a natural catastrophe is a change of the earth's surface or the atmosphere naturally developed, which has devastating effects on organisms and their environment. A spectacular natural occurence (for example a glacier abort on Greenland) is not thus sufficient; strictly speaking can Natural occurence only then the “disaster “become, if it affects humans: There are no natural catastrophes, only culture disasters (Lars Claus EN how/as country hunter). If however humans are the causers of the disaster in nature, one speaks of an environment disaster. The period, in which the changes take place, reaches from seconds to years.
The view and analysis of natural catastrophes depend always on different components. The most important reasons are:
- Global increase in population (exponential development). Example: in the year 1800 lived1 billion Humans on earth, today are it 6.3 billion
- Altogether rising standard of living in nearly all countries of the earth leads to increasing value existence, which are concerned in case of a disaster.
- Concentration of population and values in large city areas: Emergencenumerous megacities also in endangered regions (e.g. Tokyo: 30 millions Inhabitant).
- Settling and industrialization of strongly exposed regions, in particular at coasts, in river valleys, tourism in danger zones, e.g. in Florida.
- Susceptibility of modern societies and technologies, civil engineering, devices, networks;Problems also with suppliers.
- World-wide changes of the environmental condition, climatic change, water shortage, loss of the diversity of species.
Table of contents
organization different natural catastrophes
The classification takes place according to (do not anthropogenen) causes which are not due to humans.Many of these causes leave themselves however alsoto humans attribute (for example Eindeichungen). Wars, civil wars and armed conflicts are not ranked among the natural catastrophes.
endogenous ones/tectonic causes
- Earthquake and sea-quake, as consequences also
- Volcanic eruptions, volcanic explosions,as consequences also
Gravitatori causes, mass movements
larger insurance companies lead usually geographically organized risk statistics, which serve them as design fundamentals for insurance premiums. The EM-DAT OFDA/CRED internationally Disasters DATA cousin of the WHO documents the world-wide disasters since 1888. Therefore occurredbetween 1900 and 2003 altogether 9195 larger disasters with at least in each case 10 dead ones. Of it weather disasters with 57% did not have the highest portion, 20% were geological origin (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes), like also into the geological categorycounted Tsunamis; the remainder were biological disasters (epidemics and troubles).
The number of the victims by natural catastrophes amounts per year to on the average 80.000. This number, like that it is frightening, becomes nevertheless by far from other “scourgesmankind " exceeded. This applies even if one the present amassment of natural catastrophes considered: together with the Tsunami of 2004 in the Indian ocean and the Kashmir - earthquakes of 2005 demanded all natural catastrophes collected in the period of 12 months over 400.000Human life - the highest tribute since 1970. To the comparison: in the same period world-wide approximately three times as many humans died in accidents in the traffic; at the consequences of avoidable teething troubles died even over 20-20-mal of more humans. With all statistic number dataone should always hold oneself before eyes that disasters are not everyday events, but rather the large exception to represent: most of us saw already once a car accident, but only few of us were already once a direct witness of oneNatural catastrophe.
The World Bank has 2005 in its report Natural these aster Hotspots: A global Risk analysis maps publishes, which show the distribution of the risks to maps of the world. Some of it are to see on the sides of the Columbia University: .
list of historical disasters
|1628 v. Chr.||Enormous volcanic eruption on the island Thera (Santorini), Greece|
|425 v. Chr.||By an earthquake before Greece Euböa becomes an island.|
|17||Ephesus, small Asia, becomesby an earthquake destroys perfectly.|
|24. August 79||outbreak of the Vesuv||destruction of Pompeji and Herculaneum, 2,000 dead ones|
|17. February 1164||storm tide at the North Sea (Julianenflut)||beginning of the emergence of the Jadebusens, about 20,000 dead ones|
|16. January 1219||first Marcellusflut. Storm tide at the North Sea||about 36,000 dead ones|
|15. January 1362||second Marcellusflut (“Grote Mandränke “). Fall of the place Rungholt as well as seven other Kirchspielen in the Edomsharde (Uthlande). Emergence of the first Halligen.||At least7.600 dead ones. (Entire North Sea Coast: according to the chronicles 100,000 dead ones.)|
|1556||the earthquake in Shaanxi destroys large parts of this region of China||about 830,000 dead ones|
|1693||an earthquake shakes the island Sicily, Italy||about 60,000 dead ones|
|31. December 1703||earthquakeswith Tokyo||destruction of Odawara, Tokyo and other cities, about 150,000 dead ones|
|1. November 1755||earthquakes with Lisbon||destruction of Lisbon, 60,000 dead ones|
|27. August 1883||outbreak of the Krakatau||blows up two thirds of the island with Flutwelle, 20,000 dead ones|
|1896||Sea-quake with Flutwelle before the Saraiko coast, Japan||destroyed fishing villages, many dead ones|
|8. September 1900|| the Galveston hurricane of 1900 destroys the texanische city
|about 8,000 dead ones|
|16. December 1902||an earthquake of the strength 6.4 in Turkestan||about 4,500 dead ones|
|28. December 1908||earthquakes in Messina to Kalabrien, Italy||about 83,000 dead ones|
|16. December 1920||an earthquake of the strength 8.6 shakes the province Gansu in China||approximately 200,000 dead ones|
|1. September 1923||earthquakes in the saying revision modification bay||destruction of Tokyo and. Yokohama, 143,000 - 150,000 dead ones. Kwanto is designated Kwanto quake, which destroyed Tokyo and Yokohama, had its Epizentrum however in the saying revision modification bay after the province most strongly concerned.|
|August 1931||inundations of the Jangtse in China||about1,4 million dead ones|
|5. October 1948||earthquakes of the strength 7.3 in Aschgabat, Turkmenistan||approximately 110,000 dead ones|
|7. September 1955||inundations in India||about 45 million humans shelterless|
|29. February 1960||earthquakes of the strength at 5,7 at the Atlantic coast in Morocco||about 12,000 dead|
|India approximately 1.5 million||humans devastated from 1965 to||1967 a three-year dry period 15|
|died. August 1968||earthquakes on Celebes||about 68,200 dead|
|November of 1970||eddy towers (Zyklone) and tsunami in Bengalen||about 300,000 dead|
|August 1975||Fire in the Lüneburger heath||largest Waldbrand in the Federal Republic of Germany|
|4. February 1976||earthquakes of the strength 7.5 in Guatemala||approximately 22,770 dead ones|
|27. /28. July 1976||earthquakes of the strength 7.5 in seaweed beautiful, 150 km south of Peking, China||about 655,000 dead ones, officially: 255.000 dead ones|
|16. September 1978||earthquakes of the strength 7.7 in Iran||approximately 25,000 dead|
|November 1980||earthquake of the strength 7.2 in the south of Italy||about 3100 dead ones|
|19. September 1985||earthquakes of the strength8,1 in Mexico city||about 6,000 dead ones (official numbers)|
|7. December 1988||earthquakes of the strength 7.0 in the northwest of Armenia||about 25,000 dead ones|
|20. June 1990||earthquakes of the strength 7.7 in Iran||40,000 to 50,000 dead|
|April 1991||cyclone in Bangladesh||about139.000 dead ones|
|2. September 1992||earthquakes of the strength 7,120 km before Pacific coast, Nicaragua||about 180 dead ones|
|30. September 1993||earthquakes of the strength 6.2 in the southwest of India||up to 30.000 dead ones|
|16. January 1995||earthquakes in Kōbe, Japan||morewhen, over 400.000 hurt 6,000 dead ones, record oh damage to 100 billion dollar|
|July/August 2003||heat wave/fires in Europe||about 20,000 dead ones|
|17. August 1999||earthquakes of the strength 7.4 in Turkey with Izmit||17,840 dead ones|
|26. January 2001||earthquakes of the strength 7,9in Gujarat, India||dead one officially: 17.110, Estimations: more than 50,000|
|26. December 2003||earthquakes of the strength 6.6 in Bam, Iran||about 43,000 dead ones|
|26. December 2004||earthquakes in the Indian ocean before the island Sumatra of the strength 9.0 (9,3)with devastating effects by Tsunamis themselves still in northeast Africa||over 232.000 dead ones (estimation)|
|28. August 2005||the hurricane Katrina rages in the coastal regions of the gulf of Mexico. Dam failures in new Orleans flood approx. 80% of the city.||Roughly over1.000 dead ones|
|8. October 2005||earthquakes in India and Pakistan.||Roughly over 86.000 dead ones|