the term nation (over franz. nation out lat. natio “birth; Origin; People (sstamm) “) designation conceptually a descending community, however mostly used for one by common traditions , habits or habits defined group of persons with requirement on national sovereignty. ThatTerm is used in the sociological context in very different way, so z. B. as presented community (see. Benedict Anderson one), than on primordial connections which is based group (see. Clifford Geertz), as historically contingent concept (see. Rogers Brubaker) or asalso as combination of managing terms (see.Anthony D. Smith).
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in 18. Century in consequence of the French revolution developed and by increasing mobility favoured, unfolded the idea of the nation (see: Nationalism) high dynamics, those at first against Feudalismus and autocracy (France, Germany), approximatelyeconomically and politically restricting Kleinstaaterei (Germany and/or. German linguistic area), or however against imperial rule (Russia, Danube monarchy) was directed.
emphasis setting with the term „nation “
homogeneity of the state State of
nation is here a political union as state(State nation)
- nation is then the emphatically geeinte, political sovereign organized and arranged state nation. Territorial connection can not be, does not have however. Ethnical, religious and linguistic conditions are subordinate. In France, a centralistic state, one tries under the symbol that Grande nation the conditions, in addition, the autonomous efforts of the regions and groups of peoples (e.g. the Bretonen, Korsen, to integrate Basques) into the nation. An example is Switzerland as will nation.
homogeneity of the culture
- nation is then by history retained the unit in language, culture and traditions (numerous laps with in the romance of coined/shaped “people “- term). It does not leave itselfdefine by territorial borders. This applies to the culture nation Germany, likewise to other supra-national national communities.
- Present e.g. is. certain striving for a nation e.g. under Kurds observably. The thought of a Kurdish nation became for the first time in the contract of Sèvres1919 consider, which did not step however for lack of ratification by Turkey into force. The process is accompanied from the inside and outside by violent arguments. In addition, this striving for a nation applies to other peoples, z. B. the Irishin Northern Ireland, which would like themselves to separate from the British and close again with the Republic of Ireland to a nation together. This is prevented however primarily by Protestant humans in Northern Ireland, the immigrated British.
homogeneity of the origin
- This definition of the nation goes from the common descent of the members of the nation and one out of itresulting culture and language unit out. Today this concept is often attacked and criticized, in addition down more. The conception of the ethnical homogeneous national state culminated in 20. Century in different ethnical cleanings.
homogeneity of the religion
- frequent is a common religion constituent element of nations. Present e.g. are. Norway and Iran religiously understood national states.
reasons of nation
the conceptions of nation are based among other things on twovery different reasons of the nation, which have to today a large influence:
- The essentialistische definition, which is attributed Johann God-dear to spruce, after the nation existence is supertemporal and only still the articulation requires. Spruce therefore sees the nation as oneof God created, independently into all eternity and of history existing ontologische unit. - The essentialistische definition of the nation was one of the bases for the German nationalism. To essentialistische conceptions of people and nation also Carl Schmitt ties,which until today particularly for the representation teachings of importance is and are effective by such conceptions in the German public law teachings.
- The jakobinische conception of nation, which sees a unit, which must be politically formed in the nation. Seethe classical definition of a state nation of Ernest Renan.
- Johann God-dear spruce (1808), speeches to the German nation, in: Philosophical library, Bd. 204, 5. Aufl., Hamburg: Mine, 1978
- Friedrich my corner (1907), world middle class andNational state. Studies for the genesis of the German national state, Munich: Oldenbourg, 1907 (2. Aufl. 1911)
- Ernest Renan (1882), Qu´est ce qu´une nation?, Speech before the Sorbonne, Paris, 1882, dt. Which is a nation
- Carl Schmitt, the term of the political one,Berlin: Duncker & Humblodt, 1932, New edition 1963
- pure-hard Koselleck (1972): People, nation, nationalism, mass, in: Brunner, O., Conze, W. and Koselleck, R. (Hg.): Historical fundamental ideas, Bd. 7, S. 141-431.
- Benedict Anderson one: Imagined Communities: Reflections on theOrigin and Spread OF Nationalism, 1983, ISBN 0-86091329-5 (dt. first u.d.T. The invention of the nation. To the career of a consequence-fraught concept, Frankfurt/Main: Campus 1988) ISBN 3-593-33926-9
- Etienne Balibar: The nation form: History and ideology, in: ders. /ImmanuelWallerstein:Race, class, nation. Ambivalente identities, Hamburg, Berlin: Argument, 1990, ISBN 3-88619-386-1
- Karl W. German, nation formation, national state, integration, Duesseldorf 1972
- Ernest Gellner: Nation and Nationalism, Oxford 1983, (dt. first u.d.T. Nationalism and modern trend, Berlin:Red book 1991), ISBN 3-88022-358-0
- Eric Hobsbawm; Nations and nationalism, myth and reality since 1780, Frankfurt/New York: Campus 1990, ISBN 3-59337498-6
- Otto then: Nation and nationalism in Germany 1770-1990, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-40-634086-5
- Karl Heinz white man: Nation?, Bath Vilbel: Edition Antaios 2001, ISBN 3-935063-21-0
- Roger Griffin: Völki nationalism as Wegbereiter and Fortsetzer of fascism: An anglo-saxon view of a not only German phenomenon. In: Heiko Kauffmann, Helmut Kellershohn, Jobst Paul (Hg.): Völki gang. Dekadenz andWiedergeburt - analyses of right ideology. Münster, 2005.ISBN 3-89771-737-9
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Nation - quotations|
- at.indymedia.org: Nation: a social construction
- Ernest Renans speech before the Sorbonne which is a nation (1882).
- Thomas Riklin, where the Swiss differs“Nation” of the French and/or. German “nation”? (2005)