nationalism designates a political ideology, those on a congruence between (usually ethnical defined) a nation and a state thing aims at (Gellner, 1983). In the colloquial language by nationalism the increased height of the own nation is often understood.
Table of contents
which is nationalism?
By the term of the nationalism one understands W according to Karl. German a state of mind,the one order principle oriented at the “national interest” to be can: the nation has on the one hand a preferential place in social communication, on the other hand one and orients themselves the policy of this society legitimizes after it. A nationalist became accordingly particularly the “national messages” its attentionturn. It is to be stressed however that nationalism in many manifestations can occur and it therefore different definitions with different emphasis gives. The definition Deutschs considers the kommunikativen aspect, however the defining factor of the nationalism is particularly neglected.
The definitionthe sociologist Eugen Lemberg describes the nationalism as a conception system of “conceptions, valuations and standards, a world and society picture”, which make its Zusammengehörigkeit conscious for a social “large's group and Zusammengehörigkeit attributes a special value to this, in other words: this large's groupintegrated and against its environment defines. “As Zusammengehörigkeitsfaktoren particularly uniform are and/or according to Lemberg. resembles aspects to call: the language, descent, the equality of the character, the culture or the assumption under a common government authority.
According to Peter Alter are present nationalism,if the nation is the meant large's group, which particular feels associated these and which emotional connection to these as well as loyalty possesses opposite it a high Prioriät. Defining age mentions that not conditions, denomination, dynasty, a certain State of, socialClass, which represents mankind (in the sense of a Kosmopoliten) the reference framework, but rather the nation. Their historical inheritance, the culture as well as the political existence are here identity-donating. The nation obtains habitat, a part “sense of life in present and future.” Older referson Friedrich my corner, which exhibited the process of the mental reorientation from the aufklärerischen human to the nation.
Particularly in the last two centuries the nationalism is was extremely influential, there it the majority of the areas of life penetrated and in socialStandards one embodied. Furthermore particularly the possibility of the purposeful manipulation of the nationalism becomes evident from German history.
The term of the nation could be manipulated often arbitrarily and irrationally defined, particularly the definitions either or itself but in the runthe time automatically change. The national feeling of the particular is considered as irrational, emotional connection to the idea of the nation and does not presuppose not compellingly a state. The emphasis setting can be analyzed nevertheless under different characteristics.
the nationalism developed between the Hauptpolen participation and aggression. Here each nation with a different emphasis setting defines itself. Therefore both poles work both inward and outward and contrast not exclusively:
On the side is behind all demands, which refer to the nation, also the demand for participation, thus political sharing. The nation is to orient and thus sovereign within their national state to act be able their conditions certainly. Here a feeling of solidarity sets, sovereigntyand mutual obligation, which becomes the basis for the political authentication. Obviously here a defining aspect comes at the latest with the question, which unites this nation. The demarcation to others serves thus integrativ and is a certain group authorized to actmake, while others are excluded.
Therefore the nationalism is also always connected with aggression, because the nation becomes conscious only in demarcation others than such. Depending upon definition innumerable characteristics exist to the nation, after those the Zusammengehörigkeitare determined, for example language, territory or common political opponents. Aggressiveness expresses itself in depreciating the common enemy pictures, which is it shown in an appropriate treatment.
state nation and culture nation
often becomes between state and culture nations so mentioneddifferentiated. While the latters are understood as fate community on the basis of objektivierender criteria, state nations define themselves exclusive over a common nationality.
A state nation refers always to a certain, historically developed territory, its population the nationality stops itself and to that admits to condition-given values from the free will. Finally it depends in this case on the will of the population whether its nation exists. The typical representatives of the state nation are the United States as well as France at the end 18. and at the beginning19. Century.
The free self confession for nation is missing meanwhile at the culture nations, there these over common, historically embodied cultural values and peculiarities defines itself. In addition counts in particular the language, literature, a imaginierte common origin, religion, Myths and many other apparent traditions. Also the genealogy can be consulted for the definition. Germany and Italy are the prototypischen culture nations.
nationalism most different forms
can take forms of the nationalism in the historical connection. With each form becomeother definitions connected by nation, conceptions and expectations, why the classification should orient itself at its function. Thus an objective evaluation is made possible, which from moral valuations distinguishes itself. Nationalism becomes in the Federal Republic of Germany due to the historical experience of the National socialism and the Holocausts in the everyday Sprachgebrach often in the context of a moral valuation in negative connections mentioned.
is suppressed if a social group politically or socially, can recognize each other it as a nation and in demarcationdefine to the power-having. The so-called Risorgimento (after ital. ) The time describes itself reon purchasing/Wiedergeburt forwards and in particular after the Viennese congress of 1815 in those the inhabitants of German and Italian principalities and regions of the idea of a national state obligated and theseoppositional represented.
In its function serves the so-called Risorgimento nationalism of the political Empanzipation of larger social groups, which have one with sovereigns national state as a goal. At the same time this protest movement for civil liberties sets itself in, there the nation free itself in this stateto unfold to be able is. These liberties should be fixed as right in a condition, with which the movement directly ties revolution to the pro grammar the French.
The ideology of the Risorgimento covers however no egalitäres understanding of the nation, on the contrary all nations are intheir emancipation in relation to its rulers geeint. The solidarity of the suppressed ones is here a uniting volume. The concrete motivation of the emancipation can come from cultural, economic or political direction, however the political aspect dominates in the final result.
Furthermore can between the kindthe demarcation to be differentiated between a unifizierenden Risorgimento, which would like to achieve a national state by union of separate parts, as well as the secessionistic Risorgimento, desired separating of a nation from a larger state thing, thus many people states.
the reform nationalismit aims at national reforms with which he is motivated by a national Wiedergeburt like the Risorgimento in certain respects. Contrast to it it is limited however to a state, which is in need of reform in economic, already existing, social, political or military regard,because it was subject to other nations. For this the Japanese, Turkish and Chinese reform movements can be counted.
This kind of the nationalism is often represented by the state-basic layer, which partial reforms would like to intersperse, but to state that isolated reforms of gesellschafticher ranges are insufficientand therefore more comprehensive reform and modernization programs to intersperse would like. Thus a precondition is the political key position of the Reformierer, which would like to protect the national identity on ideological level, but the necessity for reforms in the comparison with other nations recognize.
or: integral nationalism, extreme nationalism, militant nationalism, aggressive-expansionistic nationalism etc.
Like the reform nationalism also the radical nationalism (or chauvinistism ) develops on an existing state, however the national interest represents the last last one of political decisions. These becomeinconsiderately and expansively states, whereby nationalism is superelevated. The radical nationalism legitimized in demarcation the force opposite propagandistically designed enemies and defines the people term by biological descent. The people term is continued to seize, there it itself now over territorial borders awayis extended and the nation term is reset. The radical Jakobiner phase of the French revolution is an early example of a totalitarian interpretation of the nation thought, itself in refusal of Pluralismus or autonomous instances like the church in (by the Jakobiner) the “interest of the nation”expressed. The German Reich under William II., who participated by co-operation of agitation federations like the allGerman federation in the colonialism, and which development of the Weimar Republic to the national socialism (represents to the one form exceeded again) are further possible examples of thatradicalized nation term.
The radical nationalism acts faraway moral borders, since the ethics orients itself only at the nation and the use for these. The stage of the physical force can vary, the socialviennaistic and military tendencies increases however in thisForm force against opponents. In the radical nationalism the liberal nation term of the Risorgimento is usurped by nationalistic groups, which would like to protect the impression of objectivity by the reference to a “national interest”.
The radical nationalism can potenziell with each nation occur,whereby the Nationstaat is a existenzielle condition, since it particularly takes care of its interests.
nations are equated frequently with a “collective memory”, which can remember the substantial corner points of national history. As a condition of theradical nationalism beside the national state a crisis of the national self-confident unity is regarded. In addition an extraordinary threat belongs from the outside or a danger for the existence of the nation, for example a military or political defeat, which hurt the national self value feeling.
Loudthe sociologist Eugen Lemberg occurs the danger for the national existence whenever the integration strength for continued the nation shrinks, because it answers then to the danger of disintegration with the radical nationalism. As voucher it leadsthe German nationalism in after 1918 in the Weimar Republic due to the military defeat in the 1. World war on.
This presented itself in radical form as Erneurerer of the nation and looked for guilty ones for the end of war. The military collapse ledto the reinterpretation of the war defeat as “end of the monarchischen system”, while the people would not have experienced a defeat (see.Dolchstosslegende). Therefore the collapse led to the stress of the “cultural transmission” of the Germans, whereby from the faith in the nation the reclimbto be made possible should. In addition also the conscious stress of the cultural differences led opposite France, to which also the political aspect to “dictation of Versailles “belongs.
roots and organizations
so is often the exceeded form of the nationalisma characteristic of the so-called nations “were late” to thus assemble with those between Risorgimento, the idea, as nation and a larger period is to national state formation, for example on the territory of the German Reich 56 years. This longer period leads also to onelarger distance between idea and realization, because earlier ideas are rejected, radicalized and falsified. They can become more emotionalisierter popular and, which increases the danger of a instrumentalisierenden control (=Propaganda). Inferiority feelings of the collective memory are thus compensated by an aggressive, exceeded form.
There are nevertheless further conditions, for example the Absolutsetzung of the nation, which can be likewise supported by propaganda. The individual will is to stand back behind the “people will”. Power elites and them associated politicians often use the radical nationalism, around straight such on exercise of powerto be able to reach arranged goals better. In addition they often publicise a necessary hate against stranger of peoples.
Thus numerous “national federations” existed in the German empire, which attach to earlier traditions. Here the allGerman federation is mentioned as most important representatives. The anti-parliamentaryand anti-socialist federations operated an active political agitation, which demanded the colonial expansion of the realm in (and exclusively understood defined) the “national interest” among other things in the context of a race against England and France. In order to achieve these goals, that became“national interest” by creation of enemy pictures like in particular Social Democrats and Jews, in addition, trailers of other ideologies strengthened.
Thus in the radical nationalism the emancipatory aspect of the Risorgimento is back-pushed.
the aspect of the biological Zusammengehörigkeit, the social viennaism of a peopleis a special characteristic of the radical nationalism, since it deepens the past emotional connections in form of a national consciousness. Distorting shanks are increased by the own family and kinship to a by far larger group. Between this increased ethnical descent and other culturalValues now a relationship is assumed, with which a higher identification degree is created - quasi the relationship with the entire people. This close, emotional and ethnical connection is called within propaganda in the radical nationalism natural, with which other criteria thoseNaturalness is agreed upon - and the objective evaluation of all nations is prevented thus at the same time.
nationalism by the example of the German state
in the following is to be pointed out the development of a national state by the example of Germany, whereby nationalism here as phenomenonthe modern trend with origin in the French revolution one understands.
after the holy Roman realm of German nation mainly by the resignation of the emperor crown by Franz II.when such was terminated, the past national territory is into numeroussovereigns member states disintegrate. Without a re-establishment of the emperor title the Viennese congress 1815 made the number smaller of German states and used the German federation as loose state alliance.
development of the national understanding
a German national movement is in the antinapoleonischenMovement already 1809 developed, their Patrioten organized themselves however not formally. 1812 were received the Prussian king with Napoleon a military alliance, whereupon numerous officers left the army and to Russia went, where a “German Legion” was furnished. With the baronby the stone and Ernst Moritz Arndt were since 1812 further German Patrioten in the Russian exile. This group of German Patrioten was consciously in demarcation of their princes together, it was nationalGerman aligned.
The wars of liberation in the year 1813 became from thesePatrioten prepares and carried, whereby the group on allied one and favorable inter+national constellations were dependent. With the failure of the Grande Armée 1812 this was given the Zar Alexander I., under guidance of stone could the Exilanten.in addition arrange, the warto float further to the west. In the proclamation of Kalisch of 25. March 1813 was addressed according to hopes of the Exilanten beside the prince the German people to participate on the war: “Come closer the more sharply in its fundamentals and outlines this workbecomes the taper, life-stronger from the ureignen spirit of the German people, and in unit more held, Germany will be able to appear to peoples again under Europens. “.
“For king and native country” the German troops fought against the napoleonische crew, whereby here fightingas a soldier a substantial innovation represented, since past armies were obligated due to the Feudalismus and thus the body characteristic before the country their priority had. The Prussian king Friedrich William III. has to 10. March 1813 the iron cross as war honordonated and corresponded to the new national spirit with this medal.
Thus the German national movement is already at the beginning 19. Century in demarcation to Napoleon developed, whereby national consciousness for the first time experienced a broad effect in civil people layers. Particularly in Austriaand Prussia stood it in competition to the Landespatriotismus. In Northern Germany the movement in Prussia particularly found and in Hamburg its strongest echo, then also in Central Germany, whereby in South Germany rather the Landespatriotismus dominated. Nationalpatriotic ideas could itself there only afterrelease develop.
The origins carry the characteristics of the Risorgimento nationalism as political Emanzipationsbewegung, whereby these were carried actively by national “Erwecker” like Ernst Moritz Arndt. That the wars of liberation had a higher value than a bare release from the napoleonischen Okkupation,became conscious in particular the initiators of the restoration under of Metternich, which suppressed also the Italian Risorgimento 1820-22.
As key event of modern German national history likewise a kind initiated martyr war for the own nation, there both in Germany and inFrance death for the own native country an expression of the Patriotismus in highest form applied.
the German question 1813-1815
due to the political experience lacking and the small partizipatorischen possibilities in the member states knew no concrete conversionuntil 1871 succeeds, however it became considerations in principle regarding the realization of a national state after French model or in a national roof federation under the impression of the holy one in ruins of Roman realm of German nation gave. The “German question “arose sincethat 19. Century up to the German reunification continuously. The wars of liberation have particularly so-called national Erweckern such as Arndt with demands like “so far the German tongue sound to (...)/that are help German native country” to a large admitting heating degree.
of the Viennese congress are located in the indication of the restoration and led to a territorial reorganisation of Europe and with it concomitantly the German countries in the center of Europe. With the establishment of the German federation the German question was for the time being terminated.The federation consisted of at the beginning of 37 the principalities and four free cities, which had all together sovereigns a status, but in the Bundestag binding decisions for all states to intersperse could. The states possessed conditions as confession on the national demands all together andranked thus among the constitutional monarchies. However their conditions covered only isolate a division of power or a civil participation.
Furthermore German dualism between Prussia and Austria Hungary was intensified, there both states on the one hand only with that so far the holy Roman realmparts belonging the federation and on the other hand both sides this dualism had joined to overcome wanted.
Hambacher celebration and March revolutionthe Hambacher celebration 1832 assembled the national movement again in a common act and on peacefulWays itself for a national unit, used for political liberty as well as for further citizen rights. Important it is to be marked here that the colors were used black-red-golden in the context of the erstrebten democracy with citizen rights and by the celebration also larger people masses admit became.
These democratic liberals demands were prepared again in the March revolution, however their penetration did not succeed. However also the German question arose again apart from the question, on which way a national unit can be achieved at all: that should Unit state smallGerman without Austria Hungary or largeGerman in the area of the German federation to be established?
Furthermore 1848 are to be called as high point of the political organization, there the German nation as an organized society already assembled and in associations, clubsand parties out-differentiated. This led to the development of different political directions:
- the Konservatismus as agency of the old restaurativen forces.
- the liberalism of the middle class, a constitutional monarchy with liberty rights to reach wanted
- the catholicism, which itself at the holy Roman realmoriented, for a federal national state pleaded and in the church interest predominantly the church people to organize wanted
- the democratic movement, which used themselves as outriders of the political actions for Volkssoveränität, equal rights (thus abolishment of the aristocracy) as well as a parliamentary or even republican state
- a women's movement, which distinguished by own associations, own publications and readiness for the Patriotismus and was rather democratically oriented, in expectation of a better social position in the democracy
- the workers' movement, mostly democratically orients, expected likewise social and political emancipation
thanthis different adjustment proves political opposition movements against the German federation that a nation must define itself and the term can change at any time. Due to the unsettled question of the territory for example the problem of the treatment of the not-German population placed itself,in particular in Austria.
The revolution is at the obviously best point to implement an establishment of state failed, which coined/shaped the German nationalism lastingly.
establishment of the national state under Prussia
after the German war created Prussia the north Germans federation 1866, duringthe German federation by separating Austria as terminated applied. The north German federation was already appropriate for the entry of the South German states, furthermore protection and Trutzbündnisse existed in case of an attack. Due to a demand for omission of France, the north Germans federation not over those Main line to expand (see. Emser telegram), came it by the protection alliances to the French-German war 1870/1.
During this war has the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, who was also simultaneous as such in north German the federation in personnel union Federal Chancellors, with thatSouth German states about an entry negotiates. The efforts of Bismarck around the national agreement culminated after the victory of the German troops in the emperor proclamation of the Prussian king of William I. to 18. January 1871 in the mirror hall of the lock of Versailles andthe establishment 2. German Reich.
The establishment of the German Reich under Prussian guidance has some important corner points regarding the later development of the nationalism:
- the constitutional monarchy under guidance of Prussia transferred its taut administrative regulation and military orientation (e.g. Prussia issuedin view of the military inability and for the keeping of coming soldiers to 9. March 1839 the “regulation over the occupation of juvenile workers in the factories”)
- cut on Prussia
- * receipt of the monarchischen state order
- * large population parts cannot politically take part
- * PrussianPersonal in personnel union with the appropriate realm titles (emperor, realm chancellor)
- * conflicts with regard to foreign policy consciously intensified (Emser telegram)
- war is a legitimate means for the penetration of political goals (see. Prussian condition conflict)
- came to the smallGerman solution (importantly, there the desire aftera largeGerman solution in the later process of German history was re-activated)
- an economical unit went to the national ahead (German customs union)
repression in the empire
during the foreign policy under Otto von Bismarck with the requirement “saturiert” tooits, by a comprehensive alliance system was balanced, different groups under Bismarck was suppressed, other one preferred. The repressive character of the government guidance steps out clearly, which faces the liberal-democratic demands of 1848 diamentral.
The catholic party center became 1870 as catholic protection of interestsbased. It had made itself the maintenance of the konfessionellen school supervision, a still föderativere establishment of realm with more self-determination of the Federal States, the lowering of the military budgets and beginnings of a national social politics the goal. As closed organized representation of the catholicism became throughnumerous laws politically suppresses. This is in particular in connection with the infallibility dogma, a Pope the Pius IX. in July 1870 issued to see: the Vatikan rejected some political directions, among them liberalism and nationalism, which central party represented as catholic agencyalso the interests of the Vatikan (see.Culture fight).
It is to be stressed that in the so-called pulpit paragraph the political statement was referred by clergyman with reference to the “public peace” and the “affairs of the state”.
Due to the stronger internal organizationthe catholicism, which was considerably supported by the culture fight, and the obligingness of the new Pope Leo XIII.the dialogue with the German Reich could be maintained again, while with the workers' movement a new political danger for the established realm developed.The workers' movement was committed to the marxism, which wanted to revoke the existing system of the realm by a revolution and the catholicism part of an international movement was similar. It came to the socialist law 1878, which forbade the political agitation of this group in the empirehas.
The economic liberalism was further strongly promoted after establishment of realm in the realm, however the relative to anti-democratic course of Bismarck led an internal splitting. Due to the founder crisis 1878 protective duties were introduced, which the national economy particularly in key industries like the iron industrysupported.
As consequence the worker layer was established quasi as independent nation with own social mechanisms as for example worker haven federations and also social mechanisms (see. Workers' movement in Germany). Apart from the class contrast, which was due to the marxism, became now due to the social positiona contrast two nations felt.
In summary it can be stated that the phase of Bismarck was relating to domestic affairs particularly limited in particular to the old forces and in the context of the Industriellen revolution to the large middle class and other state-basic layers, while the political strategynot on a firm ideology fixed, but worth-oriented (monarchy) was.
are explanation beginnings in the scientific research to the nationalism two basic directions, which refer to the period of the emergence.
nationalism as phenomenon of the modern trend
According to dominant opinion nationalism is a phenomenon of the modern trend. In former times, at that time first voluntaristischer, modern nation term developed in the French revolution. In 19. Century was operated however nationalistic myth formation, in order to embody the again-created nations as tradition communities(Outriders of these myth formations were in Germany above all Herder and spruce, in Italy Mazzini).
Before that 18. Century deviated the term of the nation so strongly from modern conceptions that “before-more modern” nationalism probably only a projection from today more omnipräsenter (cheaply,1995) nationalistic perspective is. Before the development of modern nations stood in the opinion modernistic theoretician other, most personal connections (for example at the leaning gentlemen) in the center of most group associatednesses.
Quasi-nationalnational Instititutionen a basic condition is actual for the emergence of one over the person federationgoing out national identity. In the nationalism before times personbound loyalty (Königtum etc.) in an abstract überpersonalen level is generalized. Personal handling, how it was everyday in a village community or at the court, was not projected with one another now also on persons, thosein direct contact with one another to be located could. With reference to alleged or actual thing in common in history, language and culture, those in many cases - like for example by the standardisation the German language in the second half 19. Century -only during the nation formation developed, a national community one konstitutiert. This community reproduces itself for example by nationalnational Instititutionen (authorities, schools etc.).
In Europe the nationalism got a substantial thrust by the ideas of the French revolution. Intheir consequence became popular the idea of the people sovereignty, which has both a democratic and a national beginning. The theory formation with numerous literature, developing in their consequence, may not emislead however about the fact that the nationalism also without theoretical concept formation alreadyexisted.
As in the people popular and the conservative forces of the restoration opposing those showed up national and democratically reflected movements of the revolutions of 1848/1849. Beginning with the French February revolution the spark on Europe jumped over nearly completely, also on thosePrincipalities of the German federation, under it the monarchies Prussia and Austria as its most powerful States of (March revolution).
Into the historical foreground stepped in the long run however the national antagonisms, those after rapid technical progress 19. and 20. Century.led to the devastating results of modern war guidance with millions of dead ones.
In addition, the decay of power structures leads to breaking out nationalistic efforts, approximately with the collapse of the colonial empires in the consequence of the Second World War. The former colonial peoples striving for independencereached partially in bloody wars of liberation their independence. They fell back to those already well-known principles of the nationalism and added its emancipatory element, connected with a political equality promise opposite all to the nation counting humans in, around the colonialismdelegitimieren.
Here again its double character shows up: Inklusion and Exklusion are elementary components of the nationalism. While on the one hand the political equality of the group united in a nation is stressed, at the same time the exclusion of the groups not to the nation belonging to takes place. This can of a kommunikativen stress of the heterogeneity one of this excluding up to its physical exclusion (ethnical cleaning) or their destruction lead (Holocaust).
a row other one confesses
nationalism as primordial phenomenon contrary to modernistic theoreticiansNationalism researcher (e.g. Anthony D. Smith or Clifford Geertz) ethnical nations, which define themselves over language, religion of distorting shank networks, cultural characteristics or quasi rassische thing in common, an independent existence without nationalism too. For these theoreticians nationalism is at least partial a Manifestation of a primordial (uranium-fan-resembled) Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühls.Nationalists represent generally Vulgärversionen of such theories.
national ones and nationalistic theoreticians and man of letters
George W. F. Hegel saw intended “the Germanic peoples ” to deliver the carrier of the Christian principle. This imperialistic-universalistic beginning became in 19. Century in the empire popularby the course-sharpened quotation: “at the German nature the world is to genesen “(Emanuel Geibel).
- L' existence D' une nation est un de tous les plébiscite jours. (The existence of a nation is based on a daily popular vote) Ernest Renan
- the national flag covers each injustice, each inhumanity, each lie, each violating act, each crime. (Rudolf Rocker)
- the way of newer mankind goes from humanity through the nationality to the Bestialität. (Franz Grillparzer)
- on thatNationalism appoint yourself all, which cause and use human misery. (Heinrich Heine)
- the wohlfeilste kind of pride… is national pride. Because it betrays the lack of individual characteristics in thereby the afflicted one, on which it proudly itscould, by not seizing otherwise to that, which he divides with so many millions. Who possesses important personal advantages, rather the errors of its own nation, since it has them steadily before eyes, will recognize most clearly. But everyoneerbärmliche drip, which does not have anything in the world, whereupon it could be proud, seizes the last means, on the nation, which it straight belonged, to be proud: Hieran he recovers and is now dankbarlich ready, all errors and foolishness,you are own to defend with hands and feet. (Arthur Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena)
- the further Europe leaves the nationalism behind itself, the chances for the peace are the larger. (John Kenneth Galbraith)
- thatNationalism is teething trouble, quasi masers of mankind. (Albert Einstein)
- Peter Alter: Nationalism. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 1985. ISBN 3-518-11250-3
- Benedict Anderson: The invention of the nation. To the career of a consequence-fraughtConcept. Campus, Frankfurt/Main 1996. ISBN 3593377292
- Isaiah Berlin: The nationalism. Hain, soil home. ISBN 3445060088
- Michael cheap (1995): Banally Nationalism. London and Thousand Oaks, APPROX.: Legend.
- Rogers Brubaker (1996). Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the nationalQuestion into the new Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
- Otto then; Nation and nationalism in Germany 1770-1990, C.H. Beck, Munich 1993. ISBN 3406340865
- Ernest Gellner (1983): Nation and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University press.
- Ernest Gellner: Nationalism.Culture and power. Settler, Berlin 1999. ISBN 3886806731
- Eric Hobsbawm: Nations and nationalism. Myth and reality since 1780. Campus, Frankfurt/Main 1991. ISBN 3593377780
- Dieter Langewie: Nation, nationalism, national state in Germany and Europe. C.H.Beck, Munich 2000.ISBN 3406459390
- Hagen Schulze: State and nation in European history. C.H. Beck, Munich 1995. ISBN 3406385079
- Anthony D. Smith: Nationalism. Theory, ideology, history. Polity press, Cambridge 2001. ISBN 0745626599
- Hans Ulrich Wehler: Nationalism, history, forms, consequences. C.H.Beck, Munich 2001. ISBN 3406447694.
|Wikiquote: Nationalism - quotations|
- national socialism
- national anarchy mash
- (anti-colonialistic) liberations movement
- Arab nationalism
- (Italian) Irredentismus
|Wiktionary: Nationalism - word origin, synonyms and translations|