new Orleans (local discussions: /nu ːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nu ːˈɔɹliːənz/ or /nu ːˈɔɹlənz/) is the largest city in the US Federal State Louis IANA in the USA. It is an industrial centre and has a large port, which the river Mississippi with the gulf ofMexico connects.
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the city a surface of 907,0 km lies ² in Mississippi-delta and has. 467.6 km ²country is, 439.4 km ² is water (48.34%). Because of its situation between the Mississippi in the south and the Lake Pontchartrain in the north, which city-outlined it one in form of a Sichel gave, received to new Orleans the designation the Sichelstadt (inclosely. Original The Crescent town center).
In the case of their establishment French settlers a small, somewhat more highly lain piece country, which admits today as „French Quarter” is, cultivated. The area of the today's new Orleans is only for 2500 years out from the riverdeveloped for washed ashore sediment. It is to a large extent several hundred meter deep sump, which will continue to itself sink under the pressure of its own weight consolidated and when being missing the Sedimentabgelagerung under the sea level. Since then the Mississippi of the Frenchmen andsubsequently, of the U.S. Army Corps OF Engineers was eingedeicht, sinks the area of new Orleans around approximately 8 millimeters per year. Meters are appropriate for 70 per cent of the city surface below the sea level up to 1.6, whereby adjacent 1839 km ² the large Lake Pontchartrain by the water way Rigolets Strait and the lagoon Lake Borgne with the gulf is connected by Mexico.
Into the 1910er years put A. Baldwin Wood the city, which was surrounded by sumps, with numerous large pumps drying. Thaton the southern side of the Mississipi remainders of the original landscape show convenient close nature park Barataria Preserve in Marrero, Louis IANA in the Mississippi delta. A drainage system of several hundred kilometers of length pulls today new Orleans through and drains over 22 pumping stations the entire citywith strong rain. A quantity of water per hour can be pumped to the lake, which corresponds to an amount of precipitation of 30 millimeters. New Orleans could be extended by the dewatering by substantial surfaces; it led however also to an expanded sinkingthe terrain. Today the city is protected in the north by 5 to 6 meters high a dyke as well as in the south by a 9 meters high dyke from water intakes.
the city had up to the evacuation because of Hurricane Katrina to 28. Lived August 2005 of about 490,000 inhabitants, in the region new Orleans (“metropolitan AREA”) about 1.3 million humans. The population density amounted to 989 Einwohner/km ². In the city 28.05% white lived; 67.25% Afro American; 0.20% „native Americans “; 2,26% Asian and 3.06% Hispano American.
Despite the French name of the city hardly still French or Kreol French is spoken; only within the tourism range the French is emphasized. Since 1968 however the revival of the French language becomes on the part of the Federal State Louis IANApromoted. (see French in Louis IANA)
new Orleans lies in the catchment area of hurricanes. With hurricanes it concerns tropical storms, which form between May and Octobers over the Atlantic ocean. That so farmost devastating hurricane “Katrina “met the city to 28. August 2005 and ensured, in connection with to the hurricane decreasing/going back a tide disaster, for the nearly complete devastation of the city. Details down in the section hurricane disaster.
during the colonial age was created new Orleans under the French name La Nouvelle Orléans in honours by Philipp II., duke by Orléans by the Frenchman Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville , 1718. It became 1722 thoseCapital of Louis IANA. 1762 went the colony in the context of the secret agreement from Fontainebleau at Spain, which in Paris peace 1763 was confirmed. Until 1766 no Spanish governor was used. Some the early French settlers were with thatcontently and repeated Louisianas did not ask Spanish rule at France for a rebinding.1800 decreased/went back the colony in the context of the agreement of San Ildefonso France.
acquisition by the USA
1795 granted Spain to the USA„the right to address “and permitted the Americans to use the port of the city.1801 went to Louis IANA to the conquest of Spain through Napoleon I. France back. Two years later (1803) Napoleon in the so mentioned sold Louis IANA Purchase with Louis IANA the entire area west Mississippi for 15 million dollar to the United States. The city became of France to 20. December 1803 the USA hand over. At this time new Orleans had approx. 10,000 inhabitants.
ascent phase to the international center
from its early days on was new Orleans admits for its kosmopolitische and polyglot population and the numerous cultures, who existed there. The city attained full growth fast with influencesFrance, America and the kreolischen Karibik. During the war of 1812 the British wanted to conquer the city, them became however of from gene. Andrew Jackson aforementioned troops some miles river downward to 8. January 1815 struck back (battle of new one Orleans).
The urban population doubled itself in the 1830ern and 1840ern, and new Orleans became the largest city in the American south and outside of the “Atlantic Seaboards”. Until 1849 new Orleans was the capital of the State of Louis IANA, later againfrom 1865 to 1882. The port was particularly important for the slave trade, although new Orleans was at the same time the city with most colored persons of North America. The meaning of the city increased, as the government 1838 a local coinbeside the southern coins of Charlotte and Dahlonega furnished. Contrary to the two other coins in new Orleans beside gold - also silver - coins were coined/shaped, which could have contributed to the position as the most important Prägeanstalt in the south.
In the American civil war new Orleans was combatless conquered very early by the union, whereby a majority of the historical buildings remained. Up to the destruction by a hurricane in the year 2005 the city retained the historical flair of the wealth, during19. Century here prevailed. An important point of attraction for tourists from all world in late 19. and early 20. Century was the famous red light district Storyville.
new Orleans in 20. Century
to in 21. Century inside was New Orleans particularly for its kreolische and its Voodoo - culture admits, which had come with the slave trade from Africa to America. Also the jazz experienced here particularly into the 1920ern its large bloom. The same time becameModernization of the townscape the old cast-iron balconies of the Canal Street far away, into the 1960er years replaced the city the Canal Streetcar LINE (streetcar) by penalty. Both measures were cancelled again into the 1990er years.
1927 steppedthe Mississippi on a surface of approx. and several 100,000 humans made 70,000 km ² over the banks shelterless. Trip for the Great Mississippi Flood (English) was a long persisting rain. It began in August 1926 and lasted into thatSpring 1927. At that time one blew up the dykes with 18 km removes convenient city Poydras on a length from 450 m, in order to protect new Orleans against the Wassermassen. 1965 experienced new Orleans its up to then worst hurricane disaster. That Hurricane Betsy set a majority of the city under water and made thousands inhabitants new Orleans' and Louisianas shelterless.
For the end of the century the tourism in the city began to boomen and developed to an important economical branch. The old town quarterlike the French Quarter (Vieux Carre) operated last almost exclusively tourism.
hurricane disaster August 2005
to 28. August 2005 became new Orleans of the hurricane Katrinaafflicted, which was one of the four heaviest hurricanes, which were ever measured in the USA. Although new Orleans was pulled only by the randlichen Ausläufern of the hurricane in, several dykes broke, on which the water of the Lake Pontchartrain the citynearly completely inundated. Unterspülte buildings broke down and aggravated the situation clearly. Water, garbage and debris rinsed into supercathedrals used as emergency accommodation, it were a goal of those, those not the city in time had however nevertheless left and those nowfor the distribution of water and meal by the army waited. At the same time water and power failure worsened the conditions inside the stadium. Also the large water pumps of the city failed.
When the extent of flooding became clear, the government decidedto 31. August to evacuate the city - and concomitantly supercathedrals - completely. First with penalties and later then with an air lift. A goal was first the astrodomes of Houston, its capacities however already after one daywere exhausted.
After some days with unrests and plunderings the state of emergency, the martial law and the health state of emergency were proclaimed. In some areas occasional remedial measures and evacuations were suspended, after allegedly helicopters were fired at and rescue parties were attacked. Afterwards soldiers tried andTo repair policeman the order and to protect hospitals against plunderings. The reports proved as exaggerated, what was not reported however in the media. Mayor Ray Nagin insulted the Federal Government in a live ending because of the sluggish assistance. UnderHe said tears: “The city dies! ”
US-American president George W. Bush arranged the delegation of rescue parties after 6 days (plus 2 days advance warning time before the hurricane) into the area. The responsible national guard was however not fully operationally, there itto substantial parts in the Iraq in the employment was and a departure was not not planned.
The Louis Armstrong - new Orleans internationally air haven (MSY) is one of two airports of the city and has a daily capacity of 300Airplanes. A little west the city in large connoisseur spares remained suburb lain, could he after few days again in enterprise be taken. Runway and Tower were not destroyed by the hurricane, however ground based radar and beaconing of the runway stood firstnot for the order.
While the call became louder after a fast reconstruction new Orleans with appropriate national support and grew the political pressure on the responsible persons, mehrten themselves also doubts to the Sinnhaftigkeit. Experts discussed whether new Orleans is given upshould, since in the future on a degradation of the situation is to be counted.
To 5. September 2005 will take admits given that the dyke is repaired to the Lake Pontchartrain, however an evacuating the water at least three months. At some dykeshigh-delivery pumps placed helped from the German technical welfare organization to the order. To 6. September 2005 arranged mayors Ray Nagin the obligation evacuation of the last inhabitants remaining in the city. Everyone, which was not involved in the reconstruction, had to leave now the city,since the danger of epidemics existed.
To 23. September fallow one of the provisional sealed dykes again and water ran in at the deepest convenient borough. One day later several quarters of the jazz metropolis were again flooded, the water were highly located 2 meters in the roads.
In the middle of October 2005the city was again drying-put. But the population had to 18. October for a second conceivable evacuation to be prepared: The hurricane Wilma, whose development was still uncertain, pulled however over Florida towards Atlantic.
objects of interest
much admits is the French Quarter, also „le Vieux Carré “mentioned, still from the French and Spanish time comes and to the Mississippi, the RAM part Street, which borders Canal Street and the Esplanade Avenue. Forwardseverything the French Market (French market), a place, at which the Choctaw Indian acted with the “white man”, with the Café you moons, who are famous for its Café outer lait and its Beignets, is a large point of attraction for tourists.Just as the legendary Bourbon Street, on which allabendlich Parties are celebrated in the mornings.Streetcars belong also to the flair of new Orleans. The line pc. is most well-known. Charles (car becomes green - built to 1924 of Perley Thomas),those new Orleans with the suburb Carrollton connects. It drives without interruption from 1893 to today. Along the distance by the “pc. " One knows Charles Avenue quarter “guards District” numerous herrschaftliche mansions from that 19. Century admire. Also two privateUniversities are here, the Tulane and the Loyola University. A further distance is the “Riverfront” - line, 1988 again taken in enterprise, also well-known as “Ladies in talk” (red ladies). It runs parallel to the river of the Canal Street in the FrenchQuarter.2004 were again-opened the line “Canal Street”. It serves the “town center park” under others with the “new Orleans museum OF kind” (art museum) by a branch into the “North Carrollton Avenue”. The distance, after the threshing floor lake Williams its well-known drama“A Streetcar Named the Irish” (last stop longing) designated, already 1948, one year after the publication, was adjusted.
ways of the deep situation of new Orleans and the associated very damp soil gives it in the cityno conventional cemeteries, because epidemics are feared. Since 1830 the dead ones in Mausoleen - this “town center OF the DEAD” is a tourist attraction - are buried.
The city developed its own kind of the funerals: A traditional jazz Funeral becomes from one Volume Mark-hung accompanied, which plays sad music (hymns) on the way to the funeral, aligned to the the other world, and merry, lay music (Hot jazz) on the way back. This tradition is today for pure tourist attraction comes.
New Orleans was always a center of the music. It mixed European style with from Latin America and afroamerikanischen cultures. Above all the jazz with Blechbläsern has its roots in new Orleans. Decades later became it admits for the Rhythmand Blues, which coined/shaped the skirt' n' roll considerably.
in addition is well-known the city for their meal. The specialities reach Muffuletta Sandwiches from Po ' boy (of poor boy ) and up to gulf oysters and other sea animals.Numerous kreolische and/or. One can likewise take Cajun courts such as Étouffée , Jambalaya and Gumbo in new Orleans to itself. The Monday evening speciality are red beans with rice. (Louis Armstrong has its letters often with „talks beans and ricely yours “ signed).
meaning won also the jazz celebration at the end of of April toAt the beginning of of May. About ten days long are organized in the whole city, in the public area, in each bar and at fair the Grounds racecourse of concerts, those the far over category of the jazz go out (skirt, Blues, Zydeco).
Famous inhabitants of new one Orleans are above all musicians such as Fats domino, Dr. John, Louis Armstrong, master P., Actor such as John Goodman, the cooks Paul Prudhomme and Emeril would lie-eat and the authoress Anne Rice.
Former and today's famous inhabitantswere:
- Pete Fountain, musicians
- Fats domino, musician
- Al Hirt, musician
- Harry Connick, Jr., Musicians
- Nicolas Cage, actors
- Jean Lafitte, Pirat
- Wynton Marsalis, musician
- Trent Reznor, musicians
sons and daughtersthe city
- Phil Anselmo, US-American musician
- Louis Armstrong, US-American Jazztrompeter and singer
- Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, general of the Konföderierten states of America
- Barney bending pool of broadcasting corporations, US-American Klarinettist
- Buddy Bolden, Trompeter in new Orleans
- Connee bad-wave,US-American Blues and jazz singer and actress
- Poppy Z. A Britisher, US-American authoress
- Roy Brown, US-American Blues musician
- Byrdman, aka baby, US-American RWS musician
- George Washington Cable, US-American writer
- Truman Capote, US-American writer
- Edward Clark, US-American politician andthe 8. Governor von Texas
- Patricia Clarkson, US-American actress
- James Lawton Collins, US-amerikanischer 2-Sterne-General
- J. Lawton Collins, US-amerikanischer 4-Sterne-General; Corps commander in 2. World war
- Harry Connick, US-American singer, pianist and actor
- Ellen DeGeneres, US-American actress, hostand Komikerin
- Johnny Dodds, jazz Klarinettist
- Fats domino, Bluesmusiker
- Dr. John, Rock'n'Roll, Blues and jazz musician and music producer
- Clyde Drexler, US-American basketball player
- champion Jack Dupree, Blues singer and - pianist
- Daniel F. Galouye, US-American journalist and Science Fiction writer
- Louis Moreau Gottschalk, US-American pianist and composer
- Lillian Hellman, US-American authoress
- George Herriman, US-American Comiczeicher and caricaturist
- Linda Hopkins, US-American Blues and Gospel singer
- Mahalia Jackson, US-American Gospelsängerin
- dad Charlie Jackson, US-American Blues musician
- Marie Laveau, Voodoo Queen
- Elmore Leonard, US-American crime film writer
- Eli Manning, US-American football player
- Peyton Manning, US-American football player
- Wynton Marsalis, one most important Trompeter of our time
- Paul Morphy, the USA| American chess|Chess player
- Mystikal, US-American RWS musician
- Ray Nagin, mayorby new Orleans
- Randy Newman, US-American singer, Songschreiber, pianist and composer
- Lee Harvey Oswald, one accused of, the murderer president at that time of the US presidents John F. Kennedy to be
- Greg Poss, US-American ice hockey coach
- Benny Powell, jazz musician
- Godfrey Reggio, US director, that grew up in Louis IANA born and
- Anne Rice, US-American authoress
- Ken Thompson, computer scientist
- John Kennedy Toole, American writer
- all Toussaint, US-American musician
- Ray whale clay/tone, US-American actor
- Lil Wayne, US AmericanRWS musician
- Andrew Young, US-American citizen right activist
- Roderick Strong, US pro Wrestler
of the ÖPNV is operated by that regionally transit Authority new Orleans, briefly RTA new Orleans. In addition there are oneConnection of the railway company Amtrak (course junction) and cross-country bus company Greyhound.
Line airport: Louis Armstrong - new Orleans internationally air haven (MSY)
new Orleans is because of the junction Gulf of the Intracoastal Waterway, the Mississippi and Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal, 106 km long and 10.8 m a deep channel of the interior port new Orleans to the gulf. The port is the second largest sea port and an important inland port of the USA.
Web on the left of
- official Website of the city new Orleans.Regular status reports on the situation of the reconstruction.
- Detailed article over the effect of the hurricane Katrina on new Orleans (English)
- of satellite photographs of the region new Orleans before and after flooding
- this map shows, which ranges from new Orleans over thatSea levels (green) or under the sea level are appropriate (yellow and red)
- for Mardi Grass 2006 New Orleans Louis IANA
- official tourism side of new Orleans
- new Orleans Convention and Visitors office
- Conseil pour le développement you français EN Louisiane
- detailed aerial photos of new Orleansafter the hurricane disaster
|Wiktionary: New Orleans - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: New Orleans - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
coordinates: 30.00° N, 90.07° W