni wars, Berlin 2000
- Detlef Wenzlik: The napoleonischen wars, book series (18 volumes), VRZ publishing house, ISBN 3-931482-01-4
Napoleon and the Mrs.
- Stefan glasses: Women around Napoleon, Regensburg 2001
- Franz Herre: Joséphine - empress at Napoleons' side, Regensburg 2003, ISBN 3-7917-1829-0
- Franz Herre: Marie Louise - Napoleon was its fate, Cologne 1996
- Frédéric Masson: Napoleon I. and the Mrs., Reprint Hamburg, VRZ publishing house, ISBN 3-931482-09-X
- Antoine Rodolphe Comte d'Ornano, Marie Walewska, “l'épouse polonaise” de Napoléon, Paris 1937 (valuable material containsfrom family archives, the author was great-grandchild of the Marie Walewska from their 2. Before with Philippe Antoine d'Ornano)
Web on the left of
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- detailed Napoleon documentation (with Second Channel of German Television history & adventure)
|Commons: Napoleon - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Napoleon - quotations|
(intermediate Republic of)
|List of the rulers of France|| successor|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Napoleone Buonaparte|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of French emperors|
|DATE OF BIRTH||15. August 1769|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ajaccio, Korsika|
|DYING DATE||5. May 1821|
|DYING PLACE||pc. Helena, south Atlantic|