under the term of the new Hollywood is summarized American films, which modernized the traditional Hollywood cinema between 1967 and 1976. Generally one dates the beginning of the new Hollywood on the year 1967. As forerunners of the new Hollywood developedstill in the classical Studiosystem with the maturity examination and Bonnie and Clyde of two films, which were formally as thematically of to date usual Hollywood productions distinctive and with it very successful.
Almost all new Hollywood films draw by one - clear orlatent - society-critical basic attitude out. Many represent in a radical, unusually clear way Sex and force. Some directors modernized classical category of the Hollywood cinema (Western, film Noir …) or „“they dekonstruierten, by offending intentionally against category conventions.
The relatively short new Hollywood era is considered as one of the artistically most meaning phases of the American film.
Under star of the new Hollywood information in more detail is to the most important actors of the new Hollywood cinema.
the old Hollywood
„the golden era “
before that new Hollywood was successful, gave it the classical Hollywood - cinema - of manyas „golden Age “, when „golden era “designates. By that golden Age generally understands one the time between the early 1930er and late 1950er years. This Hollywood era was coined/shaped by the Produktionsstrukturen and category, itself already during the silent movie timehad developed. Also the star system of the dream factory had been already established during the 20's. Many films golden of the Age can be assigned to an exactly defined category (Western, comedy, adventure film) and are with for it the suitableStar occupies (Western - John Wayne; Comedy - Cary Grant; Adventure film - Errol Flynn). During this time the large Filmstudios had for many decades entire production and utilization chain under control - they did not thus only place the filmsago, but they drove out also over their own cinema chains.
These Produktionsstrukturen were productive both in commercial and artistic regard. Although the film production was during golden the Age as it were „automated “, directors created such as franc Capra, Howard Hawks, John Ford, Alfred Hitchcock, John Huston, Fred tin man or Billy of savage important masterpieces. Some these films worked in an educated manner and yardsticks set. During golden the Age many of the world-best directors, actors, authors, camera men or composers in Hollywood worked -not least because of the very good earning facilities. The basic quality relating to crafts of the golden Age - films is therefore usually considerable.
Success prescriptions were for many years varied during golden the Age (skirt Hudson / Doris Day in a romantic comedy), and as thatTelevision arose and to a serious threat became, reacted Hollywood with successful Monumentalepen like the ten requirements or Ben Hur. Many of the old Hollywood films played that in a dream world and served the eskapistischen needs a public, in the cinema notwith the social realities to be confronted wanted.
in the early 60's arrived the dream factory Hollywood with their proven prescriptions at a dead point. Famous directors such as Hitchcock or Ford had locked their Hauptwerk. Thoselegendary golden Age - star were dead (Humphrey kind of bending, Gary Cooper) or came into the years (Cary Grant, John Wayne). And large Studios became of old men such as Jack L. Warner led, those partly since the silent movie time theirPosts dressed and no more contact with the social reality had. Ever more films at the public were produced past, and in a desperate attempt to recover their spectators Studios the enormous sums pumped in the middle of the 60's to artistically insignificant monumental films and musical, which did not want to see anybody more. The time for a fundamental renewal had come.
that new Hollywood sits down by
the artistic vacuum, to in the middle of the 1960er years in Hollywood, made possible it became visible for young film producers to establish a new kind from cinema to.Arthur Penn turned a successful gangster film, whose sceptical anti-establishment attitude - combines with a lyric, modern telling style with Bonnie and Clyde (1967) - met hair-exactly the spirit of the time. Something similarsucceeded Mike Nichols with the maturity examination (1967), in which Dustin Hoffman (with this role the break-through succeeded) revolts as a frustrated graduate of college against the boring, morally corrupt Spiesserwelt of the parents generation.
That achieved first large success new Hollywood cinema with thatRoad Movie Easy Rider, which director Dennis hopper realized 1969. The Hippie heroes of the film - represented of Dennis hopper, Peter Fonda and Jack Nicholson - fall mordlüsternen Hinterwäldlern to the victim. The film produced cheaply with 400,000 dollar became from that„Woodstock - generation “with enthusiasm taken up and world-wide to a large hit, that about 20 millions Dollar brought in.
The former TV-director Robert Altman turned an corrode-sow-Irish anti-war film with M*A*S*H (1970) over the Korea war, its hippieske heroes (among other things Donald Suez ago country) military virtues ad absurdum lead. The former Cutter Hal Ashby realized two new Hollywood films with a completely own view of social conditions with Harold and Maude (1971) and the last command (1973). John Cassavetes worked as an actorin commercial Hollywood productions (the dirty dozen) and dissected the crises and neuroses of average Americans as a director in middle years (a woman under influence, 1974).
Hollywood veteran SAM Peckinpah realized in an unmistakable, strong-poeticStyle pessimistic late Western such as The game Bunch - you did not know a law (1969) or Pat save & Billy the Kid (1973). Peckinpahs sympathetic Outlaws failed - like also the love-worth Wildwest Ganoven in the superhit two bandits (1969) - because of a substantialdeployed Staatsmacht, which together-shot it merciless. In the maintenance-to-sow-Irish anti- Western Little bend one (1969) played Dustin Hoffman a friendly anti-hero in the midst of the Indian wars. The pleasant Indians of the film became of the alleged national hero general Custer - asPsychopath emerged - brutally slaughtered.
Robert Altman refused itself in McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971) all rules of the category and showed illusionless luck knights in a dredged Western city. To Arthur Penns duel at the Missouri Marlon Brando supplied 1975 as bizarrer killersthe Travestie of a Western rogue. For Sydney pole lacquer played Robert Redford the role of a young Trappers, that the beauty and cruelty of the Rocky Mountains becomes acquainted with (Jeremiah Johnson, 1971).
began comedies the former Bühnenkomiker Woody everythingthe 60's thereby to bring up for discussion the neuroses of the modern urbanen man in original comedies like the Stadtneurotiker (1977) (Sexual). Bebrillte, schmächtige, hibbelige all this, to which as its own leading actor acted, was one of the typical anti-heroes of the era. Those wrote all, Direction led and was film scripts the leading actor.United Artists as its master film rental business of the 70ziger years made this liberty for it possible and profited also from its artistic and commercial success at the public.
Mel Brooks succeeded a number of original category Parodien like e.g. Franconia stone junior (1974) or silent Movie (1976), in which the classical Hollywood was affectionately verulkt irreverently, but.
George A. Romero justified the night of the living dead ones (1969) with the aggressive NO budget strip the modern horror film. The threatproceeded from citizens mutated to Zombies.John Carpenter turned a row more brilliantly, low budgetierter thriller such as Assault - notice with night (1976) and Halloween - the night of having a horror (1978), which were characterised by its dark, pessimistic basic attitude. InHorror cult film Texas chain saw massacre (1974) of raves Hooper peaceful Hippies in the US province by psychopathischen Farmern was slaughtered. In Rosemaries baby (1968), the Exorzist (1973) and the Omen (1975) provided „devil children “for fear and fright - all three films could also asAllegorien on the then current generation conflict to be interpreted.
the American Science Fiction - film of this era is characterised by a throughout civilization-critical, pessimistic tendency. In planet of the apes (1967) and the omega man (1970) Charlton Heston experiencesin postapokalyptischen worlds oppressing adventures.Year 2022… those to survive want (1973; again with Heston) shows the final phase of the western civilization, which is coined/shaped by smog, environmental pollution and a new cannibalism. In sound lot in space (1972) of Douglas Trumbull become thoselast forests of the planet earth in a greenhouse spaceship maintained (on higher instruction to be blown up is). In Andromeda - deadly dust from the universe (1971) of direction veteran Robert meadow extraterrestial micro organisms attack a secret laboratory, in Crazies (1973) of George A.Romero let biological agents peaceful village inhabitants mutate to killers.
John Carpenter showed the absurd adventures of a spaceship crew, which is assigned to blow up „unstable planets “in Dark star - dark star (1974). In THX 1138 (1971) of George Lucas revoltthe bald-sheared victims of a aseptischen future dictatorship against their Peiniger.Phase IV (1974) of Saul bass shows a scientist team in the futile fight against the superior intelligence of a ant collective. Ridley Scotts style-forming cult film Alien (1978) told in nightmareful pictures, like a spaceship crewby a unbesiegbaren extraterrestial one one dezimiert.
the popular music of the 1960er and 1970er years one used in many new Hollywood - films as sound TRACK. Parallel to it also pure music films developed such as Head (1968), in the director Bob Rafelson(nach einem Drehbuch vonJack Nicholson) die überdreht-psychedelischen Abenteuer der Retortenband The Monkees schilderte (Vorbild waren die stilprägenden Beatles-Filme von Richard Lester). D.A. Pennebaker documented tour in Don't look bakes (1967) a Bob Dylan - and in Montery Pop (1968) the music festival of the same name. Michael Wadleighs Woodstock film (1970) became a time document of the flow he power - generation. Martin Scorsese documented the parting concert the skirt volumes The volume in The load Waltz ( 1978).
The director as auteur
with most new Hollywood films won the person of the director a central meaning with production. If the producer or Studioboss was often the crucial figure with the production of a film in earlier times, the directors moved nowinto the most important position of power forwards.
Most of them saw themselves in the tradition of the European author film as „auteur “their works in such a way specified, which was involved into production, the film script production, the cut. Many actually went to the contentwise andstylistic developments of the new Hollywood on the trailblazing films of the French Nouvelle Vague back.
Most new Hollywood directors were inspired of the qualities of the European cinema and admired directors such as François Truffaut, Jean Luc Godard, Jean Renoir, Ingmar Bergman, Federico Fellini, Luchino Visconti or Michelangelo Antonioni. They had Verachtung for the standardized commerce films Hollywoods only remaining and wanted an individual vision to follow. They wanted to turn films, which were deeply, subtle and artistically relevant.
More still thanwith the European author film thereby the circle of the persons remained, the one chance kept limited as a director to work, to men.
new topics, new technology, new of star
of new Hollywood films were usually close at the socialAnd the topics of the protest movements often took up reality, which demanded revolted against the rigid social structures and the Viet Nam war and a social liberalisation. In some new Hollywood films the popular music of this era was used: Bob Dylan, Cat of Stevens, Simon & sparkle, The Doors, steppe wolf, The Rolling Stones.
New Hollywood stories played not in a hermetic dream world, but usually told of genuine humans with material problems. The Protagonisten was not heroisiert, but in its actionsand motives analyzes and analyzes. Many of them perished at the realities or became in their - often deadly - failure martyrs, who had defeated „the system “in the moral sense.
The representatives of the national authorities were corrupt, psychopathisch,plotter. Powerful men and high function carriers showed themselves as moral bankruptcy your. Obscure secret service plots threatened harmless average citizens. Behind the fronts of the well-being decentness abysses opened themselves. That new Hollywood reflected in this way the disconcertion and the Paranoia of Viet Nam andWatergate - era against. Still during that new Hollywood its largest successes celebrated, president Richard Nixon as a liar was exposed and had to withdraw.
on the technical side became the new kind of the stories telling by small, handy camerasand more sensitive Filmmaterial possible. The film producers could leave those of Studios and turn on location, partly in a nearly documentary style without additional light. The typical Look of many films of this era has exactly this charm of the produced documentary film (bitumen cowboy, Witch boiler, French Connection - focus Brooklyn).
male ones of star
the roles in the new Hollywood cinema were occupied usually not with established Hollywood star - for many of them a career descent began into the late 60ern. Instead of itsmaladjusted, unglamouröse, but hochtalentierte actors were used, who brought a completely new realism into their play:Genes Hackman, Robert Duvall, Martin Sheen, John Cazale, genes of savage, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Dreyfuss, Donald Suez ago country, Elliott Gould or Bruce Dern. Many of them came of New Yorker off Broadway and in the old Hollywood system Nebenrollen would have at best received.
Jack Nicholson, Robert De Niro, Dustin Hoffman and aluminium Pacino were the most important actors of the era. They roseby their brilliant role organizations to superstar up and could adhere for decades to the point of Hollywood.
Warren Beatty and Robert Redford reached Top star status during the new Hollywood era. They corresponded outwardly to the type of the filming acre, however a sceptical brought,„unglamouröse “basic attitude into their play. (Both Beatty and Redford formed themselves also and directors and producers.) also the good-looking actors Ryan O'Neal and Jon Voight played important new Hollywood roles. Top star such as Paul Newman, Burt Reynolds or Burt Lancaster workedfor the most important directors of the era. The legendary Marlon Brando was re-activated after a career low for many years successfully and played among other things the famous role „of the godfather “.
female ones of star
there the new Hollywood films usually „male “topics treatedand with male leading actors, only relatively few actresses were turned could succeed during this era. Important Protagonistinnen of the new Hollywood cinema was Faye Dunaway, Jane Fonda, Barbra Streisand, DIANE Keaton, Jill Clayburgh, inches Burstyn or Karen Black.
Information in more detail to star of the new Hollywood is under star of the new Hollywood.
further ones important Protagonisten
also the following persons were for that new Hollywood important:
- Producer: Bert cutter (Easy Rider, a man looks for itself, the last conception), Robert Evans (the godfather, Chinatown, the Marathon man)
- film script authors: William Goldman (two bandits, the incorruptible ones, the Marathon man), Robert Towne (Bonnie & Clyde, the last command, Chinatwon), Rudy Wurlitzer (, Pat bitumen-run hunt Billy The Kid), bend Henry (the maturity examination, Catch-22, Is' which, Doc?), Mario Puzo (the godfather, The godfather 2), John environment (Jeremiah Johnson, the white shark, Apocalypse Now), Robert Benton (Bonnie & Clyde, Is' which, Doc?), Paul Schrader (taxi Driver, black angel, assavage bull),
- Camera men: Many MOS Zsigmond (McCabe & Mrs. Miller, when dying is everyone first, Sugarland express), László Kovács (Easy Rider, a man looks for itself, shampoo), Conrad resounds (Two bandits, the Marathon man), Gordon Willis (Klute, the godfather, a witness of a conspiracy, the incorruptible ones)
- Cutter /Cutterinnen: Marcia Lucas (American Graffiti, Alice here no more, war of the stars lives), Verna Fields (Is' which, Doc?, PAPER Moon, the white shark), Owen Roizman (French Connection - focus Brooklyn, the Exorzist, the three days CONDOR), Thelma Schoonmaker (Woodstock, assavage bull), SAM O'Stehen (the maturity examination, Catch-22, Chinatown )
Pauline Kael, America most influential Filmkritikerin, promoted the new Hollywood cinema by positive articles and discussions and was friendly with some the Protagonisten.
the high point
Friedkin, Bogdanovich and Polanski
into the early 1970er years reached the new Hollywood cinema its artistic and commercial high point. Directors, who had turned before it still Low budget films briefly, captured a world-wide mass public. William Friedkin produced 1971 with French Connection -Focus Brooklyn the prototype of the modern police film and showed genes Hackman as a fanatischen, latently racistic drug investigator. Friedkin toppte this success two years later with the unbelievably successful, also artistically convincing horror classical author of the Exorzist, that to a phenomenon discussed world-widebecame.
The film fool Peter Bogdanovich was first with the melancholischen Coming OF Age film the last conception (1970) and then with the over-courageous comedy Is' which Doc? (1972) very successfully. The poles novel Polanski lived for many years in Hollywood and convinced criticismand, brilliantly crime film Chinatown (1974) produced public with the doppelbödigen, in which Jack Nicholson gives a memorable conception as a private detective with slit nose.
Francis Ford Coppola
was still more successfully the Italo American Francis Ford Coppola, the 1972with that mafia - Epos the godfather criticism and public fascinated. The godfather, for many the best film of all times, showed Marlon Brando in the gladly parodierten role of the baroque Mafia boss, its old-fashionable honouring terms of its scruplesless successors and competitorsnot to be divided. With the just as brilliantly produced successor the godfather II (1974) and the fascinating Viet Nam Epos Apocalypse Now (1979) Coppola was established as a most important director of the 70's.
The films of Coppola, Friedkin and Bogdanovich it is common that itthe radical Chic of the new Hollywood into a moderate, measure-suited style transformed. The fact that they rang in thereby also the fall of the new Hollywood, by them the Blockbuster - invented cinema, nobody could probably suspect.
the final phase
director Martin Scorsese was Italo American such as Coppola. How this and many other new Hollywood star and - directors came it from the school of the B-Movie - producer Roger Corman, which a well working and very lucrative off Hollywood Studiosystem had constructed itself. Herelearned later direction star their handicraft, and actors such as Nicholson, hopper, De Niro, Dern or Sylvester Stallone played their first roles with Corman.
Scorsese convinced first 1973 with witch boiler, one stresses realistic haven-guesses/advises New Yorker Strassenganoven. 1975 succeeded to itwith taxi Driver a timeless masterpiece. Robert De Niro brillierte in the role entwurzelten Viet Nam veterans, which in the roads of New York a revenge campaign starts. The oppressing Boxerdrama like a savage bull - with a legendary representation De Niros- became 1980 a further classical author.
To center of the 1970er established new Hollywood veterans such as Nichols, Altman or Penn with changing, often leaving success regularly films turned years. Other directors like e.g. George Roy Hill, Sydney pole lacquer, Milos Forman or Alan J. Pakula manufactured into modern, interesting, commercially successful style films like the Clou (1973), one flew over the Kuckucksnest (1975) or the incorruptible ones (1976), which discreetness the traditions of the new Hollywood made themselves usable, but were stressed measure-compatibly produced.
Lucas, play mountain and the Blockbuster cinema
the fall of the new Hollywood carried out themselves parallel to the ascent of the directors George Lucas and Steven play mountain. The former TV-director play mountain, that with the brilliant thriller duel (1971) on itself attentivelyhad made, was not with the ambitionierten Bonnie & Clyde variant Sugarland express (1973) at the Kinokassen not successful. Its follow-up film the white shark (1975) against it a commercial hit became. The white shark became a kind blueprint for all future summer Blockbuster.With optimistic, visually spectacular UFO - film uncanny meeting of the 3. Kind set 1978 a clear counterweight to the apokalyptischen Science Fiction for play mountain - visions of the preceding years.
Than play mountain George Lucas, that was still more successful 1973 with that at this timepain-courageous American Graffiti a first hit had succeeded. it blew up and established 1977 with the space adventure war of the stars all records a kind popkulturelle spare religion. War of the stars was however banal a good, emotional responding fairy tale film, that in the core andinfantil remained. On decades outside it defined the new, global accepted hit film formula of Hollywood (the good ones the bad ones, the boy defeat kriegt the girl, many special effects). The Blockbuster film inclusive world-wide Merchandising (and two to three continuations) became a success prescription,the Hollywood until today uses.
With the emerging of play mountain and Lucas, which „the positive “ Blockbuster - film established, the fall „of the old “was sealed, sceptical, critical new Hollywood. After the end of the Viet Nam war and the fall of Richard Nixon that wantedMass public again light and positive films with Happy ending see, which were to be consumed well and not constantly social conditions analyzed. Since most new Hollywood directors burned out parallel to it either artistically or failed to their own Egomanie, there were none suddenlyBasis more for their kind of cinema. As end of the 1970er years expensively produced anti-establishment strips such as Heaven's gate, The Blues Brothers or 1941 (film) commercially, changed over those of Studios their production failed radically to streamlined hit films. Became alsoaimed the power of the directors cut.
during the Reagan - era of the 1980er years was established a optimistic-patriotic hit cinema (Rambo 2, Top Gun). Play mountain and Lucas strengthened their position, by it asDirectors/producers in the assembly-line style commercially most successful series films manufactured (war of the stars, Indiana Jones, back into the future), which offered and by expensive special effects were revalued harmless Entertainment. Aufwändige Actionfilme without contentwise ambitions such as Aliens or Die became slow world-wide hits and justified a successful new Sub category. The surface attractions of advertising spots and music videos were successfully adapted for the large canvas (Flashdance, 9 1/2 weeks).
Important new Hollywood film producers such as Coppola, Penn or Nichols turnedmeanwhile as order directors of routine films. The careers of Friedkin, Bogdanovich, Ashby, Altman, Scorsese stagnated.
The era of the new Hollywood was always past, even if veterans such as Altman or Scorsese could celebrating successes into the 1990er years with the criticism again.
essential ones of new Hollywood films
- 1967: The maturity examination of Mike Nichols, Bonnie and Clyde of Arthur Penn
- 1968: The night of the living dead ones of George A. Romero
- 1969: Easy Rider of Dennis hopper, The game Bunch of SAM Peckinpah, bitumen cowboy by John Schlesinger
- 1970: M*A*S*H von Robert Altman
- 1971: The last conception of Peter Bogdanovich, French Connection - focus Brooklyn of William Friedkin
- 1972: The godfather by Francis Ford Coppola
- 1973: American Graffiti of George Lucas, bath country of Terrence Malick
- 1974: Chinatown of novel Polanski
- 1975: One flew over the Kuckucksnest of Milos Forman
- 1976: Taxi Driver of Martin Scorsese
- 1977: The Stadtneurotiker of Woody of all
- 1978: Halloween of John Carpenter, throughhell go from Michael Cimino
- 1979: Apocalypse Now films Woody everything selected
Coppola [work on] the most important
- new Hollywood directors with: Woody, the Unglücksrabe (1969), which it about Sex to always know wanted, but so far notto ask dared (1972), which (1973), the Stadtneurotiker (1977 - OSCAR for best direction)
- Robert Altman: M*A*S*H (1970 - for OSCAR nominates), McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971), death does not know return (1973), Nashville (1975 - For OSCAR) Hal
- Ashby nominates: Harold and Maude (1971), the last comma DOL (1973), shampoo (1975)
- Peter Bogdanovich: Moving targets (1968), the last conception (1971 - for OSCAR nominates), Is' which, Doc? (1972), Papermoon (1973)
- John Boorman: POINT blank (1967), when dying is everyone the first (1972 - for OSCAR nominates)
- Mel Brooks: Spring for Hitler? (1968), Is' which, Sheriff? (1974), Franconia stone junior (1974)
- John Carpenter: Dark star (1974), Assault - noticeNight (1976), Halloween (1978)
- John Cassavetes: Married men (1970), a woman under influence (1974), the murder of a Chinese bookmaker (1976)
- Michael Cimino: Those by hell go (1978 - OSCAR for best direction), to Heaven's gate (1980)
- Francis FordCoppola: The godfather (1972 - OSCAR for best direction), the godfather II (1974 - OSCAR for best direction), the dialogue (1974 - nominated for OSCAR), Apocalypse Now (1979 - for OSCAR nominated)
- Roger Corman: The Trip (1967), Bloody mummy (1970), G.A.S.S. or - it was necessary to destroy the world in order to save it (1971)
- to Brian de Palma: Sisters of the bad one (1973), phantom in the Paradies, (1974) Carrie - sow to youngest daughter (1976)
- Peter Fonda: The far ride (1971)
- Milos Forman: One flew Hair (1978 ) over the Kuckucksnest (1975 - OSCAR for best direction),
- Bob Fosse: Cabaret (1972), Lenny (1974 - for OSCAR nominates)
- William Friedkin: French Connection - focus Brooklyn (1971 - OSCAR for best direction), the Exorzist (1973 - for OSCAR nominates)
- Monte Hellman: Shooting (1967), bitumen running (1971)
- George Roy Hill: Two bandits (1969 - for OSCAR nominates), Slaughterhouse 5 (1972), the Clou (1973 - OSCAR for best direction)
- raves Hooper: The chain saw massacre (1974)
- Dennis hopper: Easy Rider (1969), The load Picture (1971)
- Norman Jewison: In the heat of the night (1967 - OSCAR forbest direction), Jesus Christian superstar (1973)
- George Lucas: THX 1138 (1971), American Graffiti (1973 - nominated for OSCAR), war of the stars (1977 - for OSCAR nominated)
- Sidney Lumet: Serpico (1973), dog steam turbine and gas turbine systems (1975 - for OSCARnominated), network (1976 - for OSCAR nominates)
- Paul Mazursky: Bob & Caroline & Ted & Alice (1969), Alex in the miracle country (1970), a entheiratete Mrs. (1978 - for OSCAR nominates)
- soot Meyer: Megavixens (1970), flowers withoutSmell (1970)
- Alan Meyerson: Ganoven on Abwegen (1973)
- John environment: Hunt for Dillinger (1973), the wind and the lion (1975)
- Mike Nichols: The maturity examination (1967 - nominated for OSCAR), Catch-22 - the bad trick (Catch-22), 1970)
- Jack Nicholson: Drive, He Said (1967)
- Alan J. Pakula: Klute (1971), a witness of a conspiracy (1974), the incorruptible ones (1976 - for OSCAR nominates)
- SAM Peckinpah: The game Bunch (1969), Pat hunts the Kid for Billy (1973), bring me the head of Alfredo Garcia (1974)
- Arthur Penn: Bonnie and Clyde (1967 - for OSCAR nominates), Little bend one (1970), duel at the Missouri (1976)
- D.A. Pennebaker: Don't look bake (1967), Montery Pop (1968)
- Novel Polanski: Rosemaries baby (1968), Chinatown (1973 - for OSCAR nominates)
- Sydney pole lacquer: Only one gives the grace shot ( 1969) to horses, Jeremiah Johnson (1972), the three days CONDOR (1975)
- of the Bob Rafelson: Five Easy Pieces (1970 - For OSCAR), the king of Marvin Gardens ( 1972) nominates
- Carl pure: Where is' dad? (1970)
- George A. Romero: The night of the living dead ones (1968), Zombie (1978)
- harsh ore Ross: The owl and the Kätzchen (1970), Mach's stillonce, SAM (1972), at the turning point (1977 - for OSCAR nominates)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Rush: The wild racquets of San Francisco (1967), Psych Out (1968)
- Jerry treasure mountain: Panic in the Needle park (1971), bitumen blooms (1973)
- John Schlesinger: Midnight cowboy (1969 - OSCAR for best direction), the Marathon man (1976)
- Martin Scorsese: Who klopt there to my door? (1967), witch boiler (1973), Alice lives no longer here (1974), taxi Driver (1976 - for OSCAR nominates), like a savage bull (1980 - For OSCAR) Steven
- nominates play mountain: Sugarland express (1974), the white shark (1975 - nominated for OSCAR), uncanny meeting of the third kind (1977), 1941 - where ask geht's after Hollywood (1979)
- Douglas Trumbull: Silent Running (1972), Brainstorm
- Michael Wadleigh: Woodstock (1970)
- Peter Yates: , Four diagonal birds (1972) , with me you are appropriate for John and Mary (1969) correctly (1974)
- Peter Biskind: Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Heyne, 2004, ISBN 3453877853(the recognized standard work to the topic)
- Hans's Helmut Prinzler, Gabriele Jatho (Hg.): New Hollywood 1967-1976. Trouble in Wonderland. Bertz + Fischer, 2004, ISBN 3865051545. Read samples up: Bertz + Fischer publishing house
- Jürgen Mueller: Films of the 60's. BagsPublishing house, 2004, ISBN 3822827975
- Mike seal, Ulrich P. Bruckner: Passion & Poetry - SAM Peckinpah in Pictures. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, 2003, ISBN 3896024728
- Jürgen Mueller: Films of the 70's. Bags publishing house, 2003, ISBN 382282190X
- George Seesslen: Martin Scorsese. Bertz, 2003, ISBN 3929470721
- Peter W. Jansen: Jansens cinema: Taxi Driver/Apocalypse Now, 1 audio CD. Bertz + Fischer, 2003, ISBN 3865051421
- Peter W. Jansen: Jansens cinema: Bonnie and Clyde/the ice-cold angel, 1 audio CD. Bertz + Fischer, 2003, ISBN 3865051316
- Renate Hehr: New Hollywood. Heyne, 2002, ISBN 3930698943
- Andrew Yule: Steven play mountain. Conquest Hollywoods. Heyne, 1997, ISBN 3785284004
- franc fast one: Suspense shock terror. John Carpenter and itsFilms. Uwe Wiedleroither, 1991, ISBN 3924098042
- Ulli white: The new Hollywood. Francis Ford Coppola, Steven play mountain, Martin Scorsese. Heyne, 1986, ISBN 3453860977
- Norbert rough: New Hollywood, in: Thomas Koebner (Hrsg): Reclams special encyclopedia of the film. ReclamPublishing house, 2002, ISBN of 3-15-010495-5
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