|of these articles is occupied with the Roman emperor; for other meanings see Nero (term clarifying).|
15. December 37-9. June 68
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (* 15. December 37 n. Chr.; † 9. June 68 n. Chr.) was from 54 to 68 emperors of the Roman realm and artists. He was a last representative of the julisch claudischen dynasty.
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Its as a very beautifully valid nut/mother was for its ambition, pride and courage, in addition, for their craving for power admitted and always pursued the goal, their sonto make the Imperator. Therefore it provided for outstanding training Neros in literature, latin and mathematics. After completion it fetched its twelfth back of Lebensjahres Seneca from banishing, much already at that time admitted philosophers, which the life Neroscrucially coined/shaped. The young Nero however was interested particularly in art and fled several times in the theatre.
ascent to the ruler
after their man at water craze had deceased, married Agrippina the ruler Claudius, to 25. February 50 Lucius adopted. This received the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus Caesar and stood by influencing control of its nut/mother shortly thereafter already in the first place in the succession to the throne.
Later Agrippina a marriage between their 16-jährigen threaded three yearsSon and the 12-jährigen Octavia . Possibly it let even poison Claudius in the year 54, so that Nero could take over faster the rule.
Nero, which was interested substantially more in art and music, was no talented statesman and politician. The first years of its rule began however promiseful, particularly there the militarily efficient Sextus Afranius Burrus and Seneca the Regierungsgeschäfte steered to a large extent; later Burrus than Prätorianerpräfekt was replaced to that by Tigellinus, in the sources thancharakterlich spoiled one describes.
In addition, it came to a rebellion into Britannien and to the Jewish rebellion, whereupon Nero sent the later emperor Vespasian after Judäa, which successfully fought there. With the Parthern it came to the conflict concerning Armenia; only a contract in the year 63 brought something relaxation. Fiscal charges increased enormously and the putting ions, which Nero neglected, was in a desolate condition.
Nero promoted the natural sciences, geography and the trade in its reign,completely particularly however art and culture, whereby it was connected for all Greek one and understood themselves consciously as Philhellene. It organized an expedition for the discovery of the source of Nile, which failed however, and excavations in Karthago. It held itself fora talentierten singer, poet and a Lyraspieler.
From Nero the sentence does not nevertheless only come „if I to write could! “, which he is to have said, when he had to sign its first death sentence. He probably rather condemned most criminals to the hard labour, while the aristocracy had the possibility for the Suizid.
Neros relationship to the senate was very bad, particularly since it came later to numerous death sentences - without process - against senators. After the fire of Rome the opposition increased ever more,several conspiracy were uncovered. Well-known victims of the following cleanings were Seneca and Lucan. Also Neros prodigality pushed increasingly on refusal.
Nero are charged numerous crimes, then it is to have poisoned its stepbrother Britannicus. There thesesince its childhood at drop craze and was physically weak, is itself the historiography however already suffered over the truth content of this history not united. It is thus also possible that Britannicus at an accumulation died.
Agrippina lost gradually control of its son. She tried therefore by plots to fall conspiracy and bribery Nero. Nero, which was afraid its nut/mother, used therefore a commission of inquiry, to which also Seneca belonged, which Agrippina howevernothing to prove could. On urge Senecas and with the aid one its teacher tried he to let Agrippina with a ship sink which failed however, since it succeeded to it to swim ashore. To 23. It left it to March 59 intheir mansion murder. Nero let also numerous high treason processes accomplish and drew the fortune of the executing (which however a usual practice was), with which itself its increased at the same time.
Nero fell in love 62 with Poppaea Sabina. This requested it, Octaviato offend. Finally the emperor of its childless wife let a relationship with slaves attach and banished her, in order to marry twelve days later its loving. It came thereupon to heavy unrests and rebellions. Therefore one, Octavia stated had togetherwith its loving to set the emperor off and banished it tries on an island. Nero gave the order to cut it open the pulse veins and to suffocate it in hot steam, which took place few days later also.
Nero and Poppaea had a commonDaughter, Claudia, them became to 21. January 63 born, died however four months later. Two years later Poppaea was again more schwanger. It is maintained, Nero would have killed it during this time from annoying by a kick into the abdomen, theseRepresentation is however disputed; safe it is only that Poppaea died during its pregnancy in the year 65.
the large fire of Rome and Christian pursuit
at the night of 18. to 19. July 64 broke out in Rome a fire, which sealed itself by strong wind as well as and spread high land development rapidlyand within nine days a large part of Rome (10 of 14 quarters) destroyed. Nero let the fire alleged put (so for instance stated by Sueton), in order to let a more beautiful and larger Rome construct. After the legend observed and besangit the fire of the tower of the Maecenas out, while it accompanied itself on the Lyra.
Nero actually was in its 50 kilometers place of birth removed far, while the Palatin was on fire. Probably the fire broke, like many differentalso, on a market place by imprudence out. Nero entered nevertheless as a fire founder of Rome history.
On the advice of its advisors Nero left several Chrestiani (vermutl. lat.: Christians), who were hated with far parts of the population anyway, arrest and,after they had confessed, to cruel death penalties to condemn. Most were gekreuzigt burned, since this was the punishment planned in the Roman right for fire founders, some or accused in the arena to the animals. They did not find under Nero however because of theirFaith death, but because of them accused the arson. Christian pursuit under Nero, which remained limited to Rome, assumed later therein, would be first of an assumed set of local Pogromen, those systematic pursuit in the 3. Preceded century. A widespreadafter old-church legend under Nero also the Apostel Paulus and Petrus in Rome was executed. This is however denied by the research, particularly since the excessive quantity reports also of the fact that Paulus after a longer formal process and Petrus to onelater time one executed.
In the reconstruction of Rome Nero let broader roads put on and limited the maximum height of the houses, which must have now all own walls, on 25 meters; everywhere it provided for fire protection measures. Nero let itself inenormous, splendid messuage with large art treasures and technical Raffinessen establish, the Domus Aurea („the golden house “); the building of the splendor house of little political understanding actually witnesses, since at this time the structure of the public infrastructure was at least slowed down. The messuageafter Neros death was geplündert briefly and torn off.
alienation, death and evaluation
66 n. Chr. Nero traveled to Greece, where he participated in the olympic plays. As Verehrer of the Greek culture it helditself nearly one year long in Greece up, until it was pushed from its advisors to the return to Rome, where the tendency had very much worsened in the meantime. It returned in January 68 under large rejoicing to Rome, itgave itself however completely his entertainments, visited theatres and concerts and appeared even as an artist, whereby he made immense debts. Noble Praetorianer and the senate decided to fall the emperor, who was verhöhnt in the meantime also by the people; at the same timethe army, the Nero rose had culpably neglected and/or. it had missed to actually bind it. Nero, in the meantime abandoned by his third Mrs. Statilia Messalina, fled from the city.
The senate explained Nero as the public enemy. Its friendsguessed/advised him thereupon to the Suizid, Nero believed however to be able to flee to Egypt. When the riders approached his place of refuge, Nero tried, to sting itself a Dolch into the throat in order to escape an arrest. With his Suizid had ithelp one of its slaves, since it did not bring it completely, to take itself with the Dolch the life. It died at the small age of only 30 years. After the excessive quantity its last words are to have been Qualis artifex pereo- „What an artist goes with me to reason! “.
The fact that the Roman realm did not take damage despite the a little competently working policy Neros seriously, is not last because of the fact that the administrative machinery far functioned and the border safety device by thoseArmy was further ensured.
Nero in the judgement of future generations
Nero is one of the most disputed persons in world history. At the evaluation of its person the spirit already separated in the antique one. While individual antique authors gained quite positive sides from it, nevertheless already soon the unanimous refusal that outweighed after its deathPersonality and the policy Neros. In particular the Roman historians Sueton and Tacitus, whose works represent important sources for the life of the emperor, gave openly expression to their Verachtung.
This Verachtung had its reason partly in the dislike of the Romans against NerosPreference for all Greek one, partly - for instance with Tacitus - in the refusal dock ore around at all, when its degeneration appeared Neros rule. A further reason were the actions caused by the manischen character Neros (like the family murders and the execution waves)as well as in its neglect of the state and its attitude opposite the senate.
Christian authors of later centuries, which already condemned Nero because of the execution of their faith brothers after the fire of Rome, coined/shaped finally the picture of the emperor than size-mad Tyrannen inFramework of their propaganda. In the Middle Ages it almost applied as embodiment anti-Christian. The picture of a Tyrannen - however not only in Christian to find but also into heidnisch antique sources actual outweighs until today. Some authors have in youngerTime a rehabilitation Neros as human rulers tries.
The time Neros, in particular the fire of Rome and Christian pursuit, had fascination for many later artists. Thus developed numerous dramas (about Claudio Monteverdis L' incoronazione di Poppea, one of the earliest operas)and historical novels, of which Henryk Sienkiewicz' Quo Vadis is most well-known probably. The book was several times filmed; admits is above all the monumental film of 1951, embodied in Peter Ustinov the emperor and but for the OSCAR one nominated. 2004 developed the TV-Zweiteiler Nero with Hans Matheson in the main role.
In the last months of the Second World War an instruction of Hitler entered for the destruction of the German infrastructure with the name Nerobefehl history. Became on italluded that this instruction was directed like the arson of Rome against the own people.
- Sueton: Cäsarenleben, Kröner, Stuttgart 2001
- Edward Champlin: Nero. Harvard University press 2003, ISBN 0-674-01192-9.
- Miriam Griffin: Nero. The end to OF A Dynasty. Asking Ford, London 1984; Reproduction Routledge, London 2001, ISBN 0-415-21464-5.
- Jürgen Malitz: Nero. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-44605-1.
- Helmuth cutter: Nero. In: Manfred Clauss (Hrsg.): The Roman emperors. 2. Aufl., Beck, Munich 2001, S. 77ff., ISBN 3-406-47288-5.
- Gerhard H. Forest gentleman: Nero. A Biografie. Friedrich Pustet publishing house, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7917-1947-5.
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Nero - quotations|
|Commons: Nero - pictures, videos and/orAudio files|
| | * Literature of and over Nero in the catalog of the DDB
- specializedscientific Kurzbiografie (English) from De Imperatoribus Rome anise (inclusive Literature data)
|list of the Roman emperors|| Nachfolger|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Nero Claudius CaesarDrusus Germanicus; Domitius Ahenobarbus, Lucius|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||emperor of the Roman realm|
|DATE OF BIRTH||15. December 37|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Antium|
|DYING DATE||9. June 68|