navigation is the “attendant art” to sea (Nautik), to country and in air. More generally it calls itself getting along in a geographical area, in order to achieve a certain place. The activity of navigating ( lat. navigare; sanskrit navgathi) consists of three subranges:
- Determine the geographical position by detection according to most diverse methods,
- calculation of the way to the goal and
- guidance of the vehicle to this goal, thus above all a holding of the optimal course.
Navigation is alsothe technology and science, itself beyond the detection with procedures for the determination and optimization of the flight attitude and flight altitude, which speed and direction of motion (course, route) and their changes employ.
In the World Wide Web navigation means virtual steeringby the hypertext in such a way specified, thus by the branched ways and topics linked among themselves (similar to navigating with the car in an unknown city).
Table of contents
the art of navigation before approximately 6000 years first in India on the Sindh and probably time near also in Egypt and Lebanon one developed. These procedures ouple and partial celestial navigationfor the navigation were originally used, starting from approximately that 1. Millenium v. Chr. in addition, for expeditions to country. In this period the Phönizier drove on the open sea as first (in the eastern Atlantic and with orbiting of South Africa). On plumbing report Herodot (500 v. Chr.) and the Bible, z. B. in Lukas' Apostelgeschichte (27,28-30).
As well as were extended estimation from leeway and speed set simple dead reckoning off with course for instance to the turn of an era by first measuring methods. Where that Compass was invented, is still disputed; first mentions it is in China in the 11-century to have given, in Europe in 12. Century. The coastal ship travel took place however further with view navigation. Starting from approximately that 7. The Wikinger methodology supplemented centuryby observation of birds, wind and currents and came around 980 to 999 to Greenland and North America. The Arabs perfected astronomical measuring instruments and computing methods and placed also sea charts ago (Piri rice).
At the latest in 4. Century v.Chr. each region in the Mediterranean had its sea-manual. Such are not however delivered between Roman realm and the Compasso di Navigare (1296). The oldest down-German “sea-book” (around 1490) is based to 13 on sources from that. to 14. Centuryand describes sea depths, ports and tides, in the recent part also courses between different points. For instance starting from the end 13. Century emerge the first sea charts, Portolane and/or. Portolankarten, which show the Mediterranean in astonishing accuracy. In Portugalbecame toward end 15. Century astronomical navigation after sun and polar star develops. As measuring instruments thereby astrolab and Jakob staff served.
Christoph Kolumbus and many of its contemporaries perfected the utilization of wind and currents and dead reckoning, whichAccuracies up to 5 per cent of the gesegelten distances made possible and over 5000 km of the Atlantic than 100 km was partially even better - although the earth extent only on at the most 20% admits was. Starting from 1500 numerous maps of the world developed, logging and quadrant were used and the Merkator projection was invented. However only the method of the measurement of moon distances as well as the construction solved the length problem exactly going clocks, among other things in the eight tenth century the four stop watches (1735 -1759) of John Harrison, together with that 1731 -1740 mirror sextants three times invented. When the bad toner captain Thomas Sumner 1837 had found the astronomical base line method, the radio navigation (starting from 1899) and the inertial navigation on the current navigation principles ( J.M. were only missing. Boykow 1935, Siegfried Reisch 1941).
literature and on the left of
- free life, Hans's Christian: History of navigation. Wiesbaden 1978
- Hil, G.: Flight without stars: Siegfried Reisch - pioneer of the inertial navigation. Vaduz 1992
- Sobel, Dava: Degree of longitude. Berlin 1999
- Hertel, Peter: The secret of the oldSailor: from the history of navigation. Gotha 1990
- Köberer, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): The right foundation of the navigation: German contributions for the history of navigation. Berlin 1982
- Gelcich, Eugen: Studies of the history of the development of shipping with special consideration of the nauticalScience. Loaf oh 1882
- Taylor, E.G.R.: The Haven Finding kind. A History OF navigation from Odysseus ton of Captain Cook. London 1956
kinds of navigation
- terrestrial navigation contains the positioning near the coast on the basis landmarks (salientPoints ashore), radio-beacons and navigation marks.
- View navigation is based on the comparison of map and area.
- Astronomical navigation locates the position by observation of Gestirnen (sun, stars or planet).
- As dead reckoning the current position determination becomes from courseand speed designates. In such a way determined position is called also ouple place. The wind is considered by computation of the leeway; Doppler radar and inertial navigation increase the accuracy.
- With the radio navigation master stations are used, which send radio signals for positioning.
- The inertial navigation permitsautonomous navigation by use of accelerometers and gyroscopes.
- With the satellite navigation (see also government inspection department and Galileo) signals are used by satellites, by whose run time differences to the location of a receiver its position can be calculated.
- Integrated navigation or hybrid navigationcombines several of these procedures and weights it. The optimally calculated position permits statements about their accuracy and reliability (integrity).
localization of a noise
when natural hearing we get along also in an area, how right at the top with the word “navigation” is explained, whereby we the direction regulation of the incident sound of an acoustic sourceincorrectly with “detection” designate. We do not locate however actively under sending waves, how during the echo ranging of the radio navigation or how the bats do it. For the correct determination of the sound direction of arrival better the technical term is localization for the direction hearing toouse. We humans locate thus when hearing.
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