Neckar

of these articles treats the river Neckar. For the Asteroiden of the same name see Neckar (Asteroid).
Picture
Neckarquelle im Schwenninger Stadtpark Möglingshöhe
Neckarquelle in Schwenningen
data
state: Germany
Lands of the Federal Republic: Baden-Wuerttemberg and Hessen
Länge: 367 km
source: With Villingen Schwenningen
(706 m and. Normalnull)
delta: With Mannheim into the Rhine
(95 m and. Normalnull)
difference in height: 611 m
catchment area: 14,000 km ²
navigability from the delta to Plochingen

of the Neckar 367 km a long tributary of the Rhine is predominant in Germany, that in Baden-Wuerttembergand in its underflow on a short distance section the border to Hessen runs forms. The middle discharge at the delta amounts to 140 m ³ /s, with which the Neckar is to Aare , Mosel and Main the fourth largest tributary of the Rhine.

It risesin the protected area Schwenninger Moos with Villingen Schwenningen on 706 m sea level and flows with Mannheim into the Rhine (95 m). The Neckar is navigable from Plochingen to Mannheim and thus beside the Rhine and the Main with value home one of threein Baden-Wuerttemberg federal water ways lain. Neckarhäfen gives it in Plochingen, Stuttgart, Heilbronn and Mannheim.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

name origin

that Name Neckar is celtic origin and means wild water. He descends the ureuropäischen word NIC , which rush off meant. The development of the name begins at pre-Christian time with the designation Nikros, which over Nicarus and Neccarus to Neckerand finally the today's Neckar became.

river course

Verlauf des Neckars
process of the Neckars

the source area of the Neckars lies in the Schwenninger Moos between Villingen and Schwenningen. Its „official “ source lies in the city park Möglingshöhe in Schwenningen. Until before Rottweil is shortthe Neckar a small brook on the Hochebene of the Baar.

Only by the supply of at this time substantially larger Eschach it becomes the river. It at the same time occurs that a close, forest-rich valley, its run on thatnext about 80 kilometers accompanies. In this way the Neckar between Black Forest and Swabian one clears through Alb a way northward. With Horb it evades to gau before that after northeast and flows at the edge of the Albtraufs along. It occurs gang castle the far Tübinger basin . To Tübingen the valley narrows itself again.

With Plochingen the Neckar makes a sharp break after northwest. It becomes navigable by the supply of the Fils at the same time. By navigation and above allby the proximity of the state capital Stuttgart control from now at industrial companies and close settlement the run of the river. Starting from Esslingen additionally vineyards coin/shape the landscape.

Behind Stuttgart the Neckar on its winding run takes the water by the district Ludwigsburgfrom rems, Murr and Enz up and becomes in such a way a very broad river. In the Unterland in the area around Heilbronn the Neckar goes through again an open landscape. Afterwards it steps between bath Wimpfen and MOS brook into the desert forest, where again wooded slopes its bank seams. The river course describes now a large, northward arranged elbow, whereby it runs briefly with deer horn in hessian area and afterwards to Neckarsteinach the national border between Hessen and Baden-Wuerttemberg forms. Subsequently, runsthe Neckar on Heidelberg too, where it occurs the Rhine level. After it it flows briefly with Mannheim into the Rhine.

The Neckar is with a middle discharge of 145 m ³ /s the tenth-largest river of Germany.

catchment area

that Catchment area of the Neckars covers about 14,000 km ² and covers the central part of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The various use as industrial water, water way and for water power production brought substantial interferences into the waters ecology of the river with itself.

Renaturierung

in the meantime became differentInitiatives based, which use themselves for the Renaturierung of the Neckars. Aim these initiatives are the ecological revaluation of the river system, the improvement of the water quality, the improvement of the flood protection and the creation of attractive local recreation areas along the river.

history

Pin new castle and the Neckartal, Ernst Fries, around 1830

1100 to 1700

starting from 1100 is occupied the use of the Neckars as water way with Treidelkähnen and wood rafts. Approximately 800 years long the Neckar serves as route of transportation forBurning and utilizable wood. 1476 were agreed upon in a contract between the realm city Esslingen, Württemberg and Austria free raft trade on the whole Neckar. The wood from the Black Forest was brought over the river until Holland. The blossoming navigation neededmuch wood for shipbuilding. In Plochingen also the firewood from the Schurwald was converted to rafts, which were meters long up to 260. To 28. October 1899 passed the last raft the old realm city Esslingen. The railway broughtthe Flösserei completely for succumbing.

1700 to 1920

for larger ships were the Neckar until 1713 only until Heilbronn navigable. Afterwards it was provisionally developed to CAN place. The connection of the württembergischen Plochingen to the Neckarschiffahrt becameby the realm city Esslingen prevents. The Neckarschiffahrtsordnung of 1832 brought by simplified regulations, among other things the water tariffs, a substantial upswing for the navigation; in 15 years the ship number on the Neckar trebled itself. At that time the ships “were getreidelt” river upward,thus of horses from the bank pulled on a line. By the competition of the railway this became in the second half 19. Century uneconomically. The Neckarschifffahrt brought a new upswing the 1878 Kettenschlepperei begun. Between Mannheim and Heilbronn could steam ships also attached themselves punts at 115 km are enough, in the river shifted chain river upward pull. Thereby the travel duration of 5-8 was shortened from Mannheim to Heilbronn days (with horses) on 2-3 days.


starting from 1920

nevertheless alsowith this technical innovation the navigation was further beeinträcht of nature. Floods, drift ice and Niedrigwasser could lead for adjustment the navigation. At 1921 one began to remove the river with barrage weirs to the large navigation road. The adjustment is made there by rollersresist. Of the German Reich, bathing, Hessen, Württemberg and further partners created Neckar AG, whose first member of the board became Otto deer, was transferred the building and the enterprise of the barrage weirs and and hydro-electric power plants. 1935 was firstand ended with it the epoch of the Kettenschlepperei completes eleven barrage weirs between Mannheim and Heilbronn on the Neckar. Instead of freight of 200-300 tons now such could be carried up to 1500 tons.

Also at the upper end between Mannheim and Plochingenplanned development with work one began. There were large plans to make also the Fils between Plochingen and Göppingen navigable; the area for a port with Göppingen was raumplanerisch reserved until 1978. Neckar Baudirektor Otto Konz (1875-1965) even left a tunnellingthe Swabian Alb with a navigation connection after Ulm at the Danube plan.

After 1935 the canal construction went only to 1958 the port Stuttgart in enterprise was only very zögerlich and continued to take. 1968 became the work of the canalization with the stageDeizisau completes. The river was accumulated and thus from Mannheim to Plochingen become navigable in altogether 27 stages. Otto Konz (“my fate stream is the Neckar”), which “father of the Neckarkanals”, has the coronation/culmination of its work any longer not experienced.

Supplies

the Ulrichsbrücke in Köngen - 1600 to 1602 of Heinrich Schickhardt build
Blick auf den von Schiffen befahrenen Neckar von der Pliensaubrücke in Esslingen
view of the Neckar of the Pliensaubrücke in Esslingen view of the philosopher way
Blick vom Philosophenweg auf die Altstadt Heidelbergs mit Schloss und Alten Brücke
of the old part of town of Heidelberg with lock and old person bridge, driven on by ships

, in the following are the supplies of the Neckars specified in the order from the source to the delta. The largest among them (after the catchment area) are Enz, digester and hunt.

those affects cities and municipalities

at the Neckar view of the Neckarfront
Naturschutzgebiet Altneckar
of Tübingen
at the Neckar

of the Heilbronners channel port of the Neckar in the followingin the sequence from the source to the delta of districts, cities and municipalities specified:

navigation

port Plochingen

to 8. December 1954 was created the Neckarhafen Plochingen GmbH. The last barrage weir was built from 1960 to 1963 with Deizisau. With the building of the Neckarhafen Plochingen Otto Konz began to 29. April 1964. The first ship put to 12. July 1968 in Plochingen on, after it before of Gertrud hardening, which woman of the mayor, on whom names Plochingen had been baptized.

In the port of Plochingen gain 2004 about15 companies an annual turnover from approximately 500 to 600 million euro.

Stuttgart Neckarhafen

port Stuttgart

of the Neckarhafen Stuttgart was built in two sections, from 1954 to 1958 and from 1966 to 1968.

Dockland: Total area 100 hectars-
Three harbor basins: Water surface (inclusively Federal water way) 30.7 hectars

port CAN place

inauguration of the first Cannstatter of port at the Mühlgrün by duke Eberhard Ludwig (Württemberg) in the year 1713. The port had only small meaning.

port Heilbronn

Area 107 hectares - dock length of 7.2 kilometers
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 from: 0 till: 200000 RK: 6200   SHIFT: ($dx, $dy) color: water text:  6.2 km /98, 50 m and. NN Feudenheim air-lock RK: 17700 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 17.7 km /101, 20 m and. NN swabia homeChannel RK: 26100 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 26.1 km /107, 60 m and.NN Heidelberg air-lock RK: 30800 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 30.8 km /111, 70 m and. NN Neckargemünd air-lock RK: 39300 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 39.3 km /116, 40 m and. NN Neckarsteinach air-lock RK: 47700 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 47.7 km /121, 70m and.NN deer horn air-lock RK: 61400 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 61.4 km /123, 70 m and. NN Rockenau air-lock RK: 72200 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 72.2 km /132, 40 m and. NN Guttenbach air-lock RK: 85900 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 85.9 km /134, 60 m and. NN Neckarzimmern air-lock RK: 93800 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy)text: 93.8 km /142, 90 m and.NN Gundelsheim air-lock RK: 103900 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 103.9 km /150, 90 m and. NN cooking village air-lock RK: 113600 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 113.6 km /154, 00 m and. NN Heilbronn air-lock RK: 117500 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 117.5 km /161, 30 m and. NN Horkheim air-lock RK: 125100SHIFT: ($dx, $dy) text: 125.1 km /163, 70 m and.NN Lauffen air-lock RK: 136200 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 136.2 km /170, 00 m and. NN defeating home air-lock RK: 143000 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 143.0 km /182, 20 m and. NN Hessigheim air-lock RK: 150100 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 150.1 km /190, 20 m and. NN Pleidelsheim air-lock RK: 157600SHIFT: ($dx, $dy) text: 157.6 km /194, 20 m and.NN Marbach air-lock RK: 165000 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 165.0 km /203, 20 m and. NN Poppenweiler air-lock RK: 171400 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 171.4 km /204, 40 m and. NN Aldingen air-lock RK: 176200 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 176.2 km /213, 40 m and. NN yards air-lock RK: 182700SHIFT: ($dx, $dy) text: 182.7 km /215, 00 m and.NN CAN place air-lock RK: 186700 SHIFTs: ($dx, - 5) text: 186.7 km /222, 40 m and. NN Untertürkheim air-lock RK: 189500 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 189.5 km /231, 00 m and. NN Obertürkheim air-lock RK: 194000 SHIFTs: ($dx, - 8) text: 194.0 km /234, 00 m and. NN Esslingen air-lock RK: 194800SHIFT: ($dx, 1) text: 194.8 km /241, 00 m and.NN upper Esslingen air-lock RK: 199500 SHIFTs: ($dx, $dy) text: 199.5 km /247, 20 m and. NN Deizisau air-lock

< /timeline>

air-locks

the size of the inland waterway crafts driving on the Neckar is by the dimensions of the 27 air-locks,the 110 m long and 12 m broad are, fixed. The driving depth of water amounts to at least 2.80 m, so that z. B. the port Stuttgart also of high-power engine ships to be started can do, those with a depth of 2,60 m a load-carrying capacity of round2,200 t have. The country Baden-Wuerttemberg plans to extend the air-locks to 140 m. An appraisal by the year 2006 calculated for this costs at a value of 127 millions euro.

Since 2004 become at the upper Neckar the air-locks from Deizisau toStuttgart yards over the operating by remote control center in Stuttgart Obertürkheim (FBZ) remote controlled and supervises.

The Neckar is administered as federal water way of the water and offices for navigation Stuttgart and Heidelberg. The federation is also owner of the water way.

Neckarbrücken

it gives a large numberof bridges over the Neckar. Compositions of data and pictures to the Neckarbrücken can be inferred the following Internet on the left of:

castles and locks

numerous castles and locks seamsthe Neckartal. First of all naturally the Heidelberger lock is to be called. In addition, under the Neckarburgen are the castle horn mountain (the castle of the Götz of Berlichingen) and the castle Guttenberg, which accommodates today the German seizing control room. Further castles are Castle Eberbach, which Esslinger castle, castle deer horn, castle proud-hit a corner, which Minneburg, castle rem-hit a corner, the Weiler castle, castle Dilsberg, lock new castle (bathe), lock Heinsheim, castle Horkheim, lock love stone, as well asthe ferrule castle.

From Mannheim over Heidelberg, Eberbach, Mosbach to Heilbronn runs the castle road almost parallel to the Neckar.

quotations

Blick auf das Neckartal und Haßmersheim von Burg Hornberg
view of the Neckartal and Hassmersheim of castle horn mountain

since 1922 is the Swabian Volkslied „soongras' I at the Neckar “ admits:

Soon gras' I at the Neckar,
soon gras' I on the Rhine,
soon have I a Schätzel,
soon are I alone.
Complete text and melody

“Germany are in the summer of the summits of the beauty, but nobody has thathighest extent of this gentle and friedvollen beauty understood, really perception and enjoyed, to which on a raft the Neckar did not down-drive. “ Marks of Twain in A tramp abroad

literature

  • office for land surveying Baden-Wuerttemberg: Leisure map F513 Mannheim Heidelberg - nature park Neckartal Odenwald(West sheet)., 2006, ISBN 3-89021-606-4
  • office for land surveying Baden-Wuerttemberg: Leisure map F514 MOS brook - nature park Neckartal Odenwald (east sheet)., 2006, ISBN 3-89021-607-2.
  • Franz X. Bogner: The country of the Neckars. Thorbecke, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-7995-0152-5

Web on the left of


 

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