National socialism

of these articles treats the world view of the historical national socialism. The history of Germany in the time of 1933 to 1945 treats the article time of the national socialism, the history of Austria of the articles Austria in the time of the national socialism.

See also National socialism (term clarifying).

National socialism designates the totalitarian world view and movement, which became politically effective in the Germany of the 1920er and 30's and which starting from 1933 to the establishment of a dictatorship in a state aligned according to völkischen criteria led. Their emergence basesitself on the refusal of the democratic state , the Weimar Republic, developed after 1918 in Germany, as well as the mental claim to leadership of the church and communism. Among their bases ranked above all the völkische racingism and Antisemitismus as well as the demandafter a revision of the sanctions suffered due to the lost First World War (propagandistically as „disgrace of Versailles “or „Versailler violating dictation “designates). The National Socialist world view supplied the ideological justification for starting from 1939 the German conquest war led in Europe (the Second World War)and the crimes of the genocide at the European Jews and the extermination camps.

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concept formation andcontentwise transformation

„national socialism “was a self-chosen, propagandistically motivated designation, which was used later also in the Federal Republic for the ideology Adolf Hitler and the 1920 created National Socialist German labour party (NSDAP), led by it; here the national socialism was thus understood singularisierend;that is, it was defined substantially in contrast to Italian fascism. In the GDR one designated the National Socialist world view, in the reason rather a conglomerate of different ideological beginnings with roots in 19. Century, instead (as in the Russian one) usually as „Fascism “(particularly „Hitler fascism “) - here thus a generalizing interpretation outweighed, in which the national socialism with other civil ideologies and regimes, for example into the defense of an accepted socialist revolution, was combined.

A further generalizing interpretation, particularly into thatThe USA, in addition, in the Federal Republic and of the sixties fifties 20. Century, is the Totalitarismustheorie, which stresses the thing in common in contempting for human beings rule practice between the national socialism and the Stalinismus , was common. The comparison between LV and Stalinismuswith the intention of their similarity in the practical conversion different world-descriptive-theoretical Konstrukte cause of society-spreading controversial debates is however disputed and again and again until today.

The designation „national socialism “(and/or. also „national socialism “) originates from the pro grammar of the 1919 created German labour party(DAP), which was renamed one year later in NSDAP.

The term tries to make a connection between a volume gravel CH racistic motivated nationalism and individual socialism taken anti-capitalistic demands.

The socialist elements for instance the 25-Punkte-Programms of the NSDAP of 1920 (among other thingsNationalization of some branches of industry, profit-sharing at large-scale enterprises, „refraction the interest farmhand shank “, an anti-Semitic key word, that on the distinction between a positive rated „creative “capital and a negatively seen „to raffenden “capital, that in the understanding of the national socialists alsoto the Judentum one identifies, does not differentiate) however not seriously one converted. It should above all serve to win the workers for the goals the party and was substantially coined/shaped from the idea one „community “.

Substantial elements between1840 and 1890 of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels developed socialist theory, i.e. the abolition of the capitalistic class rule and the internationalist and egalitäre principle in the national socialism however vehement were fought. Beside the Judentum Hitler saw its largest enemies ideological in Marxism, whose parties were likewise forbidden 1933 after the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship like the second support leg of the organized workers' movement, the trade unions.

Since 1928/1930, after against the militantly socialin a revolutionary manner arising „ “wings of the NSDAP link themselves Hitler around Gregor and Otto Strasser had interspersed, set it its hopes into the constituency of the Landbevölkerung and the middle class, which it hoped to win by a Zurückschrauben of the nevertheless further virulenten Antisemitismus in National Socialist propaganda and a stress of topics with regard to foreign policy.

The moreover it looked for an alliance with the large-scale industry, in order to achieve its goal of a legal seizure of power, after the right Putschversuche at the beginning of the 1920er years (see. Cut Putsch and Hitler Putsch had failed). Apart from few exceptions such as Fritz Thyssen or Emil Kirdorf, which gave donations the party plentifully, remained the predominant majority of the industrial magnates however until 1933 the national socialism opposite sceptically to cautiously. This shows a comparison between two political calls of industrial leaders from the autumn 1932. ThatCall of a DNVP close circle, which expressed itself for the support of chancellor Franz von Papen, was signed by over three hundred Industriellen, while famous the inputinput input, which demanded , to appoint Hitler the realm chancellor become by the GDR historiography, only twenty signaturesto exhibit could.

The largest part of the traditional worker environment could not be confused by the transverse front strategy of the NSDAP and selected, as long as free elections were possible, further the traditional, although zerstrittenen labour parties SPD or KPD. At the environment-free workers(thus for instance agricultural workers, Hausangestellten or workers in small firms) successes of the NSDAP were, like the investigations of the party researcher Jürgen W. Falter did not result in, meanwhile by any means under-proportionally.

1934, one year after the seizure of power, became „link “(anti-capitalistically motivated) party wings to thatNSDAP finally smashed, as a Hitler by the arrest and murder of possible internal-party rivals (under it its former promoter and personal friend, the SA - leader Ernst Röhm) its central position of power secured. In the LV propaganda became this action as „striking down the Röhm Putsches“designates.

The term Nazi mash is the eingedeutschte version of the English word nazism, which is however hardly used in Germany. In Germany frequently the negatively konnotierte term Nazi for a trailer of the national socialism is used.

Outstanding features of the national socialism

itit is contentious to what extent there was a closed National Socialist ideology. In addition the statement Hans franc from the Nürnberger processes is delivered that it gave „as many national socialisms as national socialists “. The question must remain in the long run open, because one assumes onlycan, to what extent the national socialism would have outlasted its as ideology „leaders ", around which as the absolute center around the complete political system have been developed is.

However some outstanding features can be designated:

something similar as in fascism in Italy, thatits author Benito Mussolini as „fusion of high finance and state “designated, the national socialists of individual German like also foreign entrepreneurs as bulwark against the bolshevism was financially supported.

Antisemitismus, 1. April 1933

the Antisemitismus fed itself from different, partial contradictoryDirections. Thus Jews became overall for bad states such as mass unemployment, urbanization, drift of the Landbevölkerung into the cities, Zersiedelung of the landscape etc. responsible made. They became in a specifically National Socialist conspiracy theory also as backers both the Soviet bolshevism and from itsMortal enemy, who angloamerikanischen financial capitalism represented, which would keep both Germany in a deadly clasping covered. Altogether Jews were branded as „decomposing " and one „inferior race belonging “.

The term of the race was a central term of National Socialist world view. It became „the superioritya arischen race “over other races postulates, whereby „Arier “was falsely equated with Indogermane. The arische race should be protected the harmful influence, which the national socialists in ‚the mixture saw `with other races. The preservation of the so-called„Purity of the blood “e.g. justified. the marriage prohibitions of Germans with „predominantly different race associated “partners, issued in the Nürnberger laws. The sterilization of mentally handicappeds, psychologically patients and of big criminals should prevent that allegedly ill hereditary property could further-leave itself.

Parallelif armament was operated, first secretly, then openly. As soon as the armed forces would be strong enough, plans of Hitler planned and other high national socialists to contrive aimed wars of aggression. A country should be isolated after the other one and overpowered individually. The final goal was according to opinion of some historians vouchers for the fact believe to have the conquest of the continental mainland, the Soviet Union up to the line Archangelsk Uralgebirge Caucasus as well as settling of these areas by the Germans, other researchers that Hitler aimed at the world domination. The rule over the occupiedAreas should be strengthened by driving unwanted subpopulations out.

„Seizure of power " of the national socialism

in Germany gave Hitler with the NSDAP with the realm tag elections to 5. Consequently March 1933 only scarcely the absolute majority and was in a forced manner, the coalition with the DNVP uprightto receive. As a chairman of the strongest party it was already five weeks before, to 30. January 1933, appointed by realm president Paul von Hindenburg the realm chancellor. Although the national socialists publicised this day as a day „of the seizure of power ", this procedure came for the time beingequal a usual change of government. The fire of the realm tag building in Berlin to 27. February 1933 changed however the situation. The national socialists stated that the arson attack was a communist revolution attempt, accused several communist politicians of the accomplice shank and created themselves with that alreadyon the day after issued emergency decree of the realm president Hindenburg according to the article 48 that Weimar realm condition the possibility of proceeding under abolition of the guaranteed fundamental rights against the opposition, in particular the KPD.

Complete power conquest succeeded to the national socialists only by the enabling act to23. March 1933, for which they needed a two-thirds majority of the present delegates, whatever they by the prohibition of the KPD and a pact with the center and the DNVP attained. Those was practically eliminated by this law Weimar realm condition, becauseReichstag extracted itself by its agreement power, by waiving the separation from executive and legislation and making themselves redundant thereby.

Bases and advancements

an ideological basis of the national socialism is the contestation , afterwhich possesses humans its value as such, i.e. without all achievement. The basic values of the national socialism were therefore neither new nor to a certain historical time limited. They are only evenly radical and total those the meritocracy. ThoseProduction of the work, the body, the technology, dropping the arts to swearing to the will is exactly the same expression of this view of humans, like the system of the labour camps and the destruction so-called „unwerten life “(see also Asoziale). That Versailler contract and the consequences of the world economic crisis of the twenties opened, in order the own achievement for the achievement ideology and the feeling betrogen to be, far the gates. Differently however the example of the Antisemitismus , based on the myth, shows the JewishCulture lives the small connection of the power ratings at expense of the Germans, to the reality. Substantial elements of the NSDAP ideology were written down by Adolf Hitler in its book my fight. The book was considered as basis of all other writings of the national socialism. As an important ideologistbeside it Alfred rose mountain is regarded which could achieve radically anti-Christian “myth of the twentieth century “a very far spreading of its thoughts with its book. Nevertheless rose mountain book was not very seriously taken even by prominent NSDAP politicians. Particularly Goebbels is at rose mountain scoffed again and again. Influence on the policy however never attained rose mountain Christian-hostile ideology.

Its own advancement of the National Socialist ideology made Heinrich Himmler. The points of reference to India, already existing with rose mountain, became in the SS-mechanisms like that“Medal castles “(the Himmler as elite of the system understood) developed. Esoteri theories with clear eastern influences, which were partly taken over of the SS, to have the end of war outlasted and live - usually as unpolitical religion-similar teachings - until today away.Himmler operated also a Europeanizing of the ideology. A well-known product its are the unitunit units of the “European SS” from many countries; however there were also concepts for a European marketing area.

Frequently the national socialism accepted religious courses. On the realm Party Congresses becamethe national socialism almost celebrates, which by the film “triumph of the will” the rain eating urine Leni scoring steel was particularly worked out and strengthened. The relationship of the national socialism to the Christian religion remained also zwiespältig therefore. On the one hand there was the attempt, with one „German Christianity "to clamp the Evangelist church for the national socialism. On the other hand however there was anti-Christian elements with rose mountain and a complete prevention of the Christianity by the himmlersche reference to Buddha and vorbuddhistische Indian writings. The attitude of the religions and those representatives during of theNazi regimes must be seen differentiated (see for this religion during the national socialism).

In addition „the blood and soil myth " and the glorification of the farmer conditions („the feeding conditions " came) as well as a certain nostalgia. Many national socialists rejected the urbanization and the increasing industrialization and longed themselvesto a country, which was ordered as always by farmers. Also Himmler had such thoughts, when he suggested settling the conquered areas of the Soviet Union with farmers who were at the same time soldiers („military farmers "). Russians, Ukrainer and Poland should thoseAgricultural worker, the house personnel, who places building workers or the assistants.

Literature

  • Wolfgang Benz: History of the third realm, ISBN 3-423-30882-6
  • Jürgen W. Falter: Hitler's voter, C.H. Beck' publishing house, Munich 1991
  • Sebastian Haffner: Notes to Hitler, Kindler publishing house, 1978, ISBN 3596234891
  • Ian Kershaw: : The LV state. Historical interpretations and controversies in the overview. Rowohlt publishing house, Reinbek with Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-498-03462-6
  • pure hard Kühnl: German fascism in sources and documents. Pahl Rugenstein, Cologne.
  • The national socialism. Documents 1933-1945, given change and commentatesfrom roll ago Hofer, Fischer paperback publishing house, number of books of the knowledge, first edition 1957, ISBN 3-436-00183-X
  • Franz Neumann: Behemoth. Structure and practice of the national socialism 1933-1944 Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt/M., 1984
  • Gerhard Paul: Rebellion of the pictures. LV propaganda 1933 ago,2. Aufl. Bonn 1992, ISBN 3-8012-5015-6
  • Michael jerk: Bibliography to the national socialism, 2 Bde. m. CD-ROM, scientific book company 2000, ISBN 3-534-14989-0
  • William L. Almost one: Ascent and case of the third realm, 2000, ISBN 3-9333-6661-5
  • Henry A. Turner, the large entrepreneurs andthe ascent of Hitler, Siedler publishing house Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-88680-143-8
  • Wolfgang Wippermann: The consistent illusion. Ideology and politics Adolf Hitler, Bertelsmann encyclopedia publishing house, Gütersloh 1989, ISBN 3-570-03950-1
  • Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wippermann: The Racial State. Germany 1933 - 1945, Cambridge University press 1991, ISBN 0-521-39114-8

see also

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