under the term side effect one understands effects of an instrument employment on effect contributions with other goals. It is to be differentiated from the term reciprocal effect. See also effect (computer science).
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a side effect is in the medicine an observed (or unconsidered) effect of a medicine, which not to the intended, desired (main) effects of a medicine belongs.
Better than “side effect” the term is unwanted medicament effect.
“If it is maintained thateine Substanz keine Nebenwirkung zeigt, so besteht oftmals der Verdacht, dass sie auch keine Hauptwirkung hat." (Gustav Kuschinsky, Verfasser eines Lehrbuches über Arzneimittelwirkungen)
Eine Nebenwirkung ist eine normalerweise unerwünschte Wirkung eines Medikamentes, die zusätzlich zur gewünschten Wirkung auftritt, einschließlich Wechselwirkungen mit anderen Substanzen, Folgen vonOverdosing as well as development of dependence.
one can divide side effects into:
- medicine-material-typical and side effects dependent on the supplied quantity (usually related to the main effect)
- unforeseeable and mix-independent side effects (for example allergies).
One can divide these side effects again into easy and serious side effects.
desired side effects
side effects can be desired in addition, for example the antiproliferative (growth-retarding) effect of Glucocorticoiden with Psoriasis are wished, with female patients with an endogenous Ekzem not. Generally linguistic usage understands one however by side effects unwanted medicament effects.
Depending upon weight of the illnessthe physician as well as the patient must weigh whether the risk of the side effects with the use of the medicine can be counterbalanced.
committed to declaration medicament manufacturer to list all well-known side effects of a medicine which can occur during its application. One observes thus a groupfrom medicament users and notes all possible complications. These are indicated in the enclosing note.
the formulations like “frequently” etc. give codes the proportional frequency of the side effects on; it develops for uncertainty with the user often over it how often so a side effect can occur:
- “means frequently”,that the side effect in more than 10% of the cases can occur (one must consider however, which up to 90% the user side effects does not feel);
- “occasionally” it means that the side effect is felt of 1 - 10% of the patients (1 to 10 persons of100);
- “rarely” it means that the side effect 0.1 - 1% of the patients concern (1 to 10 persons of 1000);
- “very rarely” it means that the side effect arises with 0,01 to 0.1% of the patients (1 to 10 persons of 10,000);
- “in individual cases” it means that thoseSide effect with 0,001 to 0.1% of the patients arises (1 to 10 of 100,000 persons).
The risk of side effects rises usually with duration of the income, the number of patients, who take the medicine (if 1 million Humans a medicine take, give it more humans,the one side effect experience - contrary to a medicine, which is taken only by 100 persons), and usually also with the dose.
If a medicine is not stood, one should speak the kind of the side effect absolutely with its physician or at least withPhysician or pharmacists announces. One should never change arbitrarily the dosage of the medicine or set the medicine off.
The spectrum of possible side effects of medicines is enough from relatively harmless accompaniments (e.g. Tiredness) up to effects, whose damage exceeds the effectiveness of the medicine. An extreme case onunerwünschten Arzneimittelwikungen trat im Fall desSchlafmittels Contergan auf, das bei Einnahme in der Schwangerschaft zum Teil sehr schwere körperliche Fehlbildungen bei Embryos auslöste und deshalb vom Markt genommen werden musste.
side effect will be able for
main effect side effects in addition, quite for main effectbecome. The medicine Viagra was developed for example originally as blood pressure countersink, showed however side effects of completely different nature. As blood pressure countersink it was relatively uselessly - effective as power means however very. In addition, that is the reason for why Viagra with application as power means side effects to Heart (particularly if in connection with nitrate taken) shows and why Viagra with pulmonaler hypertonia by babies to be given can.
According to the results of a prospektiven observation study (BMJ 2004; 329: 15-19) is each 16. stationary patient treatment consequence of a medicament even effect. Therefore costs would result each yearof converted over 700 million euro for national the Health service (NHS) in Great Britain. A researcher team around Professor. Jetty mohamed of the University OF Liverpool evaluated the stocktaking dates of 18.820 patients over 16 years, which were treated in the course of a half yearly in two hospitals.The authors tried to recognize all cases, in those a medicament even effect the definite, probable or possible cause of the hospital admission were. This connection was seen with 1.225 patients, what corresponds to a Prävalenz of 6,5 per cent. Appropriate results went according to their representation even out of earlier investigations toresembles question out.
Web on the left of
- http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/329/7456/15.pdf the study of Munir jetty mohamed et al. as pdf file
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