New Sachlichkeit

new Sachlichkeit is the name for a style direction in the painting, literature and architecture, which were particularly into the 1920er years of importance. The term was coined/shaped by the art critic Gustav Friedrich hard leaves on the occasion of a retrospective exhibition 1925 in Mannheim.The new Sachlichkeit can be understood art-historically as link between expressionism , Dadaismus and Surrealismus and exerted strong influence on socialist realism .

Table of contents

styles in the painting

the new Sachlichkeit is usually divided into three separate currents:

ism

in the ism turns out the new Sachlichkeit as a political art, thosewith the society of the Weimar Republic argues critically and with socialist and communist goals solidarized. In addition, one refers to on the other direction, the development of some artists from the new Sachlichkeit toward national socialism, by art historians. Examples of it e.g. are. in Austria Sergius Pauser and Ernst Nepo.

The most important representatives of the new Sachlichkeit were Otto DIX, Elfriede Lohse Wächtler, Christian harm, George Grosz, Conrad Felixmüller and Rudolf mediator. The ists developed one the most well-known Topoi of the new Sachlichkeit in the shape of contentwise provokanter representations,frequently in the grotesque exaggerates, by means of old-masterly techniques.

classicism

the emergence of the new Sachlichkeit with their resort to traditional techniques and mark ways gave also to a politically little was interested group of painters area, formally the group of artists futuristic of a post office around those Italian magazine Valori Plastici (among other things Giorgio de Chirico) to affect left. Their most important representatives were George Schrimpf and Alexander Kanoldt, with its academic style are considered them as the Idylliker of the Weimar Republic.

magic realism

major item: Magic realism
the partitioning thatHard leaves already made new Sachlichkeit in ists and Klassizisten with the “baptism”. However Franz raw introduced the term magic realism . At first still competing to the generic term used, today a third current is named, which can be understood as a bridge to the Surrealismus. Thata most well-known representative of “magic realism” is Franz Radziwill, further representatives is smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Oelze, Carl large mountain, harsh ore Böttger.

screen end artist

new Sachlichkeit in the literature

in the literature of the Weimar Republic understands itself one by new Sachlichkeit a direction,soberly and realistically distinguishes from the pathos of the expressionism. To the place of emphatic idioms and radical-romantic pictures stepped a sobered up, often coolingreserved, observing attitude, which represented documentary-accurately and apparently feelingless the modern society, whereby frequently everyday life documents were in-installed into the works.

The observation and illustration that„the again-material “literature and strikes of the 30's 20's determines outside reality like the construction of the life on the basis of facts and over the use „of the assembly “the bridge to the film. Tendency is the return to the reliable exterior - the expressionistische conception of vision erasMore closely than „mental leader “seems in one by the war disillusioned and ever more clearly by the spirit of the technical progress dominated world no longer adequately. „It does not concern any longer too ‚seals'. The most important is the observed. “Joseph Roth wrote 1927 in the preface itsNovel the escape without end. Is inflamed already here a discussion over the suitability and condition of this Sachlichkeit, which varies between reproaches of the affirmativen attitude and confirmation of its critical Potenzials. While it stresses the effect of the directly observed „glaringness “of the reality others criticize thatwithout the connecting and arranging instance of thinking at all no realization over the reality to attain is.

Substantial representatives of the again-material literature are beside others:

Hermann Hessian
Vicky tree
Erich Kästner (Fabian)
Anna Seghers
Ödön of Horvath (stories from the Viennese forest)
Carl Zuckmayer
Hans Fallada (small man - which now?)
Erich Maria Remarque (in the west nothing new)
Ludwig run
Irmgard Keun (Gilgi - one of us, the kunstseidene girl)
walter Mehring
Gabriele Tergit (cheese beer conquers the cure prince dam)
Adolf Uzarski
walter Hasenclever
Marieluise Fleisser (a Pound of oranges)
Thomas's man (Mario and the Zauberer)

also in the works Franz Kafkas, Bertolt Brechts, Franz young or Arnold of branch step out tendencies of the again-material direction clearly.

new ones Sachlichkeit in architecture

major item: New building

also in architecture one designates as in the literature with the new Sachlichkeit the demarcation of the expressionism of the first postwar years into early 20's, means with it in particular those works, later than building house style or building house architecture famousbecame. To the new Sachlichkeit in addition, numerous buildings and projects concerning town construction of architects belong such as Bruno thaw or to bad van the raw one, as for instance the Weissenhof settlement from the second half of the 20's. To the most important propagandists of the transition from the expressionism to the new Sachlichkeitor that so-called. Rationalism belongs the critic Adolf Behne, thereby in particular its 1925 published writing the modern functional structure. The new Sachlichkeit ends in Germany with the seizure of power by the national socialists with its appropriate cultural policy, those among other things also for the locking of the building house andthe emigration of many representatives of this direction into the USA leads.

The term new Sachlichkeit owes its emergence also to the fact that it with the break of prominent artists of the so-called. Art nouveau before the First World War in Germany already a certain “first” Sachlichkeit in architecture and arts and craftshad given. The beginnings for formal simplification in arts and crafts became already recognizable on the large Dresdener arts and crafts exhibition of 1906. With the establishment of the German work federation 1907 the terms “Sachlichkeit”, “Zweckhaftigkeit” and “modern purpose style” became together with the first beginnings one in exhibitions and publications“Industrial Design” in an increasingly broader public brings up for discussion. The end of this “first” Sachlichkeit in architecture knows first already visibly becoming beginnings of the expressionism on the beginning of the First World War with and in connection with the disputes in the apron of the large Cologne work federation exhibition 1914is dated, where in a kind direction controversy the rebellion of a recent artist generation (among other things walter Gropius and Bruno thaws) announced itself against Hermann Muthesius.

literature

  • Jutta Hülsewig Johnen, “new Sachlichkeit - magic realism”, catalog to the exhibition in the arts center Bielefeld, Bielefeld, 1990
  • Emilio Bertonati, “new Sachlichkeit in Germany”, Herrsching, 1988, ISBN 3881994475
  • Hans's God hard Vierhuff, “the new Sachlichkeit - painting and photography”, Cologne, 1980, ISBN

3770112202

  • K. Schröder, “the new Sachlichkeit in Austria”, exhibition catalog, art forum Vienna 1995
  • walter Mueller Wulckow: Architecture 1900 - 1929 in Germany. Reprintand materials for emergence. Reprints of the four blue books “buildings of the work and traffic” (1929), “housings and settlements” (1929), buildings of the Gemeinschaft' (1929) and “the German dwelling of the present” (1932). Preface of Reyner Banham. (detailed bibliography, 182 architect bio bibliographies).ISBN 3-7845-8041-6

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