National park

the national park Sarek in Sweden is older Europe - and until today one the largest.

A national park is a clearly defined, expanded area, which is protected by special measures against human interferences and against environmental pollution. Usually are this areas,on behalf a government to be administered and over special characteristics like natural beauty or natural resources order.

Table of contents

definition

in accordance with the definition of the international union to the protection of nature and natural objects (IUCN) are national park natural areas on the water or the country,are intended,

  • in order to protect and receive for the current and future generations the soundness one or several ecological systems.
  • around exploitation likewise to prevent like other activities, which cause damage to the area.
  • around a basis to the Spiritualität, research,Training to make recovery and inspection available which is ecological and culturally compatible.

history the national park

the idea to explain a particularly protect-worth natural landscape as the national park dipped already into early 19. Century up. The English poet William Wordsworth demanded this 1810 exactly the same as the American painter George Catlin 1832 and Swedish baron Adolf Eric north ski old 1880. Their thought was to retain the miracles of nature thereby also following generations at them enjoys andto recover here can.1864 were defined on operation of the Naturschützers John Muir the first protected area, in the today's Yosemite national park California, the USA, which however only 1906 was integrated into the developing national park system. The first national park became 1872 with that Yellowstone national park likewise in the USA based. Contrary to the Yosemite protected zone, the Yellowstone national park was subordinate not to the responsibility of the Federal State, but directly the US Government.

Mount Ruapehu in the Tongariro national park

the countries Canada, Australia and New Zealand followed soon with the establishment of national park,since here still large areas of unaffected nature existed, which could be relatively simply protected. 1879 created Australia the Royal national park, 1887 Canada the Banff national park (at that time under the name Rocky Mountain national park) and New Zealand in the same year the Tongariro national park.

In Europe first national park the 1909 in Sweden were established and to 1914 in Switzerland. Particularly after the Second World War the idea was established, and today more than 2,200 of national park exists in approximately 120 countries. The landschaftlicheVariety of the areas is enormous and enclosure nearly all landscape types.

In Germany with the national park Bavarian forest the first national park only 1970 was established. 1978 followed the national park Berchtesgaden, the king lake and Watzmann enclose. 1985 and 86 became thoseCoastal ranges of the German Wattenmeer as national park proven. In the GDR it gave to short before the turn no national park. Approximately 15% of the national surface were however blocked to public entrance and exhibited nearly unaffected landscapes. In the paging times of the turn became 1990 still before the reunification five of national park in the nor GDR converted. Since then Elbtalaue were added failed 1999 until 2004 six further of national park, the establishment of a park . Thus exist 2004 in Germany 15 of national park.

Today the nature protection becomes world-wide ofthe IUCN coordinates. The IUCN organizes every ten years an international congress (World park Congress), at which strategies are specified to the nature protection in national park. The last congress took place 2003 in Durban (South Africa). In addition the IUCN leads one red list of endangered kinds.

purpose the national park

Grand Geysir in the Yellowstone national park, the USA
Wattamolla beach in the Royal national park, Australia

of national park usually often unusually many different domestic animal is in remote, hardly settled areas and beheimatenand plant types, which are partly threatened. These is to be granted into national park as original and wild an environment as possible. Sometimes national park also minerals or rare geological objects cover, like for example the Geysire and hoisting sources of the Yellowstone national park.

On the other hand become national parkin more densely populated regions establishes, in order to carry back this to a more natural condition. In some countries such as England and Wales national park neither nor are they belong to the government unaffected wilderness, on the contrary they can contain human settlements, which use their country.In Africa serve national park mainly as game reservation, in Asia rather scientific purposes. North America offers classical of national park for recovery and investigation purposes, with which effects of the mass tourism represent a danger for the nature protection.

Most national park pursue two goals: They are Serve plants and animals as retreat area and at the same time the Erholgungsbedürfnis of tourists satisfy. These two goals contradict themselves in certain way and can lead to conflicts, particularly with very strong visited national park. On the other hand those of national park with the tourist incomes preventive measures can el und Pflanzen de Tiere del für finanzieren. For the national park administrations it is a difficult challenge to find the balance between the protection from nature goods and their public accesibility to. It comes again and again into national park to illegal wood precipitations and to Wilderei.

Is interestingthe developing history of the Royal national park in Australia, which is appropriate for surface to a large extent at 154.42 km ² on the Stadgebiet of the town with millions of inhabitants Sydney. It became in the year 1879 short hand from economic reasons errichted, after in the area coal occurrences were discovered and politicallyinfluential mine owners of the Outbacks a competition before the gates of the city were afraid. Nowadays the secondaryoldest national park of the world is a jewel of to a large extent unaffected nature only 30 km before the world metropolis Sydney.

further protected areas

together with the protection ofNature objects are there possibilities, areas of more particularly more cultural of protecting scientific or historical meaning. Some these areas for example by the UN-organization for education, science and culture (UNESCO) as world culture inheriting were explained.

national park in Germany

Karte Nationalparks in Deutschland
mapNational park in Germany

the national park belongs in Germany to the possibilities of the area-referred nature protection, which the federal nature protection law (BNatSchG) makes available.

In §24 of the BNatSchG it is specified that national park are to serve the spacious protection of areas of special characteristic. These areasmust in a predominant part the conditions of a protected area fulfill.

In principle are here all actions, interference and projects forbidden, which contrary-run the protection purpose. In all other respects the interference balance regulation of the federal nature protection law book applies to each structural or other project.

National park are with that Building zoning plan to consider and must be represented and considered in development plans. One speaks here of an information assumption. They are obligatory and can be overcome not due to a superordinate common weal in the consideration.

Beside the national park that knows Federal nature protection law further protection possibilities, which are more or less rigide and different purposes have:

The surface all national park in Germany constitutes together about 2.6% of the federal territory.

The national park Elbtalaue was again dissolved directly after its mechanism 1998 because of a complaint 1999 - the areafulfilled not the requirements of the nature leavingness. , The national park resin and the national park high resin were united to at the beginning of of 2005 to a national park. Thus the designation escapes „national park high resin “.

national park in Austria

the mechanism the Austrian national park tookin each case several years in requirement. Thus Austria lies in the international comparison in the centre zone. With a third the national park established world-wide the duration is due to conflict intensities more than 20 years.

Today Austria has six of national park, among other things National park new settler lake- Sea-angles and national park lime alps. In the animal oiler Lechtal was a national park in discussion. However the establishment of a nature park decided the animal oilers federal state government in the year 2004. The national park Nockberge becomes of the world nature protection federation IUCN not as national park (IUCN category II), butas protected landscape (category V) classified.

national park of Switzerland

Swiss national park

the national park in the canton grey federations is the so far only national park of Switzerland. The nature protection organization pro Natura makes itself strong for the creation of a second Parkes.

see also

literature

  • Henry Makowski: National parks in Germany. Vaults of nature, combat places of the nature protection. Wachholtz, new cathedral, 1997, ISBN 3-529-05322-8

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