National People's Army
|of these articles describes the army of the GDR; for other meanings see NVA (term clarifying).|
Table of contents
the establishment of the NVA at the 1. March 1956, temporally after the German Federal Armed Forces, was the point of conclusion of a development, which with the proclamation of the “national armed forces” had begun 1952 and in their process above all the Kasernierte people police (KVP) as well as the essential structures of a military organization developed were. This structure carried out itself in the framework of the Warsaw Treaty and under guidance of the Soviet Union. Until 1962 the NVA was an armyarmy army. After introduction the personnel strength of the NVA was appropriate for the military service with approx. 170,000 soldiers.
The SED had by its “political head office” (PHV) in the army anda special structure of party organizations their prominent role in the army secured. The officers and wo1s were, except for few exceptions, members of the SED. Also with the NCOs a high portion of SED members was aimed at.
After their self understanding was thoseNVA in the GDR the power instrument of the working class to the protection and to the safety device of the socialist achievements before attacks from the outside. After this understanding it served the defense of the GDR and in Warsaw Treaty with it allied other socialist statesagainst a possible imperialistic aggression. Also many army members were the honest conviction to be useful with their service to the country and contribute to the protection of the world peace.
The NVA was involved in no war. Parts of the NVA were however 1968 for militaryActions for striking down the Prager of spring intended, which was NVA taken part in the invasion into Czechoslovakia however not directly. There were plans, the 7. Armored division and 11. Motorized infantry division also into the CSSR march to let. Because of tooexpecting devastating effects with regard to foreign policy except and within Warsaw Pact (it would have been the first international mission of German troops after the Second World War) were then regularly used these divisions however not. They rendered logistic help with the invasion and lined up directlythe border ready, in order to intervene in case of a possible, the Soviet army except control of turning out rising of the people. Various liaison officers, NVA Nachrichtensoldaten and also MfS officers were direct in the CSSR in covered or corresponding use. In the autumn the NVA position at that referred 1981Polish border, over gegf. to be able to strike down the trade union movement. The employment was not instructed however.
Several marks was the NVA over a longer in each case period in the condition the increased combat-ready shank, thus 1961 during and after the building of the wall, 1962 during the Cuba crisis, 1968 with the invasion of Soviet troops into the CSSR and for the last time in the autumn 1989.
1990 were dissolved the NVA and handed over locations, mechanisms and equipment to the German Federal Armed Forces. Most of the existing locations becameclosed and the equipment partially to other states sells (examples: Armored personnel carrier to Turkey, naval units at Indonesia). A large part of the NCO - corps as well as almost the entire of officer - corps to dismiss, only 3,200 these last still 36.000 becameMan persons counting cadre were transferred to the German Federal Armed Forces. The former NVA members were adjusted thereby frequently in a lower rank, some occurred the German Federal Armed Forces than NCOs.
Generally applied up to the 1. March 2005 in the German armyNVA performed service as “served in strange armed forces”. Now the designation reads “served outside of the German Federal Armed Forces”. It is forbidden to the former army member in accordance with agreement contract, in the FRG their last rank with the appendix “a.D. ” (out of service) to lead, a practiceof different groups as discrimination one regards.
utilization of the materiel of the NVA starting from 1991
the NVA applied concerning the training and equipment as one of the strongest armies Warsaw Treaty. It was with a largeNumber of modern weapon systems of usually Soviet origin equipped, by which a small part of 1990 was returned to the Soviet Union.
The inheritance of the NVA at equipment and materiel was gigantic. Enormous amounts of spare parts, medical material, ABC equipment, training devices and simulators, guidance and reconnaissance systems, communicationsand engineering equipment, construction machines, clothing, personal equipment and other material provided with stock for mobilization had to be disposed.
To the first measures after the reunification an exact inventory collection and the Sicherstellung belonged of weapons and equipment by former member of the NVA. For thisthe Federal “material depot service society ltd. (MDSG) was assigned “the guard and storekeeping of the material. The MDSG busy 1,820 coworkers, who were taken over predominantly by the German Federal Armed Forces. 1994 were denationalized the society. So far the materiel notfree of charge at entitled ones in the new Lands of the Federal Republic, to other departments, at museums, to friendly countries as well as in the context of humanitarian auxiliary achievements to third countries to be transferred or proceeds-bringing by the exploitation corporation of the federation ltd. (VEBEG) be sold could, it was destroyed.
- , Of it at the beginning of the 1990er made 767 aircraft (helicopter ,
- for 24 MiG-29
- of 208 ships
- of 2,761 battle tanks
- of 133,900 wheeled vehicles
- 2,199 artillery weapons 1.376.650
- hand-held weapons 303,690 tons of ammunition 14,335
tons of fuels and cleaning agents headlines years the sales of armored personnel carrier SPW 60 to Turkey with a contractual agreement that these could not be used in internal conflicts, for example against the Kurds.
Always the ways of the former material of the NVA were not to be reconstructed clearly. For example the television showed during the Kosovo- Conflict fighter of the UCK, which were dressed in NVA Felddienstuniformen.
the general conscription law of 24. January 1962 planned a basic military service of 18 months. It became almost any man of 18. up to 26. Lebensjahr drawn in,and could do to date ungediente men up to 36. Lebensjahr to the military service to be drawn in. Alternatively to the NVA also a military service was at the border troops, possible for the Kasernierten units of the people police (auxiliary police) and the awake regiment of the MfS.
A military alternative servicewas not however in the GDR possible for civilian nature. In particular on urge of the churches however 1964 within the NVA the construction units in such a way specified were created, in which a doing of the military service without weapon became possible as a building soldier.
Longer-serving ones knew careersas an NCO on time (with a rule service of 3 years), career noncommissioned officers (with a rule service of 10 years), wo1 (since 1973) with a rule service of 15 years, officer on time (with a rule service of 3, later 4 years) or career officer (alsoa rule service of 25 years) hit.
In the driving units of the People's Navy the service for sailor 3 years and for leading seamen 4 years as well as with parachute-jumping units 3 was years. This were usually freiwillige soldiers on time and/or. NCOs on time.
Women could hit voluntarily most careers as an NCO on time , career noncommissioned officer , wo1 or starting from 1984 as career officers, as far as this was permissible for reasons of the physical load. Usually that concerned the rear ones and medical service. The highest there rank reached by a woman was Colonel.
the NVA was divided into:
- the command of ground forces (KdoLaSK) - Geltow (with potsdam) -
- the command of air forces and air-defense forces (KdoLSK/LV) - Strausberg -
- which command People's Navy (KdoVM) - Rostock -
which NVA was always closely with the troops of the “group of the Soviet armed forces in Germany “(GSSD) - since June 1989 in “west's group of the troops” (WGT) renamed - tooths. ThatHeadquarters of the GSSD was in Wünsdorf. Been subordinate into the 1980er years these approx. 365,000 men, 6,000 battle tanks, 9,500 armored infantry vehicles, 650 combat aircraft and 700 combat helicopters.
The structures and equipment, vehicles and combat equipment were to a large extent Soviet origin and the NVA workedin guidance and mobilization questions closely with the staffs of the Soviet army together.
the ground forces of the NVA were arranged into:
- directly troop units/units military district north =
- MB-V - new Brandenburg - subordinated 1
- military district south = MT III - Leipzig -
air forces/air defense were arranged into:
- directly the 1 subordinated troop units/units
- to the Kdo LSK/LV. Air-defense division (1. LVD) - Cottbus -
- 3. Air-defense division (3.LVD) - Trollenhagen (with new Brandenburg) -
- guidance organ of the front and. Military transportation air forces(FMTFK) - Strausberg -
- the 1. Flotilla in Peenemuende
- the 4. Flotilla in Rostock warn-flows
- the 6. Flotilla on the nose with Dranske on Rügen
- the 6.Border brigade coast in Rostock
in addition gave it a navy helicopter squadron (MHG-18), a naval pilot squadron (MFG-28), a naval engineer battalion (MPiB-18), a combat float command (KSK-18), a coastal rocket regiment (KRR-18), a coastal defense regiment (KVR-18) (starting from 1988), the sea-hydrographic service of the GDR (SHD) and further training test and special mechanisms.
structure of the training
officers and NCOs
the officer training took place in the officer universities
- of the ground forces in Löbau and Zittau
- of air forces/air defense in Kamenz, late training of the pilots in Bautzen
- of the People's Navy in Stralsund
further gaveit several NCO schools.
- NCO school I of the ground forces of the NVA “Rudolf Egelhofer “in Weisskeissel/O.L. - Saxonia (training centre 6)
- NCO school II “Hermann Duncker “in Delitzsch (training centre 17)
- NCO school III “max of moulds “in Eggesin (training centre 20)
- NCO school IV “Paul Fröhlich “in Zwickau and snow mountain (training centre 10)
- NCO school VI Perleberg (Glöwen)
- NCO school VII potsdam
- NCO school VIII/military-technical school “Harry bold “in bath Düben
- military-technical school “Erich Habersaath “in Prora/Rügen (also for wo1 training)
Selected cadres could be delegated off for instance in the middle of the 70's also to a direct study at officer universities into the Soviet Union.
the resuming training of the command structures starting from regiment upward took place at
- the military academy “Friedrich Engels's “thatNVA in Dresden (inclusively for each year of 10 VP-officers)
- a not insignificant part of the command structures of the NVA completed Soviet military academies, military universities and/or. similar mechanisms.
The NVA and/or. the Ministry for national defense maintained its own foreign intelligence service (last mentioned “range clearing-up”),predominantly in the Federal Republic the military espionage operated. This secret service of the NVA was formally independent of the Ministry for public security, stood however - like the entire NVA - under control of the head department I of the MfS (military defense) (in the NVA well-known as “administration2000").
In the year 1989 120,000 of the 2.7 million members or candidates of the SED served the border troops of the GDR in the NVA and. Under the simple soldiers and Gefreiten the SED portion was with 6-7%, with the NCOs on time about 14%,in the entire NCO corps however for instance with 35%, because the portion amounted to with the occupation NCOs about 60%. From the total number of all officers (1989 over 40.000, 1990 still 36,000) and wo1s the socialist comrades made a portion of 94% (including the officerson time “only” 90%) out, further 4-5 per cent belonged to the coalitions. Politoffiziere however were without exception SED members.
Among the occupation officers however the SED portion of 96%, starting from the rank major upward 98-99%, amounted to starting from the rank lieutenant colonel upward then 100%. Until 1989each Secretary of Defense was member of the Politbüros and each (kommandierende) general member (or at least candidate) of the central committee of the SED.
with the reorganization of the “Kasernierten people police” (KVP) to the NVA continued to remain the past khakifarbenen KVP uniforms first in use.These resembled strong those in cut and colour the Soviet army. With the search for its own, “German” and “socialist” military tradition the government ordered however immediately a change of the appearance. First again set up units got new dress uniforms, soon thereafter becamealso new service uniforms spent. The old KVP uniforms were laid on to end of the 1950er years in the service.
The new uniforms resembled much those the realm resistance and the armed forces. It consisted of stone-grey cloth and of similar cut, however one did withoutstarting from 1974/79 on high-closed dark collars (except at the coats). The NVA helmet peculiar flattened corresponded to an experimental model of the German armed forces, which had been since 1943 in testing.
With the traditional appearance, which, as critics criticized, also thatthe armed forces close, applied it came according to instruction walter Ulbrichts to stress the German “national character” the NVA. The NVA should stand out in its optical occurrence consciously against the West German German Federal Armed Forces (after SED judgement “US mercenary”), their uniforms into the 1950erYears of the optics of the US troops very close came.
|generals of the NVA|
|marshal of the GDR||army general||colonel general||lieutenant general||Generalmajor|
|officer corps of the NVA|
|Colonel||lieutenant colonel||major||Hauptmann||first lieutenant||second lieutenant||Unterleutnant|
|of wo1s of the NVA|
|of NCOsthe NVA|
|of crew ranks of the NVA|
|staff private first class||private first class||soldier|
also the execution of the rank insignias was traditional (instruction walter Ulbricht: ".. the rank is further exclusive on the basisto recognize that shoulder pieces. “), however with some modifications. Thus the arm angles of the Gefreiten and Stabsgefreiten were replaced by to two Quertressen on the shoulder flaps. The Tressenbesatz at collars and shoulder flaps of the NCOs and SSGs remained however in the comparison toLast the latter in the armed forces just as invariably as the Sterndistinktionen for sergeants, technical sergeants and Csms. The shoulder pieces of the officers represented a compromise settlement. The basic form from flat cord or wattlework as well as the shape of the rank stars were correct with those the realm resistance. The arrangement of the rank stars followed however the sample of Soviet armed forces - as also in all other Warsaw Treaty states.
With the introduction of the Soviet rank structure for the officers also the rank of the Unterleutnants was again introduced (in Germany was thoseDesignation Unterleutnant come after 1898 except use). In response the rank of the general of the branch of service (general of the infantry, artillery among other things) was void, which so far over the lieutenant general had ranked. After these the colonel general followed now directly.
Likewise followed the Soviet samplethe introduction of the rank class of the wo1s 1974 (1979 extends by the ranks cw2, CW3 and CW4). These ranked between the sergeants and the officers. Their rank insignias consisted of a clip presented on the basic cloth of the shoulder flaps of silver flat cord. ToServed distinction perpendicularly one above the other to four arranged rank stars, which at first silver, since 1979 however goldfarben were. The wo1s carried uniform and equipment of the officers, for who however the silver carried to the dress uniform field-binds, the Ehrendolch and starting from 1977 thoseOfficer catch cord was reserved.
The shoulder pieces of the second lieutenants and the main people consisted of simple silver flat cord. The goldfarbene rank star of the Unterleutnants was centrically set on the lower edge of the shoulder piece. A rank star distinguished the Unterleutnant, the second lieutenant of two rank stars set next to each other, that First lieutenant three to the even triangle formed rank stars. At the captain a further rank star sat over the triangle formation.
Staff officers had twisted shoulder pieces (silver), with a rank star for the major, two stars for the lieutenant colonel, three stars for the Colonel.With the gold-colored general badges (two external Goldschüre, a silver cord lying inside) for the major general, lieutenant general, colonel general and army general the rank stars were perpendicularly one above the other set. The rank Marshal of the GDR was never assigned. Its rank star would have resembled a fünfstrahligen medal star.
the weapon colors were shown originally also on the collar mirrors, used later then however with nearly all units the white collar mirrors that MON contactors, for exceptions formed the border troops, paratroopers and air forces/air defense, those also in each case still Biesen inthe respective weapon color at sleeve impacts, collars and the trousers seam had, contrary to the white Biese with all other units.
The collar mirrors showed two narrow (crews) with all units and/or. spreads Balkentressen (officers) from Gespinst, later (with officers) also made of metal,those if necessary. with jew. Weapon color were filled out. To 1976 in each case two similar sleeve plates were attached also at the sleeve impacts.
The collar mirrors of the LSK/LV formed an exception as well as the paratrooper: first pointed a simple rocker at the crews on blueCloth up, with the officers was surrounded this cloth with a silver Tresse and the rocker with a half and/or. whole (staff officers) open oak leaves ring surrounded, with the paratroopers the cloth was red and instead of the rocker was an opened parachuteillustrated.
The weapon colors of the individual units were:
- White: MON. Contactors, reconnaissance aircraft
- brick-red: Rocket troops/artillery, air defense of the troops, Raketen-und weapon-technology service
- pink one: Tank
- yellow: Message (“communications troop”)
- darkgreen: Rear services (“supply”)
- black: Pioneers, military transportation, technical units, chemical services
- light blue: Air forces
- grey: Air defense
- Orange: Paratrooper
the People's Navy had the weapon color since their establishment uniforms, which were strongly against those the former war navy ajar, i.e. from dark-blue cloth with golden double button row, without collar mirrors, was darkblue. The naval pilots, these formed an exception had light blue collar mirrorsand light blue paspelierte shoulder pieces on the dark-blue naval uniform skirt.
The border troops had uniforms, which the NVA resembled since the time of their affiliation to the NVA (1962-1974) those. However the edge of cap was instead of in uniform-grey in the weapon color lightgreen. That met also forthe naval uniforms of border soldiers on border being awake boats (in sea and inland waters) too.
It gave also quite obskure combinations like the uniforms of the fliers to the border brigade coast: these had lightgreen collar mirrors with the Insignien of air forces on the normal naval uniforms.
The membersthe Ministry for state security (forwards. the awake regiment) had, although duly to the NVA, did not resemble uniforms as these. The weapon color was dark red (Bordeaux-red).
the NVA saw its military models in the fighters of the large farmer wars 1525, the anti- napoleonischen wars of liberation 1813 and the revolutions of 1848 and 1918. Furthermore the international brigades in the Spanish civil war 1936 and the “rescue of the peace by the NVA to 13. August 1961 “(building of the Wall). The Prussian tradition becamein form of the large tap caper and in maintain the Stechschritts (modifies as “drilling step”) maintained.
Straight one for naval forces (late People's Navy) proved the concentration on the Kieler sailor rebellion of 1918 and the People's Navy division as exclusive basic stick of the official military naval customshowever as a little favorable for a self-confident understanding, in addition-going attempts, seizing also different scenes of nevertheless quite meager German naval history or single fates of German sea-soldiers for it were politically not rejected of the political guidance always than “opportun”.
- building soldiers
- of ranks in the NVA
- oath of allegiance of the NVA
- border troops of the GDR
- of air forces/air defense
- officer universities
- officer school candidate
- soldier language
- People's Navy
- Wilfried Copenhagen: The ground forces of the NVA, engine book publishing house, ISBN 3-613-02297-4
- SiegfriedBreyer/Peter Joachim lap:The People's Navy of the GDR, Berne pool of broadcasting corporations & Graefe publishing house, ISBN 3-763-75423-7
- Klaus Behling: “The intelligence service of the NVA”, edition east, 2005, ISBN 3-360-01061-2
- Bodo way man: “The military clearing-up of the NVA”, the central organization of the military clearing-up thatArmed forces of the German Democratic Republic, publishing house Dr. Köster, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-895-74580-4
- walter Jablonsky: The NVA in united armed forces Warsaw Pact. In: NVA - Requirement and reality… after selected documents. Berlin/Bonn/Herford 1994