Neugranada (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva Granada) is a former Spanish viceroy realm in South America, which covered the today's States of Venezuela , Colombia , Panama and Ecuador. Its capital was first Cartagena and then Santa Fé de Bogotá (today Colombia), itwas subdivided in governorships.
It was created after the viceroy realms new Spain and Perúand was thus the third Spanish viceroy realm on American soil. New Spain consisted of far parts of the today's USA, Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Central America with exception of Panama. Perú was originally the entire, Spain after the contract of Tordesillas which is entitled part of the South AmericanContinent, Panama as well as the Philippines.
The establishment of a further viceroy realm became necessary, after the administration of the far areas, which stood under Spanish rule, in only one viceroy realm proved increasingly as difficult. At that time had all goods, those by and to Spain in and/or implementedbecame only over the Isthmus of Panama, then over the capital of the Vizeköngreichs Perú, Lima, to be spent. There these were paid duty or occupied with deliveries, what led to a substantial corruption.
The choice Bogotás as capital proved however soon as a little favorable,since it been on 2,600 meters sea level, only heavily over water, which Río Magdalena was to be reached, and starting from Honda on a cumbersome Landweg.
After independence that viceroy realms in the year 1810 led the today's Republic of Colombia the name Neugranada, until it became 1819 part of large Colombia. After the dissolution of large Colombia by the splitting off from Venezuela and Ecuador Colombia carried the name Neugranada as far as 1861.