as beginning of the modern times are regarded in the science of history either the case of Konstantinopel in the year 1453 or the discovery America in the year 1492; sometimes also - particularly with German historians - Luther Reformation of 1517.
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already Philipp Melanchthon represented dating 1453. There it set the case of Konstantinopel as beginning of the modern times, for that to the escape from scholars to Italy and for blossoming of the Human led, whose spreading was substantially promoted by the invention of the typography around 1450 and which culture-historical epoch of the Renaissance further impulses gave. Some newer historian schools return today again to this, once from Melanchthon represented view.
That is idea historicalBeginning of the modern times shifted by historically working philosophers such as William Kamlah and Jürgen Mittelstrass against it very many later on the time around 1600. Starting point of this regulation is the training of the modern science in the sense of the modern, taken place up to then, prototypically in physics trained scientific research as methodically through-clarified connection of mathematical theory and technical experience (Kamlah), which became in the upper-Italian workshop tradition developed and the basis of the modern Szientismus.
the modern times becomes for its part ofthe science of history again conceptually divides into:
- the early modern times of the “discovery America” up to the French revolution 1789 and
- the modern trend (sometimes those “most recent time” is also called) for the time thereafter.
Since the end of the First World War and/or. sincethe Russian October Revolution speaks one to date (still) of contemporary history, which is in the historical view naturally further part of the epoch of the modern times.
a substantialThe discovery Americas, which supplied the practical proof, played role thereby that the earth is a ball. The separation of the geocentric (Ptolemäus) by the heliozentrische conception of the world (Nikolaus Kopernikus) and with the conquest the Konstantinopels by the Osmani realm connectedEscape many Greek scholar and other service provider into the west formed further mark points on different levels, which the paradigm change (see. also justify paradigm) of a turn of an era.
Thus the beginning of the overseas colonialism (and the supremacy beginning of Western Europe) becomes as transitionat the recent time outstandingly. Straight revolutionizing rang thereby the end of that ideological monopoly , which had had the church in the Middle Ages. This permitted the beginning of the reformation again, which likewise defines the two epochs from each other.
in the sociology is usually led the debate around an analysis of these processes not with the help of the term “modern times”, but with the term of the” modern trend “(also the “reflexiven modern trend” etc.) with often flaring meaning (even e.g. inWork max of weber).
Ferdinand sound-sneeze however used “modern times “exactly in the sense of its theoretical work community and society as accurate Gegenbegriff to the “Middle Ages “: In this humans were bent, all social collectives as “communitiesto understand “, completely differently than in the modern times, where they would notice these all rather as “societies “. In the Middle Ages a large remote fernhandels and bank company were thus understood like the Templerorden rather as religious “community”, in the modern timeseven the marriage as purely a “social” creature of a contract.
- Ferdinand sound-sneeze, spirit of the modern times, I/O 1935, 1998 (in: TG, Bd. 22).
- S. Skalweit, the beginning of the modern times. Epoch border and epoch term, 1982.
- William Kamlah: The departure of the new science. in: Utopia Eschatologie Geschichtsteleologie. Critical investigations for origin and for Futuri thinking of the modern times. Bibliographic Institut, Mannheim 1969 (BI Htb 461) S. 73-88
- Mittelstrass, Jürgen: Modern times and clearing-up. de Gruyter, Berlin 1970
Appears shortly the first volume from the J.B. Metzler publishing house shifted “encyclopedia of the modern times”, which promise to deal in detail with the most important topics.
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