|system of government||parliamentary monarchy|
|king||Gyanendra beer Bikram Shah Dev|
|head of the government||Girija Prasad Koirala|
|surface||147,181 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||27.676.547 (conditions July 2005)|
|population density||of 188 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||219$|
|time belt||UTC +5: 45|
|National anthem||race to Triya Gaan|
|national holiday||7. Juli|
Table of contents
the Kingdom of Nepal is in Asia and extends of 26. to 30. northern latitude and of 80. to 88. and covers eastern degree of longitude a surface of140,797 km ², about which about 136,800 km are ² land surface, remaining 4,000 km ² inland waters. Nepal lies between the two most densely populated states of the earth:
The autonomous region Tibet of the People's Republic of China in the north and India in the south, the west and the east.Nepal borders on the Indian Federal States Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West bengal and the annektierte Kingdom of Sikkim (from west to east).
In the north a large part of the Himalaja is appropriate - mountains, among other things the Mount Everest, its for summitswith 8.850 m over NN represents the highest point of the earth, and sieved further of the ten highest mountains of the earth. The deepest point against it is on straight once 70 m and. NN, with Kencha Kalan in the south of Nepal. Nevertheless is For Nepal still on the average high-altitude country in the world, over 40% of the country are appropriate over 3.000 M.
of the Himalaya is earth-history with approx. 70 millions Years a relatively young Faltengebirge, therefore it is lessby erosion rounded off and smoothed as other mountains. Several rivers, all finally flowing into course, dug deep ravines by the mountains, are those potash of the Gandaki with approx. 6,000 m the deepest of the earth.
This entire area is , however popular destination for Trekkingtouristen and mountain climbers hardly settles. The only raw materials in the mountains are quartz, slate, small quantities of copper, cobalt and iron ore. However on important, not yet discovered raw material occurrences one counts, except thatabove also also gold, coal and lead. Their use might delay itself due to bad accesibility also still further. In the Himalaya are since the year 1979 approx. 1000 humans in climbing accidents and because of cold weather died.
Arrangement of the country
natural-space can the Terai, the central country and the high mountain region be arranged to Nepal into three main regions. To this arrangement also socio-economic, cultural and ethnical arrangements of the country are bound.
the Terai, with heights of70 to 150 m NN, forms the Nepalese part of the course lowlandses. In the past 50 years to an important economic and residential area developed. Although the Terai constitutes only 14% of the national surface, live there 47% thatPopulation. Fruitful ones, few erosion-endangered soils and all year round frost-protected climate as well as good irrigation possibilities make the Terai the agriculturally most valuable region.
In this level also almost all industrial settlements are outside of the Kathmandu valley. By the Terai the Mahendra Highway runs as only road,the one east west connection makes possible. Nine inland airports are in the Terai and offer a direct flight binding with Kathmandu.
The central country
the Siwaliks and the Mahabharat - chain form the transition from Terai to the central country, which reaches heights to about 3,000 m NN.The central country has a very strongly structured relief. Factors such as Mikroklima, soils and Geomorphologie vary in the central country on small area, so that also the conditions for the settlement and agriculture vary strongly. The central country places the old-settled heartland of Nepal nevertheless. Here 45% of the population on 30% of the national surface live.
By the high relief energy the central country is high-grade traffic hostile. Only the Kathmandu and the Pokhara valley, as well as the localities Jiri, Mugling and Dumre have a road binding.Kathmandu has the only international airport of the country. Beyond that three inland airports are in the central country.
of the high mountain region concentrate the high mountain region Mount Everest in the valley surfaces. Summer settlements with pastoral industry are enough to 5,000 m NN. Thoseextremely high relief energy and the high monsoon precipitation (over 5,000 mm) at the south slopes contribute to the soil erosion and make agriculture difficult.
The north sides of the main chain lying in the rain shade receive however very little precipitation (under 200 mm), so that agriculture hardlyis possible. Forest and wood culture are important support legs of the rural Subsistenzwirtschaft in the mountains. Altogether the high mountain region is food deficit area. The most important external source of income is the tourism. Roads are missing. Only four inland airports connect the mountain region with the external world.
As consequencerunning is to foot, as also in the central country, most usual kind of progressive movement. Tendentious the high mountain regions are more badly developed than the remainder of the country. In particular in the western parts of the high mountain regions the human development index is clearly smaller than in the state average.It deviates by 25% from the average.
Nepal is ethnical and cultural a minority mosaic. During a census in the year 2001 became over 100 different ethnical groups and box as well as more than 70different languages and dialects counted. This complex structure is besides extremely dynamically.
Dialects will fall to languages and languages on the stage of dialects back. Box borders are permeable. Associatednesses to Ethnien and box overlap or hang of the perspectivethe viewer off.
the ethnical mosaic of Nepal exists mainly out indo arischen and tibeto Burmese groups of peoples. Many of the groups of peoples are descendants of refugees, who had withdrawn themselves once to Nepal.
The following table is an overview of the six largestSubpopulations in Nepal give.
|Ethnie||per cent at the total population||original homeland in Nepal||ethnical group|
|of Chhetri||12.8%||in the entire country||indo arisch and tibeto Burmese|
|Hill Bahun||12.7%||in the entire country||indo arisch|
|Magar||7.1%||centralwestern hill country||tibeto Burmese|
|Tharu||6.8%||western Terai||probably tibeto Burmese, indo arisch and dravidisch|
|Tamang||5.6%||Kathmandutal and central hill country||tibeto Burmese|
|Yadav||3.9%||Kathmandutal||probably indo arisch|
in addition are the groups of peoples of the Gurung, the Sherpa, the Limbuand the Rai worth mentioning.
49% of the total population are according to the census of 2001 Nepali - native speakers. Further important languages are: Maithili (12.4%), Bhojpuri (7.6%), Tharu (5.9%), Tamang (5.2%), Newar (3.6%) and Magar (3,4 %).
of the Census proves 90% of the population as a member of the Hinduismus. This number should be regarded however with caution; the actual number of the Hindus becomes on approximately 70% estimated, sometimes also stilllower. These differences therefore agitate that there are some groups of peoples, which see the Hinduismus as their religion it however more in a animistischen or buddhistischen form exercises. They are called among experts also Rösniner. The borders between this Unterreligionen are it blurred in such a manner that no exact numbers can be indicated. But the Hinduismus is without question the prominent religion in Nepal. In addition Nepal is the only country, in which the Hinduismus is the state religion.
Further are zirka 11% of the populationas Buddhisten proven (in particular also in the Kingdom of Mustang). In addition there are significant minorities of Muslims, Kirant and smaller animistischen faith directions.
Those approx. 500,000 Christians in Nepal are sometimes exposed to disadvantages due to their religion, yet they know their faithpublicly live. There are some Christian schools, particularly in the Kathmandu valley, which are visited due to their quality also Hindus or other religion trailers.
Nepalese box nature
the Nepalese box nature develops parallel to the Indian. Of the historical Buddha Siddharta Gautama (geb. 563 v. Chr.) is well-known that he a Kshatriya - caste belonged. The influence from India grew during the Guptareiches (320 n. Chr. - 500 n. Chr.); Nepal was considered as “neighbour kingdom”, was however liable to taxation under Samudragupta.
Inlater centuries (starting from 10. Jh.) emigrated many Hindus (under it many Brahmanen) voluntarily from India to Nepal, in order to flee before the Arab invasion and islamizing exerted by it, in particular the northeast of India. The escape served the maintenancetheir culture and the ritual purity. The Nepalese box nature changed itself in the course of the time and is also today still changes subjected.
In the following the different box systems are schematically in the comparison represented.
The classical hinduistische model of the box hierarchy
the NepaleseBox system from the view of a Bahun or a Chhetri
that in Nepal, how also in most other states with box systems, the caste of the untouchable ones is actually one of the supports of the society leaves itself easily by the fact to recognize that alone the Kami,the Damai and the Sarki as largest groups of the untouchable ones, already more than 7% of the total population constitute.
The box system from view of the Newar
special the hinduistischen Newar have an own box system, which includes only the inhabitants of the Kathmandutals. ThisSystem was taken over partly also by the buddhistischen Newar. The box nature is generally pronounced in the egalitären new air municipality weakly and could succeed there never as strongly as at other groups of peoples.
Mehrheitliche view on the box nature
this is ofthe majority (liberal Bahun and Chhetri, ethnical groups without own box nature) religious-ritual view accepted:
chokho jaat (pure box)/pani nachalne jaat (untouchable box)
in practice is sometimes also bound the box affiliation to the prosperity of the population, i.e.,that poorer inhabitants, rather the untouchable, rich rather the upper box are assigned. That leads to the fact that European foreigners, who would have to actually be untouchable ones as not Hindus are counted usually to the upper class and only in actions of strong ritual importance asUntouchable one to be treated. In addition for example all belong to those actions, which have to do with water and the preparation from rice to.
the population of Nepal is until today mostly rurally and rural coined/shaped;the portion of the city dwellers is world-wide with 14% of the total population still one the smallest. The urbanization rose however in the last years strongly, the growth rates within this range is about 3,5% per year orstill more highly.
Nepal was governed to beginning of the 1990er years to down on the local level central. In the context of the democratization and decentralization the municipalities became into the Selbstständigkeit to dismiss in several thrusts. “Municipal rights” with the title “Nagarpalika” becomethus of the government gives.
Up to Kathmandu it is more or less missing in all cities to resources and the autonomy can therefore more badly than being quite converted. Beyond that there is still strong centralistic in the LandesverwaltungStructures, which contradict the local autonomy desired.
Depending upon size and financial power of the municipality there are 3 different degrees of the autonomy. To most authority the Maha Nagarpalika receives, of this category gives it in Nepal only one city: Kathmandu.The next stage is the UP-Maha-Nagarpalika, like z. B.Lalitpur or Pokhara; generally speaking there are those four. The lowest of the three stages is the Nagarpalika.
Further conditions for the Selbstständigkeit, like z. B. determined infrastructural mechanisms or those Road binding, are not given in some cases, at least all year round. The fact that these municipalities became to dismiss into the independence has regional planning and political reasons. In this light regarded the statistic urban population of Nepal can be shortened confidently around approximately one half million,in order to make itself a picture of the actual degree of the urbanization of the country.
The three largest cities lie in the mountains, but the majority of the municipalities is in the Terai. With the remaining municipalities in the mountains it actsoften around smallest mountain small towns, which come by consultation with surrounding villages approximately on 20.000 inhabitants. The fact that it does not concern at a number of them urban centers shows also its comparatively small growth rate.
Apart from the high migration from the land rate Nepal registersa shift of emphasis of the population of the mountains into the Terai. In this flat country strip along the border to India lives already more than half of the national population, there develops at present also most new cities.
Largest population center was and is after howbefore the Kathmandutal with the double city Kathmandu/Lalitpur (Patan), the smaller neighbour city Bhaktapur and unite small cities such as Madyapur Timi and Kirtipur. To this population centre still some smaller cities belong in the proximity of the valley, i.e. Banepa, Dhulikhel and Panauti. The Kathmandutal is to a large extent zersiedelt and the complete, nearly always unscheduled collection as settlement surface is to be foreseen. The area around Kathmandu has today a total population of somewhat more than 1.5 million.
The second larger population center in the mountains, that likewise, is the Pokharatal with the cities Pokhara and Lekhnath, whose total population already exceeded the 200.000-Einwohner-Grenze, has above average growth rates. Otherwise there are some smaller considerable cities in the mountain regions scattered only (from east to west):
Ilam, Dhankuta, Bhimeswar, Tansen, Putalibazar, Tribhuvannagar, Tulsipur, beer agar and Dipayal Silgadhi. Beyond that the remaining larger cities of the country are in the Terai (from east to west): Mechinagar, Biratnagar, Dharan, Itahari, Rajbiraj, Triyuga, Janakpur, Birganj, Hetauda, Bharatpur, Ramgram, Butwal, Siddharthanagar, Nepalganj, Gulariya, Tikapur, Dhangadhi as well as Mahendranagar.
One will look for most of the listed cities in vain in an Atlas. Evengood and largefull-scale Atlases limp hopelessly behind the development ago; most of these places are missing on the maps and the names and sizes of the represented places are wrongly indicated, up to Kathmandu.
Pokhara, Biratnagar or Birganj are even in newestEditions mostly as villages represented, is z. B. Pokhara to the second largest city outside of the Kathmandutales is promoted. The old king city Bakhtapur against it is often equivalently by Kathmandu and Lalitpur characterized as large city on maps. Also in statistic yearbooks one findsoften long overhauled data to the cities of Nepal.
The changes of name of some cities in recent time are to be attributed to the fact that the regional administrative body with the incorporation received a new name. Prominent examples of it are the more well-known place Gorkha, the municipality are called nowofficially Prithivinarayan, or the old king city Patan with Kathmandu, which is called Lalitpur official. The old names are however further common.
See also: List of the cities in Nepal
- 96,000 students
- 3.47 students ever 1000 of inhabitants
- Expenditures for education: 224.732.300$
- Expenditures for education for each inhabitants: 8$
- illiterate rate: 54.8%
in the early period were the valley, in which the today's capital Kathmandu lies, a large mountain lake. After this had disappeared by an earthquake, numerous humans from surrounding areas immigratedand united to the mixing people of the so-called Newar. The valley was fruitful and it could agriculture simply be operated, which led to the development of large talents in the handicraft in the population, who admits in completely Eastern Asia was.
Thus developedin 7. Century in the Empire of China of Nepalesen from the Kathmandutal developed Pagoden - architectural style, which spread in Japan. Nepalese master craftsmen were far away well-known and in demand. At this time also the Buddhismus began to spread in Nepal,could however never intersperse itself opposite the Hinduismus.
After Nepal had confessed long time under Indian Rajputenherrschaft, it succeeded in 14. Century finally the Newar Jayasthiti Malla to unite and release the valley. Its grandchild, Yakasha Malla,the rule area could expand later still further and provide in such a way in its kingdom for large prosperity. Its four sons however divided the country again under itself and weakened it in such a way in all interests.
By this attenuation almost war-unable become,Nepal was taken 1786 by the Gurkhakönig Prithvia Narayan. Its rule was recognized after two years a persisting military conflict with the British from 1814 to 1816, with which the Gurkhaheer was struck, with some restrictions.
Already 1846 brought itselfthen Jang Bahadur Rana by a bloody massacre to power and introduced a new system of government, according to which the office of the Prime Minister hereditary was. The king (starting from 1911 Prithivias son Tribhuvan) kept only nominal his power, which was a respective Prime Ministerexclusive ruler. The course of the ruler pointed already to this time sign of the isolation of the neighboring countries, only opposite the British was always friendly the policy, even if stressed dissociates.
In the year 1914 the Prime Minister at that time Chandra placed shame-shears the Britisher, still before the official declaration of war to the First World War, about 200,000 Gurkhasoldaten to the order, like also later in the English Afghan war and in the Second World War, and made therebyits own status as „independent allying “clearly. Thus Nepal diplomatic relations was enormously revalued and the complete sovereignty was guaranteed, with which it was entitled to Nepal from British side to take up diplomatic contact with other states about which however first only zögerlich use madebecame.
The formal acknowledgment the Ranas however, for example by India, was missing further. Also for this reason, mainly however on pressure of returned war veterans, announced prime ministers Padma shame-shear 1948 a new, looser condition, however it became before their introductionfrom the military under Mohan shame-shear fallen. 1950 went to king Tribhuvan, which on re-establishment of its hoped, to India, at whose border unrests broke out shortly thereafter.
The Ranas kept militarily first the upper hand to prevent but over that China the politicalIndia uses, intervened unrests in Nepal for the penetration of its requirements for annex ion and forced the Ranas and the king to the compromise to introduce again a constitutional monarchy. Both the Ranas as well as the oppositional Nepali Congress received a part of power inParliament.
The Nepali Congress splintered however fast into smaller parties, which struggled for power. Political unrests were still strengthened in the following years by inundations and hunger emergencies, so that king Tribhuvan 1952 proclaimed the state of emergency and attained diktatorische however power.After the death of its father 1955 Mahendra beer Bikram Shah Dev took over power. This was forced 1959 by the Nepali Congress to hold free parliamentary elections which the Congress won clearly.
The new prime minister Koirala took itself ambitious reforms for fight thatBackwardness of Nepal forwards, even if now a large part of the Staatsmacht the king were reserved. But it did not have much success, there already 1960 the king the autocracy in form historically of a singular Hindu - monarchy again introduced andall political parties strictly forbade.
Two years later the condition was extended by the so-called Panchayat system, which a kind of village autonomy by local of advice, which Panchayats introduced. The parliament was further selected, 112 delegates became direct by the peopleselected and 28 further appointed by the king. This parliament selected again the Prime Minister.
The king was formally now only point of the executive, could however with his right of veto all relevant decisions alone make. Its foreign policy was main on Indiaand China arranged, and it reached economic aid at a value of 7,5 millions from Peking £. Also the son of king Mahendra, cried Panch Maharajadhiraja Birendra beer Bikram Shah Dev, briefly to king Birendra, changed nothing in the condition, althoughone first larger openness in relation to the western democracy of him promised oneself.
In the following years stagnation did not prevail forwards, except the development of the infrastructure and the communication nature gave it special progress. The economic and social situation continued to worsen,and Nepal remained dependent on extensive development assistance, to a large extent from Germany. demonstrators a national tuning forced 1980 over the Panchayat system, this however with 55% of the voices were scarcely confirmed.
See also: List of the kings of Nepal
in Nepal prevail a large prosperity gap between the city and Landbevölkerung. More than half of the 24 million Nepalesen are illiterates. 70% of the population are not recognized of the brahmanisch controlled box system as equivalent.
The wide-spread Corruption of the police authorities and the public administration contributes to be silent in addition that the population does not set confidence into the existing government and no assistance expected, completely of the fact that the legal means, like the civil law of 1963, all formsfrom discrimination under punishment places, against box discrimination into the everyday life reach.
The World Bank and the asiatic development bank had already several times pressure for the government in Kathmandu, in order to receive account over the expenditures for development programs to the Armutslinderung, however are enoughTime without success.
Only 1987 explained itself king Birendra, on pressure from India, to reforms ready. The introduction of a new condition still retarded up to 9. November 1990; only solid pressure from several countries, particularly India, which itsBorders closed, and mass demonstrations of the united opposition parties, consisting of an alliance of the communist party of Nepal and the congress party, showed success. With these demonstrations the king let shoot at humans.
The first democratic elections found to 12. May 1991 instead of.Only points of criticism of some parties at the new condition are the possible state of emergency regulation by the king, who must be confirmed only after three months by the house of representatives, and which retention of the term „Hindu kingdom “. Within shortest time the new political elite was inthe eyes of the population however still more corrupt than the old government. This is connected however also with the higher visibility of corruption by an open system with a relatively free, engaged and critical press, during the Panchayat system of stronger censorshipwas suspended.
King Birendra died at the 1. Crown Prince Dipendra , massacres (official historiography) committed June 2001 with one of its son. At the same time the son also his nut/mother, some brothers and sisters shot itself and then. Before it after three days its, He succumbed to injuries still to the successor was crowned. Finally beer-finalraces brother became Gyanendra king of Nepal. This, a businessman, who is involved in very many large companies of Nepal, trebled its royal Apanage on converted 4.5 million euro. King Birendra, despite his contradictoryness, in the country had been very popular.
The official announcements to the act course of events find therefore little faith; finally rubbing out a whole king family in Nepal has tradition. Interestingly enough became to today the Konterfeis of the dead pair of kings only into thatfew offices and still less in the homes of the Nepalis by those of the new pair of kings replaces.
since 1996 is the communist party of Nepal (Maoists) in a civil war against the monarchy and the hinduistischeClass system. The insurgent ones became after that 11. September 2001 as terrorists branded. Within the next six months died more humans in the conflict relating to domestic affairs, than in the six years before.
To 22. May 2002 was dissolved the parliament, prime minister Deubathe mandate of the selected autonomy organs let run out. To 4. October 2002 dismissed king Gyanendra its prime minister because of “inability”. At the 11. October 2002 was appointed a new interim government. The large parties numerical control, CPN-UML and parts of the RPP leaned however a cooperationin the new government off, since the democratic authentication was missing.
The new prime minister Chand (RPP) promised to terminate the confrontation with the Maoists. A compromise is however not in view. The government leans a change of the political structuresstrictly off ().
The information about the fights between police, army and Maoists is very one-sided, since there is nationally controlled information politics in the country actually only. Only few media like for example the magazine “Himal” report criticallyand informatively over both sides. It is often spoken of an alleged brutality of the Maoists; indeed they hardly know a pitying against the army and against the police completely unloved in the people corrupt and. The latters are approximately with the procedurethe Maoists also zimperlich and does not let pay for on suspicion civilians as sympathizers and supporters or “disappear”.
Two thirds of the dead ones do not go in vain on the account from army and police. Only few western journalists have so far from the Maoistsreported. It is obvious, if one moves in the country, that the Maoists finds a large support in the population, so that they can move like the “fish in the water”. The Maoists represented in the meantime a crucial power factor in the country.They controlled end of 2002 55 of the 75 districts of Nepal.
With the guerrilla war so far altogether more than 9,000 humans died, some sources call 13,000 victims. Since that 18. Has August 2004 the Maoists several times even the capital for someDays completely of the external world cut off or important cross-country connections interrupted. The fights increased since August 2003 again. After the failure of the peace discussions and the end of the armistice it gave again several hundred dead ones (sources: , ).Tourists can move however relatively freely and surely, since they represent one of the most important sources of income of the country, to become it treated by all sides politely. Officially only a tourist was killed indirectly by a bomb explosion.
„Unit in the fight against thatTerrorism “is now the slogan of the government.Colin Powell visited the kingdom in January 2004 and promised assistance. The Nepalese government is interested in weapons and armaments (). At the 1. February 2005 brought king Gyanendra back to movement inpolitical play. It imposed the state of emergency and dismissed the entire government. Prime ministers shear Bahadur Deuba and other cabinet members under house arrest were placed.
Gyanendra accused of Deuba to have failed there it no agreement with the Maoists considering the next electionsto obtain could. Now it wants to reach through hard. Gyanendra promised to provide within three years for right and order in the country and insert the democracy again, but the Maoists and a large part of the population fear that he its powerwill not so fast again deliver. Deuba said, the actions of the king hurt the condition and is directed against the democracy. Both the UN as well as most important allied Nepal, India, the USA and England have the behavior of the kingcriticized. These have as and. A. also Germany and France meanwhile their Ambassadors from Kathmandu taken off.
Since that 7. April 2006 prevailed generally speaking to country of all sieved in the former, meanwhile parliament represented parties, dissolved by the alliance, by the kingmore proclaimed and general strike carried by far parts of the people.
After more than two weeks of the general strike with daily Nepal-far demonstrations of hundredthousands humans the indications mehrten themselves that the days king might be counted. The extremely brutal procedure thatPolice against the peaceful demonstrators had cost meanwhile at least 13 of them the life, hundreds had been hurt and thousands arrested.
By to large pro width unit test and on international pressure, particularly by India, king Gyanendra gave to 21. April 2006it admits of a television speech to the nation that the executive force is put by it now again into the hands of the people. The filter party alliance was expressly authorized to determine the next Prime Minister. This leaned the offer of the king as too little to a large extentoff: it demanded further the re-instatement 2002 of the dissolved parliament, the summoning of a condition-giving meeting and the restriction of the absolutist rule of the king and called to further mass demonstrations.
On pressure of also monarchistic circles as well as international pressure - among other things were afraidthe USA a stabilization of the Maoists, which controlled in the meantime almost 80% Nepal - king Gyanendra finally saw itself to 24. April 2006 forced to explain in a television speech the direct re-instatement of the former parliament. The opposition has thereupon the general strikefor terminated explains.
in the Nepalese parliament are at present seven parties represented. Strongest group is the social-democratic Nepali Congress with 111 seats. It was created 1950 and was despite some splitting with all parliamentary elections a strongest party. Second-strongest one Kraft is the Maoistic Nepala Kamyunishta portion (Ekikrit Marksbadi RA Leninbadi), to a German communist party of Nepal (united Marxists/Leninists), with 71 seats. These developed 1991 from a union of other communist parties. In the 90's they formed together with the NepaliCongress the government. The Rashtriya Prajatantra party (RPP) is a nationalistic and a restaurant liberal a party, which occurs for a kostitutionelle monarchy. They received 1999 11 seats with the parliamentary election. In the years after there were some splitting. Those received five seatsनेपालसदभावनापार्ती (Nepal Sadbhavana party), which is likewise monarchistic. After the death of the party founder Gajendra Narayan Singh at the beginning of of 2003 the party split. The Janamorcha Nepal (people front Nepal), the 2002 from the fusion of the national people front (RashtriyaJana Morcha, 5 seats) with संयुक्तजनमोर्चानेपाल (Sanyukta Janamorcha Nepal/combined people front Nepal, 1 seat) developed is the parliamentary arm of the communist party Nepal (Ekata Kendra Masal). Nepal Majdoor Kisan party (Nepal Workers and Peasants party) is likewise Maoistic.They place a parliament delegate. Their center lies in Bhaktapur. All parties form a common alliance around a democratization of Nepal to reach. The Nepala Kamyunishta portion (Maobadi) is strictly anti-parliamentary a /Kommunistische party of Nepal (Maoists). It split 1994 of the kpNepal (Marxists/Leninists combined) off. They appoint yourself to Mao Zedong and the Peruvian Guerillaorganisation „bright path “(Sendero Luminoso). Their goals are the abolishment of the box system and the monarchy. In their ranks many women fight - the leadership level to thatMaoists predominantly consists of Brahmanen.
human right politics
the discrimination and exploitation of minorities, lower box and box lots, women and children are still, despite protection common and also by the condition, far a reason for the war something similarSituation in the country. For international protests - among other things through amnesty internationally - lately the procedure by force of the Nepalese police provided against gays and Transvestiten.
major item: Administrative regions of Nepal
80% of the Nepalese population work in the agriculture, thus in the so-called primary sector. Such a high value is typically economical for a developing country, since the industrielle and the service sector and require also bases are still badly developed, thosebackward countries often do not offer. The earned income lies with 208 euro per person and year altogether very low, compared to other developing countries however relatively highly.
Despite the high occupation of the population in the agriculture its portion of the gross national product amounts toonly 41%, since in this industry not very much is earned. For example to rice, which occupy more than 55% of the agricultural effective area, in addition potatoes, corn is cultivated and other grain places. 80% of the export goods of Nepal are agricultural products.
The surface useful for the agriculture shrinks however year by year due to different outside influences like the monsoon and the simultaneous eradication of the forests, which cause together a strong erosion. Production is not yet endangered, there neverthelessit in the Terai still large unused or not used surfaces gives.
17% the Nepalesen are busy nevertheless in the industry and produce there 22% of the gross income. The industriellen conditions particularly are in Nepal due to the bad infrastructure andthe high danger of natural catastrophes conceivablly badly; in addition political reforms are for the support of investor straight only in the initial phase. Among these reforms rank for example the lowering of the taxes for industrial enterprises.
Only 3% the inhabitant work in , There however whole 37% of the gross domestic product earn service sector. The reasons for the few jobs within this range are the badly trained secondary sector and only the foreign exchange existing to small extent.
With 50 millions Euro brings that Tourism about 30% of the total foreign exchange. Each year travel about 300,000 humans to Nepal. Many Sherpas earn a good salary by tourist guidance in the mountains. The second-strongest Devisenbringer is with 25 millions Euro the export of Tibetan carpets, which throughthe UN and Swiss Aid are promoted. A not small part comes also from development assistance by other states.
On about 26 million Nepalesen nearly 40% live that below the poverty border, the average monthly income amount to 18 euro. ThatGross national product growth lies with 2,6% per year below the very high population growth, the inflation rate amounts to 2.1% only little. The population density varies between 25 inhabitants per square kilometer in the high mountains and 1,500 inhabitants per square kilometer in Kathmandu.
- Winter, Johannes & Becker, Matthias:Tourism and internal conflicts in Nepal - political ecology as conceptional basis of evaluation. In: Fist, H., Reeh, T. and Gee, K. (Hrsg.): Spare time and tourism - conceptional ones and regional studies from culture-geographical perspective. Goettingen: Duehrkohp& Radicke, 2004. S. 161-182 (=ZELTForum - Göttinger writings to landscape interpretation and tourism, 2).ISBN 3-9809276-1-X.
- Aschoff, Jürgen C.: Tibet, Nepal and the culture area of the Himalaya (with Ladakh, Sikkim and Bhutan). Commentated bibliography of German-language books from 1627 to 1990(Essays up to the year 1900). Garuda publishing house, Dietikon/Switzerland 1992.ISBN 3-906139-07-7. Also in the Internet.
- Thomas Benedikter: War in the Himalaya. Background the Maoisten rebellion in Nepal. Political regional studies. LIT publishing house 2003, ISBN 3-8258-6895-8
- Bista, Dor Bahadur: Fatalism and development. Nepal' sStruggle for Modernization. Patna (1991)
- Dixit, Kanak Mani; Ramachandaran, Shastri [editor]: State OF Nepal. Kathmandu (2002)
Web on the left of
- NepalNews.com - Nepalese news page in English language
- information of the German Foreign Office
- Asiatic human right commission - human rights in Nepal (English)
- the “untouchable ones” of Nepal. More and more Dalits close the Maoistic rebels of the Himalaya kingdom on with suedasien.info (5. January 2004)
- http://www.mope.gov.np Ministry OF Polulation and Environment(English ones)
|Commons: Nepal - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
47 asiatic UN member states:
Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | China, People's Republic | Georgien | India | Indonesia | Iraq | Iran | Israel | Japan | Yemen | Jordanian one | Kambodscha | Kazakhstan | Qatar | Kirgisistan | Kuwait | Laos | Lebanon | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Myanmar | Nepal | North Korea | Oman | Osttimor | Pakistan | The Philippines | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | Sri Lanka | South Korea | Syria | Tadschikistan | Thailand | Turkmenistan | Turkey | Usbekistan | Combined Arab emirates | Viet Nam | Cyprus
other one, disputed states:
Abchasien | Republic of Bergkarabach | Palestine | Südossetien | China, Republic of (Taiwan) | Turkish Republic of north Cyprus
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
Hong Kong | Macao | Tschagos archipelago | Tibet
coordinates: 26°-30° N, 80°-88° O