of these articles acts only of the medium high-German Nibelungenlied. With the prehistory of the material, the related northEuropean telling versions and their relations among themselves the article Nibelungensage is concerned.
First side of the handwriting C of the Nibelungenlieds (around 1220)
representation from the handwritingK of the Nibelungenlieds (1480-90)

the Nibelungenlied is a medieval hero pos. It originated in in 13. Century and was noted in the people language at that time medium high German. The title, under that it since its Wiederentdeckung in the middle 18. Admits of century is, leads themselvesof the final line in one of the two main text versions off:hie hât daz mære ends: daz the Nibelunge is liet („history is here to end: that is ‚the song of the Nibelungen `“). However one must note that „liet “inMedium high German as „song “in our sense to understand is not, but „Strophen “or „Epos “to mean knows. To the Nibelungenlied a formally independent narration, which seems to continue and recapitulate the happening, is attached „the complaint in the medieval handwriting“.

Table of contents

the historical core

the Nibelungenlied is high-medieval German forming out of the Nibelungensage, their origins into the heroische age of the Germanic people migrationsgo back. A historical core of the legend is smashing the castle and realm in the area of Worms in late ancient times (around 436) by the Roman army master Aëtius with the help of hunnischer auxiliary troops. Further historical events, which probably play a role here, are the controversy in the house of the Merowinger between Brunichild and Fredegunde as well as the wedding between Attila and the burgundischen princess Ildikó (453). See. in addition the article Nibelungensage.

author and emergence

of the authors of the Nibelungenliedes become in the textnot mentioned. This corresponds to the generic convention the hero spades, which does not accent the literary own contribution of a poet, but the rootedness of the telling material in the verbal excessive quantity (altiu maere, „legends “) emphasizes. Strictly speaking it is not clarified until today whether ita only one „original version ever gave “(and thus a only one „author “), or whether it concerns rather an editor or only around one or more highly gifted Rezitatoren of older, verbally delivered materials.

The emergence of the textcan be limited through in it presupposed political structures and by purchases for contemporary seal on the years 1180 to 1210 (and thus on „the bloom time “ of the medium high-German literature).

More exact local knowledge of the author, a predominance of the early excessive quantity insoutheastGermanAustrian area and the obvious emphasis of the bishop von Passau as acting figure the area between Passau and Vienna as developing place probably, in particular the yard as Mäzen admitted of bishop von Passau, Wolfger von Erla (bishop in Passau 1191-1204) make.Wolfger is of great importance for the dating of medium high-German literature, because itself in its travel calculations with the date 12. November 1203 an instruction finds to disburse the saying poet roll ago from the bird pasture money for a Pelzmantel. This note places the only oneexcept-literary proof for the existence of this poet and thereby an important indication is for the temporal classification of the medium high-German seal, which is to a large extent delivered without yearly and author data. Usually one assumes today the poet of the Nibelungenliedesboth religiously and literarily educated man in the periphery of the Passauer of bishop yard and that its public was to be searched likewise there among the clerics and noble laymen.

In a kind appendix to the Nibelungenlied, the Nibelungenklage, becomes also from the emergencetells the seal. „A master Konrad “is called, which a bishop assigned „Pilgrim “from Passau the minute. One accepts that this represents an honouring reference to a predecessor in office of the presumed promoter Wolfger, holy bishop Pilgrim ofPassau (971-991).

search for an author

the Germanistic study of the Nibelungenlieds is since more jeher connected with a search for an author name, almost despaired. In the last decades the respectable specialized knowledge shank stopped this search. Particularly since Michel Foucaults investigations on the automatic adjustment on the author became clear that textuelle anonymity is only for us reader of the modern times an intolerable feature. The medieval literature, particularly the still to a large extent verbally spread hero spades, is this obligation toWriting up inadequately. Today it is task of the Mediävistik to describe and show the heterogeneity one of medieval seal and its (for example authorless) existence forms, where the unreflected modern view registers these texts.

Above all popular-scientific and homeland-historical research has in the runthe time the Nibelungenlied at almost any one between 1180 and 1230 in the baierisch Austrian area testified man of letters to tie want. Also today regularly names are brought on the Tapet. Without exception it acts thereby around methodically doubtful outsider theses, itself the discussion inrecognized technical periodicals do not place. In addition belong for example:

their melody is

sealed form and language the Nibelungenlied itself in singable four-lines Strophen (today called Nibelungenstrophe),however to reconstruct safe does not leave. This metric form is a characteristic the hero spades (see. the Kudrun - Epos of an unknown poet and the Dietrich spades). Sung Strophenepik differs on the clearest from the contemporaneous höfischen telling literature, above all the Antiken andArtusroman, which is held nearly without exception in (spoken) Reimpaarversen. In this regard the Nibelungenlied was „archaischer “as „the modern “knight literature Hartmann von Aue, Gottfried of Strasbourg and tungsten of ash brook.

Those approx. 2,400 Strophen of the Nibelungenliedsare in 39 âventiuren (speak: Aventüren) subdivided, chapter-like telling units of variable length, which carried headings in most handwriting.

From the language and telling attitude of the Nibelungenliedes a double dilemma can be read off: Not only the gap between verbal improvisation tradition andLiterarisierung (verbalness vs. Writtenness) wanted to be bridged; besides also the customer mythisch heroischer Germanic Vorzeit was to be adapted into a Christian hochadelig höfisches surrounding field. The core of the Nibelungensage must have been purely verbally tradiert 700 years long by Epensänger. Developedinnumerable variants of history; different legend circles were together-attached, for figures changed their role of etc. No will of an author could form or fix the material consciously. In the German-speaking countries one had a conversion of this legend to a book-literary never 1200 agoForm tries. Thus the Nibelungenlied points - as Erstling of a new literary tradition - both (contentwise) traces of its authorless prehistory and (linguistic) traces of the poet language of the verbal telling art up; but it at the same time shows courses „large “antik--historical beech pos, at thosethe written process surely oriented itself.

The well-known Eingangsstrophe, probably only a late inserted introductory additive:

Us is in old mæren miracle much geseit
from heroes lobebæren, from more grôzer acre-pickled,
from joys, hôchgezîten, of cry and of complain,
from more küener strainstrîten muget IR nu miracles hœren say.

Many famous scenes of the legend, like the kite fight young Siegfrieds about, emerge in the song only in the form of mentions; the whole prehistory is expected to be familiar. The song is stylistic of thatRequirements of the verbal lecture coined/shaped, because everyday life language and high-level language mix likewise, like already at that time already historical vocabulary and contemporary terms of the early three tenth century. One looks for art-full literary clay/tone and complicated constructions in vain. Much rather we find long enumerating,recurring formulations and simple, nearly dissociated descriptions by the storyteller, who mentions itself only in few places of the work.

the action

the Nibelungenlied consists of two parts: In the first part Siegfrieds death is located, in second thoseRevenge of its wife Kriemhild in the center. The spatial surrounding field is the castle and realm to the Rhine, as well as (in the second part) southeast Germany and the Danube area of today's Austria and Hungary.

At the king yard in Worms Kriemhild as well as their three brothers Gunther lives,Gernot and Giselher. Siegfried, a king son from Xanten, appears with yard and provokes Gunther.

The literary version 12. Century brings up for discussion different concepts of feudaler society on the basis the persons: Siegfried embodies the classical noble one, whose rule is based on force.King Gunther represents a ruler, whose power is based upon Ministeriale and which delegates the fight for rule. The central conflict is between Vasallität, which requires subordination and obedience, and a modernized Feudalherrschaft, the no more or onlypartially on the leaning nature is based.

The first part presents in the main role of Siegfried equipped of Xanten, an apparent uncontrollable hero, in addition with all kinds of marvelous aids: an invisibly making camouflage cap, its powerful sword Balmung and its legendary Nibelungenschatzthe dwarf king Alberich, the so-called stronghold. He bathes kite, which guarded the stronghold before, in the blood in order to become invulnerable. A place of its back remains however vulnerable, since a lime tree sheet covers these with the bath.

The positionSiegfrieds opposite the Wormser kings is clear: Siegfried is a relative and an allying of the Wormser. The situation becomes difficult only, after it decided itself to support Gunther with the advertisement around Brunhild. Brunhild requires it of the solicitors, inFight defeat to be able. That succeeds to Gunther only with the help of Siegfrieds. Siegfried helps it under a camouflage cap hidden, it spends itself also still, with the knowledge of the companions (Gunther, Hagen and thank-waited), as a leaning man Gunthers. Around this deceptionto perfect, Siegfried for Gunther carries the Stratordienst out, it leads Gunthers horse before all eyes like a farmhand at the Zügel. Therefore Brunhild believes that Siegfried is a Gefolgsmann Gunthers. Around the marriage (with it also the political unit Gunther Brunhild) not toogefärden, may not they not experience that them mounted a fraud. Still later Brunhild moves years again and again the question about a possible Vasallität Siegfrieds. Its grinding with its sister-in-law Kriemhild appears it as a Mesalliance (franz. Measurement marriage).

In thatWedding night (in Worms) binds Brunhild Gunther to a hook at the wall. Only Siegfried defeats Brunhild at the second night - again with the help of the camouflage cap. It steals its ring and its belt, the classical indications of a successfulDefloration, although it is expressly stressed that Gunther its wife entjungfert.

Many years later - whereby it is to be considered that numerical data in medium high-German Epen are to be understood only as reference points - loads Gunther on requests of his Mrs. Siegfried andKriemhild after Worms. The women come over the question about the rank of their men into controversy: Brunhild explains that she observed with own eyes that Siegfried Gunther served farmhand as Vasall and „“. Kriemhild however knows ringand belts of Brunhild show (those had given their Siegfried) and call it the Kebse (Mätresse) of their man. The controversy (Senna) ends in a hard dispute.

Johann Heinrich Füssli, Kriemhild throws itself on the dead Siegfried, to 1817
Hagenfrom Tronje Siegfried holds for a threat of the yard of Worms. Since for the kings Gunther, Giselher and Gernot do not exist hierarchical relationship between them and Siegfried, they can do Siegfried without a direct argument with the apparently rebellious „leaning man to “.Hagen arranges the murder in the desert forest with Gunther. Hagen kills Siegfried with a lance, when this bends itself to drink to a source. It had let mark Siegfrieds vulnerable place of Kriemhild on the clothes under the pretext, straight theseTo want particularly to protect place.

Kriemhild uses the treasure (its morning gift, therefore their property), in order to actually bind for strange straining, by making gifts for them, from which it an obligation deduce can. When Hagen notices, he informs Guntherof the threat. While the kings make one „trip “, Hagen steals the treasure. The trip serves the justification of the kings, who can give in such a way nothing to have noticed. Kriemhilds complaints with their brothers remain fruitless, them point the responsibility of, Hagen withdraws itself for one while from the yard. With it the first part ends.

Kriemhilds of revenge plans receive a chance for conversion, when the Hunnenkönig Etzel wants to marry them. Already in the apron it secures itself the absolute Gefolgschaft Ruediger ofBechelarn. Hagen tries to prevent the marriage, it recognizes that Kriemhild will use its power, around Siegfried to throats. The kings, particularly Giselher, hope however, them with this marriage, which will return it honour and reputation, too „ergetzen “, D. sühnen the debt (Siegfrieds death). Kriemhild pulls with large attendants in the country of the Hunnen and becomes there powerful monarchies.

Later she loads years its brothers and Hagen, that her the murder to Siegfried and the robbery of theNibelungenschatzes never forgave, in the country of the Hunnen (Hungary) to one hopes. The three-year son Kriemhilds and Etzels is to be baptized like a Christian and be explained a link between both realms. The inviting assume a trap, go howevernevertheless on the journey along the Danube. While the journey at Etzels yard will survive Hagen of sea virgins warned, for all is approaching the fall, only one monk the forthcoming events. Hagen wants to kill this immediately, thus the prophecy itselfdo not fulfill, and throw it in the water, but the monk can save himself to the bank. The Burgunden refuses putting at the yard Etzels the weapons down: in the Feudalismus an open challenge and a heavy offense of the host. But Etzel gives way andleaves the weapons to the guests. He does not suspect anything from the revenge plans of his wife. Kriemhild tries by Etzels brother to let Hagen kill. That fails however. Likewise Kriemhild knows their two brothers Gernot and Giselher not to the break ofHagen move.

By Kriemhilds plot play comes it finally to the open fight. Hagen kills the common son of Kriemhild and Etzel. The Hunnenkönig rushes now its Krieger against the knights of the Rhine. It comes to the blood bath. In the course of the fightsperish the heroes of both sides; also Kriemhild is killed. However Dietrich of Berne, its weapon master Hildebrand and Etzel survive a slaughtering. At the end the storyteller stands mourning before the balance of inexpressible misery.

Alte Photographie eines Bühnenschauspielers, der Siegfried am Amboss mimt
Old photography of a stage actor, the Siegfriedat the anvil [
work on] interpretation

does not act like

the literary collecting main permits a psychological interpretation of the persons. All persons are described with identical attributes, which distinguish a feudalen noble one: Honour, loyalty, ready for violence shank.

excessive quantity

the text of the Nibelungenliedsis received in 36 German handwriting and a Netherlands re-writing (besides two handwriting, which contains only „the complaint “) exists. The handwriting was found predominant in South Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The three oldest text witnesses (main handwriting) are of Karl laughter man alsoLetter (Siglen) as follows categorized:

Karlsruhe these three manuscripts at the same time as general agents of three different text versions, whose relationship is today to a large extent unsettled until to each other. Beside the three main excessive quantity strands (A, B and C) one becomes also from a broad verbalTradition to go out must, whose reaction to the written versions is to be estimated however with difficulty.

Further one groups the handwriting and/or. their text versions after the last verse of the text. Thus handwriting A and B ends with the text: „daz is thatNibelunge emergency “(„that is the fall of the Nibelungen “). These texts are called therefore emergency version. Handwriting C however ends on „daz is liet the Nibelunge “(„that is the song/Epos of the Nibelungen “). This text becomes therefore „song version “called.

Nibelungenkenntnis in the German Middle Ages

the nibelungische material was through very well-known and common in the German linguistic area the whole Middle Ages. More closely and historical writers mention occasionally figures or constellations of the legend; one can decide however hardly ever,whether the knowledge decreases/goes back to the Nibelungenlied (or one of its preliminary stages) or whether it gave not also completely different versions (partial versions) of this material.

Thus tells in 10. Century a sanktgallischer monk in latin school pos Waltharius Hagens andGunthers prehistory, those in the Nibelungenlied in the 28. Aventiure in the Strophe 1756 and in the Aventiure 39. in the Strophe 2344 is reminiscent. Also latin Ruodlieb of the 11. Century one after-said that he of Siegfrieds biography lively beento be could. Around 1165-1175 mentions the cleric Metellus of Tegernsee (desert 30) a song of count Roger (Ruediger), famous with the Teutones, and Dietrich. Approximately to the same time itself bishop Gunther von Bamberg of its Domscholaster must my-hard for itrügen leave that it is occupied in each case with the Amelungen (Dietrich of Berne) - thus those is altogether addressed hero spades.

The saying poet Herger (2. Half 12. Century) compares who-hard from stone mountain (with Sinsheim) with Rüedeger of Bechelaeren (26,2). At that time was thus well-known on the central/upper Rhine in aristocracy circles of the Nibelungenstoff well. The Danish historical writer Saxo Grammaticus reports to the 1131 around 1200 of a song cuiusdam parricidii (of a certain betrayal), with a Saxonian singer the murdered schleswigschen dukeKnut wanted to warn. Saxo thinks thereby notissimam Grimilde on erga fratres perfidiam (the famous perfidiousness Kriemhilds opposite its brothers). Also sinking of the Nibelungenhorts in the Rhine was proverbial. The Minnesänger Otto von Botenlauben plays in one of his songswhereupon on (CPU hole in that rine). The Nibelungenlied has literarily important transverse relations in particular with probably the Parzival developed almost at the same time - novel of tungsten of ash brook.

Center 13. Century mentions the scholarly moving poet Marner Kriemhilds betrayal ontheir brothers, Siegfrieds death and the Nibelungenhort as public racers, whom it however does not have in the program.Hugo of Trimberg speaks in his höfischen training writing racer in a similar enumerating of gladly belonged tell-openly of Kriemhilds „mort “, of Siegfrieds kiteand of the Nibelungenhort (V. 16183ff.).

the Nibelungenstoff in the late Middle Ages

from that 15. Century come versions of the Nibelungenlieds, which reworks it in the reason to new texts. The tendency generally exists for the integration of the material in the handwritten excessive quantityinto the life Dietrich of Berne. In these versions for example the first part are strongly reduced (z. B. n) or new motivliche tying up searched (z. B. Hero book - Prosa around 1480: Castle and fall as Kriemhilds revenge at Dietrich forthe murder at Siegfried in the rose garden to Worms).

In 16. and 17. Century is printed the strophische song by the Hürnen Seyfried (of the verhornten Siegfried), that in details probably on 13. Century decreases/goes back and some courses exhibits, otherwiseonly the nordische excessive quantity knows. The father Kriemhilds is called here Gybich (north. Gjuki); Günther, Hagen and Gyrnot are brothers.

1557 dramatisiert Hans Sachs in its „Tragedj with 17 persons: The Huernen Sewfrid “the song. In 17. to 19. Century remainedthe material popular, as from the repeated editions of the people book with the title a beautiful history is to be read off from the gehörnten Siegfried. The oldest well-known (however not received) pressure of this pro seam working appeared 1657 in Hamburg. Kriemhild is called accordingly to the time tastehere Florimunda (Florigunda?).

prescription ion history

after the Wiederentdeckung of the handwriting of the Nibelungenlieds by Johann the Jakobs Bodmer (1757/1767) and the first complete transmission by Christoph Heinrich Myller (1782) knew to begin the clearing-up little first with the material. To 22.February 1784 wrote Friedrich the large one Myller, which had dedicated the work (under others) to the king, the following:

Hochgelahrter, dear faithful!
You urtheilt much too vorteilhafft from those poems from that 12. , 13. and 14. Seculo, whose pressure carries ithave, and to enriching the Teut language keep so useful. After my insight such are not a shot powders werth; and did not earn from the dust of the oblivion to be pulled. In my book collection at least I became such miserable thingsdid not dulten; separate herausschmeissen. Me dahero its fate in the there large library may wait for copy sent in of it. Many demand does not promise however such,
your otherwise benevolent king Frch.

Only after Goethe's friendly judgement over „the delicious work “(thatthe Nibelungenlied as well known in its library as unaufgeschnittenes copy had) and its demand to bring the hero song into a epische form numerous efforts begin around a dramatic new figuration in the romance. Since then two ways were hit: Became partialthe material of the Nibelungenlieds worked on, partly the authors fell back to the Sigurd Brünhild version, the older Wölsungensaga, with the associated fragments from the Edda.

Are from the numerous working on of the nineteenth century today only three works of interest,the Trilogie „the hero of the north “, a dramatic treatment of Friedrich de la moth Fouqué, Hebbels drama and Wagners „ring of the Nibelungen “.

Fouqués dramatic poem follows Sigurd, the Schlangentödter “of the nordischen tradition in the first part „: Sigurd releases Brynhild from thatWaberlohe, marries however after a forgetting drink Gunnars sister Gudrun, helps Gunnar with the advertisement around Brynhild, which commits Gunnars suicide after its murder by a brother. In the second part „Sigurd's revenge “marries Gudrun - again under the influence of a charm drinktheir nut/mother - the Hunnenkönig Atli. It wants to bring itself into the possession of the stronghold and loads the brothers into its country in. After their murder Gudrun kills her own children and sets her to Atli forward as meal. Finally becomesAtli murders, and Gudrun selects like Brynhild free death. The third part „Aslauga “tells, ajar against a fragment from the Edda, which possibly decreases/goes back to a legend of the Ostgoten, the fate of the daughter Sigurds and Brynhilds: It grows with Hirtenwhen up, however because of their beauty of the king of Denmark married hat girls, on which the usual entangling follow. Contrary to the eastgothical legend history goes out well.

Fouqué had with the work at the public large success and received alsoof other poets of the time such as Jean Paul, Chamisso and Rahel Varnhagen large praise. Heine against it criticized the missing characterisation of the persons and the absence of the dramatic tension. This opinion became generally accepted, and for nearly 100 years givesit no expenditure of the work more. More importantly than the work is from today's viewpoint his effect on smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner, who transferred much of Fouqué in „the ring of the Nibelungen “, even concerning the building of verses and of theLanguage rhythm as Fouqués pupil to be regarded can.

Hebbel adheres contrary to Fouqué in the action process of its Trilogie to the Nibelungenlied and fades out the mythologischen background of the prehistory to a large extent. Its figures are in different development types and individuals at the same timeand thus without constant motivation. Brunhild is degraded to the thing, to the article of exchange, killed Kriemhild at the end as in the Nibelungenlied quasi without comment. Because of the conclusions into the piece every now and then a historicalphilosophical request was in-interpreted (separation of the mythischen world of the giants throughfor it no references can the Christianity), but in Hebbels expressions be found. Hebbels piece found a favorable admission on the theatre and displaced the other dramatic working on nearly completely from the German stages - also the version of Geibel,that the material to a civil tragedy transformed.

Contrary to Goethe Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) expressed itself negatively over the clay/tone of the Nibelungenlieds: „It is a language of stone, and the verses are right parallelepipeds as it were gereimte. Hie and there, out, red flowers pour to the columns out like blood drops or pull themselves down the long Epheu like green tears. “

Friedrich Hebbel „the Nibelungen “(school edition around 1900, Vienna/Brünn)

defiance Heines criticism attained the material in 19. Century the rank German national pos. Additionally to the theatre versions many z developed. T. illustrated expenditures (z. B. by Alfred Rethel, 1840, and of Julius Schnorr of Carolsfeld, 1843).

In the first half of the twentieth century the Nibelungenlied served several novels with more nationalisticTendency, which are today rightfully forgotten, as collecting main. With the piece „the Nibelungen emergency “tied max of Mell to the Wölsungen variant, Wagners Mythologisierung and the motive for whale cure. It concentrated the happening on the stage-effective high points. In the first part: Siegfrieds andKriemhilds arrival in Worms, the controversy of the queens, Siegfrieds murder, Brünhilds free death in the flames and their return to the range of the Gods. In the second part: Receipt of the Burgunden at Etzels yard, revenge plot Kriemhilds, fall of the Burgunden, Kriemhilds murder anda conclusion, which is taken from the Dietrich legend (Dietrich rides on his horse of it).

In the national socialism one celebrated the return of the Germanic size and heroism, the Germanic Gefolgstreue and the male ride ore around and supported the idea of the German nationality alsothis „Germanic virtues “. One appointed oneself to the creative forces of the Teutons, to who the third realm gives again life possibilities. The Nibelungenlied was instrumentalisiert in such a way and abused as vehicle of national ideas. Like z. B. of Hermann Göring, that the situationthe German soldiers in the boiler of Stalingrad with the situation of the Nibelungen in the burning hall compared („we know an enormous historical song…“) - apparent it really did not know the piece, because the exit was hie and the same there.After 1945 the Nibelungenlied was first occupied with a taboo because of the recourse to of the material of the national socialism, and for many years there was no Prosafassung up-to-date. Only since that influxes of Fantasy elements into the literary maintenance literature (already in J. R. R.Tolkiens works (master of the rings) leave themselves some elements of the Nibelungensaga (the motive for ring!) regain) concerned themselves several novels from different points of view with the topic. Z. B. „Rhine gold follows “from Stephan Grundy of the Wölsungen line, „Siegfried and Krimhild “of Jürgen Lodemann against it the Nibelungenlied, in three other novels is located either to Kriemhild (novel of Sabina Trooger), Hagen (see Wolfgang's of hollow leg novel „to Hagen of Tronje “) or Brünhild in the center. The novel „Sigfrieds daughter “of Eric Gutzler links the Wölsungensaga alsothe Nibelungenlied to a continuous action strand and extends the material to a historical Fantasy novel, in which Sigfrieds daughter is located in the focus.

secondary literature

  • Otfrid Ehrismann: Nibelungenlied. Epoch - work - effect, 2. Aufl., Munich 2002, ISBN 340648719X.
  • Otfrid Ehrismann: The Nibelungenlied, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50872-3.
  • John Evert hard: The Nibelungenepos. Valuation and effect from the romance to the present. Tübingen, Basel: Francke, 1996. ISBN 3772021573
  • Joachim Heinzle; Anneliese Waldschmidt (Hgg.): The Nibelungen: GermanIllusion, a German nightmare; Studies and documents for the Rezeption of the Nibelungenstoffs in 19. and 20. Century. Frankfurt/Main, Suhrkamp, 1991. ISBN 3518386107
  • Werner Hoffmann: The Nibelungenlied, 6. Aufl. Stuttgart, Weimar 1992 (= collection Metzler 7), ISBN 3476160076.
  • January Dirk Mueller: Rules for the fall: The world of the Nibelungenliedes, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-484-10773-1.
  • Ursula Schulze: The Nibelungenlied, Reclam, Stuttgart 1997 (336 S. with 27 S. Bibliography), ISBN 3150176042.

text editions

  • the Nibelungenlied. Paralleldruck of the handwritingA, B and C together with Lesarten of the remaining handwriting. Hrsg. of Michael S. Batts. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer 1971.ISBN 3-484-10149-0
  • after the expenditure of Karl Bartsch hrsg. by Helmut de Boor: The Nibelungenlied, 22. revised and from Roswitha Wisniewskisupplemented Aufl. Wiesbaden 1988 (German classical authors of the Middle Ages), ISBN 3765303739 (medium high-German text with rich note apparatus)
  • the Nibelungenlied. Mhd. /Nhd, after the text of Karl Bartsch and Helmut de Boor into the new high German translates and commentates from Siegfried large one, Stuttgart 1997 (=Reclam universal library 644), ISBN 3150006449
  • the Nibelungenlied after the pc. Galler handwriting Hrsg. v. Hermann enriches, with a Einl. v. Hermann enriches. Berlin: de Gruyter 2005. VII, 549 sides. ISBN 3-11-018423-0.
  • The Nibelungenlied Mhd. - Nhd. After the handwriting C thatFederal state library of Baden Karlsruhe. Hrsg. and over. of Ursula Schulze. Duesseldorf and Zürich: Kind-badly & Winkler 2005.ISBN 3-538-06990-5.

research-historically important expenditures (Reprints)

  • Christoph Heinrich Myller: Samlung of German poems from that XII., XIII. and XIV. Century. FirstVolume. The Nibelungen Liet. Eneidt. Got Amur. Parcival. The poor Heinrich. Of the Minnen. This is from the Wibe cunning. This is of that Pfennigs. Hg. of Christoph Heinrich Myller. Berlin 1784, o. Pag.
  • Karl laughter man: The Nibelunge Nothand the complaint - after the oldest excessive quantity, with designation of the false and with the deviations of the common Lesart, walter de Gruyter & Ko., Berlin 1960

working on

  • Jürgen Lodemann: Siegfried and Krimhild. Stuttgart: Klett Cotta, 2002. ISBN 3608935487
  • Moritz Rinke: The Nibelungen. Reinbek: Rowohlt, 2002. ISBN 3499232022

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