|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see nickel (term clarifying).|
|name, symbol, ordinal number||nickel, never, 28|
|series||of transition metals|
|group, period, block||10, 4, D|
|appearance|| shining, metallically,|
|proportion at the Earth's shell||0.01%|
|atomic radius (computed)||135 (149) pm|
|Kovalenter radius||121 pm|
|van the Waals radius||163 pm|
|Elektronenkonfiguration||[acre] 3d 8 4s 2|
|electrons per energy level||2, 8, 16, 2|
|electron affinity||5.01-5.2 eV|
|1. Ionization energy||737.1 kJ/mol|
|2. Ionization energy||1753 kJ/mol|
|3. Ionization energy||3395 kJ/mol|
|4. Ionization energy||5300 kJ/mol|
|state of aggregation (magnetism)||firmly (ferrousmagnetically)|
|crystal structure||cubically face-centered|
|density (Mohshärte)||8908 kg/m 3 (4,0)|
|melting point||1728 K (1455 ° C)|
|boiling point||3186 K (2913 °C)|
|molecular volume||6,59 ·10 -6 m 3 /mol|
|heat of vaporization||370.4 kJ/mol|
|heat of fusion||17.47 kJ/mol|
|steam pressure||237 Pa at 1726 K|
|speed of sound||4970 m/s with 293,15 K|
|specific thermal capacity||440 j (kg · K)|
|Electrical conductivity||14,3 · 10 6 S /m|
|heat conductivity||90.7 w (m· K)|
|Thermal expansion||13,4 · 10 -6 m (m · K) with 25 °C|
|oxidation conditions||of 2, more rarely -1, 0, 1, 3, 4|
|oxides (basicity)||NiO, never 2 O 3 (easily basic)|
|normal potential||-0.257 V (never2+ + 2e - → never)|
|Elektronegativität||1.91 (Pauling scale)|
| as far as possible and common, is used SI-UNITs.|
the indicated data do not apply with standard conditions.
Table of contents
nickel became already 3400 v. Chr. used. Bronze from the area of today's Syria contained up to 2% nickel. Chinese writings testify that in Asia „white copper “(german silver) between 1700and 1400 v. Chr. one used. Nickel was represented to 1751 purely for the first time by Axel Frederic Cronstedt. It called the metal 1754 nickel, derived from Swedish kopparnickel (cupro-nickels), the word for red nickel gravel, originating from the ore mountains. Thus miners called that Ore, which looked like Kupfererz, from which however no copper could be won, as if was behext it by mountain spirit (Nickeln). A similar Etymologie is with cobalt.
characteristics and occurrence
nickel is a silvery white metal. In the periodic system it belongs to the group of iron. It is hard, forgeable, and duktil. Nickeliferous ores are: Nickel magnet gravel, never-guessed/advised, yellow nickel gravel and red nickel gravel. Worthy of exploitation one One finds occurrences particularly in Canada, Russia (Norilsk), Australia and Cuba.
Because of its Oxidationsbeständigkeit nickel is used in coins and as coat for other metals and alloys such as iron and brass, in addition in chemical apparatuses and inunite alloys such as german silver. Nickel is magnetic and in its ores by cobalt is accompanied frequent.
The most frequent oxidation condition is +2. +1 and +3 nickel complexes are observed more rarely.
Chemical behavior: In water usually with greener color soluble nickel (II) - saltsby ammonium sulfide as grey-black nickel (II) - sulfide are precipitated. The specific proof is possible for an alcoholic Dimethylglyoxim by Tschugajews reagent, - solution. In ammoniakalischer solution the red precipitates nickel dimethylglyoxim, which in diluted mineral acids under decay and in caustic soda solution in presence ofstrong oxidizing agents such as Peroxodisulfat to likewise intensively red nickel (III) - connection is soluble.
Finely distributed nickel does not react to 4, a colorless, very poisonous liquid of the density insoluble in water with Carbon monoxide with 50 to 80 degrees Celsius to Nickeltetracarbonyl ever (CO) 1.31, oneMelting point of -25 degrees of Cesius and a boiling point of +43 degrees Celsius. It serves as intermediate product for the production of purest nickel in the long moon procedure. With 180-200 degrees Celsius disintegrates to Nickeltetracarboyl again into nickel and Carbon monoxide.
many, if not all Hydrogenasen contain additionally to iron sulfur Clustern also nickel. Nickel centers are a characteristic element in Hydrogenasen, whose function is it to oxidize instead of hydrogen to produce. The nickel center seems to change its oxidation condition, and givesReferring to the fact that the nickel center could be the active part of these enzymes.
Nickel is a trace element, which is needed in the human organism in very small quantities (daily requirement 25-30 micro gram). We actually take up however about 90-100 micro gram per day- the need is covered for in any case therefore by normal mixing food. Possibly nickel affects also the iron admission and - utilization.
there many humans one , Metals and alloys, which can come with the skin into contact, have nickel allergy in the last years more rarely are nickel plated.
Nickel and/or. its connections work already starting from 50 mg toxically and can lead to chronic damage. The inhalation of the dustand also the contact of nickel plated articles can lead to allergies and inflammatory reactions. With skin contact nickel-scratches arises , an inflammatory change of the skin can.
After a three-day-long rest period death can occur by coughs, fever and cramps in the Atemtrakt.
the proof reaction for in water usually with greener color of soluble nickel ii-salts becomes in thatquantitative analytics gravimetrically as well as qualitatively accomplished in the cation separation course with Dimethylglyoximlösung. Nickel salts become before if necessary. solved by ammonium sulfide as grey-black nickel (II) - sulfide precipitated and in nitric acid. The specific proof is then possible for an alcoholic Dimethylglyoxim by Tschugajews reagent, - solution (DMG). Inammoniakalischer solution precipitates the himbeerrote nickel dimethylglyoxim as complex :
Never 2+ + 2C 2 H 4 N 2 O 2 --> H 2 [never (C 2 H 2 N 2 O 2) 2]
thoseReserves on the basis of today's criteria nickel occurrences worthy of exploitation lie on between 70 and 170 million tons. At present world-wide between 500.000 and 900.000 tons are promoted annually. Nickel is into important alloy metal, which is used for the steel refinement. Well-known nickel alloys are german silver (10-26% nickel portion),Konstantan (40 - 60%), Nickelin (approx. 31%) and Monel (40-65%). By nickel plating metal surfaces become corrosion resistant. It is processed in batteries and Akkus (nickel cadmium). In addition it is crucible material and a component of coins and catalysts.
|Wiktionary: Nickel -Word origin, synonyms and translations|