the Nervus trigeminus (lat., „triplet nerve “, briefly: Trigeminus) is the fifth cranial nerve. It leads sensitive and motor fibers, with which it achieves far parts of the head. Its name it owes to the division into three main branches:
- Eye branch (Nervus ophthalmicus)
- Oberkieferast (Nervus maxillaris)
- Lower jaw branch (Nervus mandibularis).
origin in the brain
trigeminus four cranial nerve cores are assigned to the Nervus: Nucleus mesencephalicus nervi tri Gemini, Nucleus pontinus nervi tri Gemini (= Nucleus principialis nervi tri Gemini) and Nucleus spinalis nervi tri Gemini lie column-like among themselves in the brain stem. The Nucleus motorius nervi tri Gemini is in the upper Rhombencephalon.
The Nucleus mesencephalicus nervi tri Gemini propriozeptive information (unconscious depth sensitivity becomes: Position and tension muscles, stretch of the volumes and cap of the Kiefergelenkes, stretch of the tooth retaining apparatus) transmitted.
The Nucleus pontinus nervi tri Gemini receives epikritische information (pressure, contact, vibration, on/off these crime film nation, consciously (made) e depth sensitivity: Position and tension muscles, stretch of the volumes and cap of the Kiefergelenkes, stretch of the tooth retaining apparatus).
Spinalis nervi tri Gemini protopathische information (rough pressure, pain, temperature, itching, “Trigeminusriechen”) is transmitted to the Nucleus.
The three sensitive cranial nerve cores are reached not only from fibers of the Nervus trigeminus, but received also supplies of other cranial nerves, above all Nervus facialis, Nervus glossopharyngeus and Nervus vagus.
The Nucleus motorius nervi tri Gemini sends motor fibers to muscles (chewing musculature, M. digastricus more venter anterior and M.mylohyoideus of the mouth soil, Musculus tensor veli palatini, Musculus tensor tympani).
The Radix major contains epikritische, protopathische as well as some propriozeptive fibers and is thus purely sensitive thereby. It is with a pseudounipolar ganglion, which ganglion associates trigeminale (= ganglion semilunare , ganglion gas series). This corresponds to a large extent to the Ganglia spinalia the Spinalnerven.
The Radix minor contains motor and propriozeptive fibers. It is mixed thereby. From the propriozeptiven fibers it contains probably only those, which lead information from the muscles or chords.
The propriozeptiven fibers exhibit a characteristic: Independently of it, whether they run in Radix major or Radix minor, it has it their Zellkörper not in the ganglion trigeminale, but directly in the Nucleus mesencephalicus. This corresponds to the pseudounipolar ganglion in its morphology then. It represents thereby an exception since all other cranial nerve cores and/or central areas in the brain a structure have multipole acres.
The Radix major divides itself into the three large nerves: Nervus ophthalmicus (eye branch), Nervus maxillaris (Oberkieferast) and Nervus mandibularis (lower jaw branch). On the Nervus mandibularis additionally the entire Radix sets itself motoria. All nerves leave now the head. The Nervus ophthalmicus and the Nervus maxillaris run before together with the Nervus oculomotorius and the Nervus trochlearis in the wall of the sine cavernosus.
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