Neophyt

of these articles describes the plants marked with Neophyten. For other meanings, see Neophyt (term clarifying).

Neophyten (Greek: neo = again; phyton = plant) plants , those are consciously or unconsciously, directly or indirect from humans to 1492 (before it: see. Archäophyt) inAreas to be introduced, in which it does not natural-prove occurs. Thus they belong to the so-called.hemerochoren plants. With brought in animal species one speaks accordingly of Neozoen, with mushrooms of Neomyceten. Plants, which were introduced before the discovery America, are called Archäophyten. All extraneousKinds independently of their introduction time are called Neobiota.

Drüsiges jumping herb - in Central Europe it ranks among the problematic Neophyten.

Table of contents

Web on the left of [work on

] bringing in and establishment of

Neophyten. also the major item Hemerochorie

extraneous one plants, z are often intended brought in. B. by being planted in gardens or parks, becausethey by characteristics such as beauty or resistance against certain environmental factors are particularly suitable. Also in the land and forestry extraneous kinds are consciously used. About half of the Neophyten against it unintentionally brought in z. B. as companions in the seeds of cultivated plants or as goods orMeans of transport adhering seeds.

Most Neophyten cannot increase or die among other things due to different climate conditions z. B. with strong frost off. If they arise however nevertheless sporadically in free nature, they are called “inconsistant Neophyten” or Adventivpflanzen. If it stable Populations form and over several generations without direct assistance of humans increase, them as “established Neopyhten” are designated. Extraneous plant types (thus Archäophyten and Neophyten), itself in natural ecological systems such as forests or Auen - thus also after being omitted the human influence - inan area received, Agriophyten are called. The “decimal rule in such a way specified” can apply for isolated areas in few such as Central Europe: from 1.000 introduced plants 100 arises inconsistantly, to 10 develops to “in-patriated Neophyten”, but only a kind develops to the case of problem.

To the elucidation herean example of imported bloom plants in Great Britain:

Number of “Neophyten” altogether: 12.507
living in the wild in nature occurring: 1,642
a-patriated “Neophyten”: 210
problematic/invasiv: 34

problems by invasive Neophyten

most Neophyten have in the fight against their competition, e.g. due to other climatic requirements no chance.They can transform some biotope types and displace domestic = indigene kinds, but they are also in the conditions that they cause economic damage to the land and forestry. This happens, if Neophyten in the new habitat do not have natural enemies and/or. if it simply more favourable characteristics than thosedomestic plants possess, e.g. faster growth and thus are superior to the indigenen kinds. Thus they can locally up to part supraregional - like e.g.Impatiens glandulifera on the banks of river systems - indigene kinds by displacement exterminate. However so far still no native are on Central European levelPlants displaced by Neophyten completely.

The conscious cultivation of Neophyten in free nature e.g. for purposes of the garden and landscape gardening or for enriching the Flora (Ansalbung), is subject to approval in Germany (§ 41 of the federal nature protection law), in order to prevent a Florenverfälschung. In view ofthe fact that “free nature” begins often directly behind the Gartenzaun, this law is difficult on the one hand by SE to use. It may appear as paradoxical, even if on the other hand problematic Neophyten to country and forest-economical use on large surfaces in “free nature” without onesuch permission to be cultivated may do.

It becomes disputed from farmers, Naturschützern , scientists and Fischern, in what respect a Neophyt is to be judged as invasiv. After the aspect of invasion biology ecological systems are usually insatiated, i.e., them are able to take up further kinds. Neophytenare considered as problematic, if they are able the following criteria to fulfill:

  • they endanger or displace native kinds
  • them change domestic ecological systems
  • them cause economic damage
  • them endanger the health of humans

in addition, to what extent a Neophyt fulfills one of these criteria, it can be disputedand depends on the respective situation locally. The usual Robinie for example changes domestic ecological systems, because it is different than most native tree species able to bind nitrogen in the soil. At certain locations such as lean lawns and displaces it endangers thereby native kinds.On the other hand it is as durable road-side tree in cities an unproblematic Neophyt.

fight against invasiven Neophyten

around the domestic Flora to e.g. receive or around damage. for the agriculture to reduce, some Neophyten is fought. That can take place by means of removal of the plants orby the introduction of parasits, which strike the appropriate plant type in their homeland. The latters can provide however as Neozoen again for new problems. In addition fight measures are to be limited to problematic/invasive Neophyten, there the change of nature (e.g. by the Zuwanderung of new kinds) partis from their constant change and it no firm “original state” gives, which overall one should keep. Regarding the measures against selected kinds it gives likewise partially. different opinions. Thus most experts hold a surface covering fight because of the small chances of success with many kinds as withGiant Bärenklau for senseless. Are more success-promising well thought out, put on at longer term and the specific biology of the kind and the situation locally considering measures.

examples

not or little problematic Neophyten in Germany

does not establish (cultivated plants, which occasionally verwildern):

  • Potato (Solanum tuberosum); Homeland: South America
  • tomato (Solanum lycopersicum); Homeland: Central or South America

establishes:

problematic ones (= invasive) Neophyten in Germany

  • giant Bärenklau or also Herkulesstaude (Heracleum mantegazzianum); Homeland: Caucasus
  • Japanese pilotthink-emergency-smell (Fallopia japonica); Homeland: China, Korea, Japan
  • Sachalin Staudenknöterich (Fallopia sachalinensis); Homeland: Sachalin, Kurilen, north Japan
  • hybrid Knöterich (Fallopia x bohemica); Hybrid zw. the Japanese pilotthink-emergency-smell and the Sachalin Staudenknöterich
  • Drüsiges jumping herb or also Indian jumping herb (Impatiens glandulifera); Homeland: Himalaja
  • Canadian gold rod (Solidago canadensis) and late gold rod (Solidago gigantea), homeland: North America
  • Late grape/cluster cherry or lateflowering grape/cluster cherry (Prunus serotina); Homeland: North America
  • usual Robinie or wrong acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia); Homeland: North America
  • vinegar tree (Rhus type Croatian news agency); Homeland: North America
  • Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus); Homeland: central and eastern North America
  • culture bilberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum); from North American parents bred cultivated plant without natural homeland
  • American stinking animal Kohl (Lysichiton americanus); Homeland: Northeast North America
  • God tree (Ailanthus altissima)
  • Canadian one and Schmalblättrige Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii), homeland: North America
  • Beifussblättriges grape/cluster herb or Ambrosia (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), homeland: North America

research history

also again introduced plants is occupied since that 19. Century the Adventivfloristik in such a way specified, which itself in their first phase particularly with the purposeful information collection over so far unknown kinds busy. In a second phase one tried,to systematize these kinds. This phase was substantially coined/shaped by Swiss Botaniker Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. Charles Darwin had already recognized however that the kind decrease was to due to oceanic islands to biological invaders. Similar feared German Botaniker and Naturschützer as Hermann Löns in thatsecond half 19. Century, as which Canadian Canadian waterweed spread in Central Europe strongly and one saw therein an endangerment more domestic ( = more indigener) to water organisms. With the ecological consequences and their causes concerns oneself one however in particular for the 1950er years, whereby the amount of thatpublished scientific work since 1985 strongly increased. Beside the Habitatvernichtung sees one today in invasiven kinds world-wide the strongest threat of the bio diversity, primarily on for a long time isolated islands with their very in-towards-constant Flora and fauna. In communicating Europe with its long land use history that is mainTo evaluate hazard potential smaller.

literature

  • Ingo Kowarik: Biological invasions: Neophyten and Neozoen in Central Europe. Stuttgart: Ulmer 2002, 380 S. ISBN 3800139243
  • Hartmann, E.; Schuldes, H.; Kübler, R.; Konold, W. (1995) [Hrsg.]: Neophyten - biology, spreading and control of selected kinds.- Landsberg(ecomed), 302 S.
  • Böcker, R.; Gebhardt, H.; Konold, W., Schmidt Fischer, S. (1995) [Hrsg.]: Extraneous plant types. - Landsberg (ecomed), 215 S.
  • www.tu-berlin.de/fb7/ioeb/oekosystemkunde/ fight against Neophyten in Lower Saxony: Causes, extent, success (pdf document)
  • fight the Neophytismus. Middle course 3. Jg., No. 36 (1994) S. 3-4.
  • Bernhard Kegel: ThoseAnt as Tramp. Heyne 2001 ISBN 3-453-18439-4
  • Mario Ludwig, Harald Gebhard, harsh ore W. Ludwig, Susanne Schmidt Fischer; New animals & plants in domestic nature - immigrating kinds recognize and intend, BLV publishing house company Munich, ISBN 3-405-15776-5
  • the DNL on-line literature data base of the federal office for nature protection.
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